Sound recording and reproduction

Audio editing became practicable with the invention of magnetic tape recording, but technologies like MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), sound synthesis allowed greater control for composers and artists. These digital audio techniques and mass storage have reduced recording and marketing costs so high-quality digital recordings can be produced in small studios. Today, the process of making a recording is separated into tracking, mixing and mastering.


amplifiersamplificationelectronic amplifier
For example, audio amplifiers amplify signals in the audio (sound) range of less than 20 kHz, RF amplifiers amplify frequencies in the radio frequency range between 20 kHz and 300 GHz, and servo amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers may work with very low frequencies down to direct current. Amplifiers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain; a preamplifier may precede other signal processing stages, for example. The first practical electrical device which could amplify was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912. Today most amplifiers use transistors.


Acoustics is the study of how sound is produced, controlled, transmitted and received. Important modern branches of acoustics include ultrasonics, the study of sound waves of very high frequency beyond the range of human hearing; bioacoustics, the physics of animal calls and hearing, and electroacoustics, the manipulation of audible sound waves using electronics. Optics, the study of light, is concerned not only with visible light but also with infrared and ultraviolet radiation, which exhibit all of the phenomena of visible light except visibility, e.g., reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, dispersion, and polarization of light.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there., New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015. By volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City.


Designed by American engineer Robert Moog, the synthesizer was composed of separate modules which created and shaped sounds, connected by patch cords. Whereas previous instruments had created sound from hundreds of vacuum tubes, Moog developed a means of controlling pitch and loudness through voltage, the voltage-controlled oscillator. This, along with devices such as envelopes, noise generators, filters, and sequencers, became standards in the synthesizer market. Around the same period, American engineer Don Buchla created the Buchla Modular Electronic Music System.


When an alternating current electrical audio signal is applied to its voice coil, a coil of wire suspended in a circular gap between the poles of a permanent magnet, the coil is forced to move rapidly back and forth due to Faraday's law of induction, which causes a diaphragm (usually conically shaped) attached to the coil to move back and forth, pushing on the air to create sound waves. Besides this most common method, there are several alternative technologies that can be used to convert an electrical signal into sound. The sound source (e.g., a sound recording or a microphone) must be amplified or strengthened with an audio power amplifier before the signal is sent to the speaker.

Music industry

Musicmusic businessrecording industry
The record producer oversees all aspects of the recording, making many of the logistic, financial and artistic decisions in cooperation with the artists. The record producer has a range of different responsibilities including choosing material and/or working with the composers, hiring session musicians, helping to arrange the songs, overseeing the musician performances, and directing the audio engineer during recording and mixing to get the best sound. Audio engineers (including recording, mixing and mastering engineers) are responsible for ensuring good audio quality during the recording.

Jeff Atwood

Atwood's law
He co-founded the computer programming question-and-answer website Stack Overflow and co-founded Stack Exchange, which extends Stack Overflow's question-and-answer model to subjects other than programming. Atwood's most recent project as of 2012 is the development of Discourse, an open source Internet discussion platform. Atwood started a programming blog, Coding Horror, in 2004. As a result, he met Joel Spolsky, among others. In 2008, together with Spolsky, Atwood founded Stack Overflow, a programming question-and-answer website.

All-4-One (All-4-One album)

All-4-OneAll-4-One'' (All-4-One album)
., Rumbo Recorders: Recording studios. Chris Bellman: Mastering (Bernie Grundman Mastering). JB: Production coordinator.

Music technology (electronic and digital)

Music Technologyelectronic music technologyelectronic
The study of music technology is usually concerned with the creative use of technology for creating new sounds, performing, recording, programming sequencers or other music-related electronic devices, and manipulating, mixing and reproducing music. Music technology programs train students for careers in "...sound engineering, computer music, audio-visual production and post-production, mastering, scoring for film and multimedia, audio for games, software development, and multimedia production." Those wishing to develop new music technologies often train to become an audio engineer working in R&D.

Gung Ho (album)

Gung Ho*Gung Ho'' (album)
Danton Supple – engineer (Sear Sound recording studio, NYC) ; mixing (The Church Studios, London and Eden Studios, London). Gil Norton – production; mixing (The Church Studios, London and Eden Studios, London). Grant Hart – piano, Farfisa, "Persuasion". Grant Smith – album cover model, Townsend, Australia, 1942. Jackson Smith – guitar solo, "Persuasion". Jake Davies – computer engineer (Sear Sound recording studio, NYC). Mark Phythers – computer engineer (Sear Sound recording studio, NYC). Margery Greenspan – art direction. Michael Stipe – backing vocalist, "Glitter in Their Eyes". Paul Angelli – mastering engineer (Sterling Sound, NYC). Ben E. Franklin – penny whistle, "Libbie's Song".

Agust D (mixtape)

Agust D Agust D
Agust D – producer (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), recording engineer (tracks 5, 6, 7, 8, 10). Alex DeYoung – mastering engineer (tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Dj Friz – recording engineer (track 1). Pdogg – recording engineer (tracks 2, 3, 7, 10), mix engineer (track 1). Yang Ga – mix engineer (tracks 2, 3, 5, 9, 10). 김보성 – mix engineer (tracks 4, 6, 7, 8). Supreme Boi – producer (track 7). Slow Rabbit – producer (tracks 9, 10). 정우영 – recording engineer (track 10).

Audio mixing (recorded music)

mixingmixedaudio mixing
Audio mixing techniques largely depend on music genres and the quality of sound recordings involved. The process is generally carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes the record producer or recording artist may assist. After mixing, a mastering engineer prepares the final product for production. Audio mixing may be performed on a mixing console or digital audio workstation. In the late 19th century, Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner developed the first recording machines. The recording and reproduction process itself was completely mechanical with little or no electrical parts.

Black Ice (album)

Black IceWar MachineBlack Ice'' (album)
AC/DC Production Brian Johnson – lead vocals. Phil Rudd – drums, percussion. Cliff Williams – bass guitar, backing vocals. Angus Young – lead guitar, slide guitar on "Stormy May Day". Malcolm Young – rhythm guitar, backing vocals. Billy Bowers – additional engineering. Mike Fraser – engineering, mixing. Alvin Handwerker (Prager and Fenton LLP) – management. Richard Jones, Geoff Banks, Rick St. Pierre – equipment technicians. Guido Karp – photography. Joshua Marc Levy – art direction, design, illustrations (containing vector graphics by You Work For Them, LLC). George Marino – mastering. Brendan O'Brien – production. Eric Mosher – engineering assistance.


In the professional audio sector, headphones are used in live situations by disc jockeys with a DJ mixer, and sound engineers for monitoring signal sources. In radio studios, DJs use a pair of headphones when talking to the microphone while the speakers are turned off to eliminate acoustic feedback while monitoring their own voice. In studio recordings, musicians and singers use headphones to play or sing along to a backing track or band. In military applications, audio signals of many varieties are monitored using headphones. Wired headphones are attached to an audio source by a cable. The most common connectors are 6.35 mm and 3.5 mm phone connectors.

George Martin

Sir George MartinGeorge Martin OrchestraThe George Martin Orchestra
Sir George Henry Martin, (3 January 1926 – 8 March 2016) was an English record producer, arranger, composer, conductor, audio engineer, and musician. He was referred to as the "Fifth Beatle" in reference to his extensive involvement on each of the Beatles' original albums. Paul McCartney said upon Martin's death, "If anyone earned the title of the fifth Beatle, it was George". Martin's career spanned more than six decades of work in music, film, television and live performance. Before working with the Beatles and other pop musicians, he produced comedy and novelty records in the early 1950s, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan and Bernard Cribbins, among others.


reverbspring reverbreverberation time
The plate’s motion is picked up by one or more contact microphones whose output is an audio signal which may be added to the original "dry" signal. In the late 1950s, Elektro-Mess-Technik (EMT) introduced the EMT 140; a 600 lb model popular in recording studios, contributing to many hit records such as Beatles and Pink Floyd albums recorded at Abbey Road Studios in the 1960s, and others recorded by Bill Porter in Nashville's RCA Studio B. Early units had one pickup for mono output, and later models featured two pickups for stereo use. The reverb time can be adjusted by a damping pad, made from framed acoustic tiles. The closer the damping pad, the shorter the reverb time.

Digital audio workstation

DAWdigital audio workstationsDAWs
By the late 1980s, a number of consumer level computers such as the MSX (Yamaha CX5M), Apple Macintosh, Atari ST and Commodore Amiga began to have enough power to handle digital audio editing. Engineers used Macromedia's Soundedit, with Microdeal's Replay Professional and Digidesign's "Sound Tools" and "Sound Designer" to edit audio samples for sampling keyboards like the E-mu Emulator II and the Akai S900. Soon, people began to use them for simple two-track audio editing and CD mastering. In 1989, Sonic Solutions released the first professional (48 kHz at 24 bit) disk-based nonlinear audio editing system.

Equalization (audio)

Broadcast and recording studios use sophisticated equalizers capable of much more detailed adjustments, such as eliminating unwanted sounds or making certain instruments or voices more prominent. Equalizers are used in recording studios, radio studios and production control rooms, and live sound reinforcement and in instrument amplifiers, such as guitar amplifiers, to correct or adjust the response of microphones, instrument pick-ups, loudspeakers, and hall acoustics.


microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and recording studio applications. The inherent suitability of this technology is due to the very small mass that must be moved by the incident sound wave, unlike other microphone types that require the sound wave to do more work. They require a power source, provided either via microphone inputs on equipment as phantom power or from a small battery.

Professional audio

pro audioprofessionalaudio professionals
Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment. Typically it encompasses sound recording, sound reinforcement system setup and audio mixing, and studio music production by trained sound engineers, audio engineers, record producers, and audio technicians who work in live event support and recording using mixing consoles, recording equipment and sound reinforcement systems. Professional audio is differentiated from consumer- or home-oriented audio, which are typically geared toward listening in a non-commercial environment.

Glitch (company)

Fog Creek SoftwareGlitchFog Creek Copilot
In 2008, Jeff Atwood and Joel Spolsky created Stack Overflow, a question-and-answer Web site for computer programming questions, which they described as an alternative to the programmer forum Experts-Exchange. Stack Overflow serves as a platform for users to ask and answer questions, and, through membership and active participation, to vote questions and answers up or down and edit questions and answers in a fashion similar to a wiki or Digg. Users of Stack Overflow can earn reputation points and "badges" when another user votes up a question or answer they provided., Stack Overflow has over 2,700,000 registered users and more than 7,100,000 questions.


Applications might include: ground vibrations from railways; vibration isolation to reduce vibration in operating theatres; studying how vibration can damage health (vibration white finger); vibration control to protect a building from earthquakes, or measuring how structure-borne sound moves through buildings. * The Acoustical Society of America (ASA). The European Acoustics Association (EAA). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Institute of Acoustics (IoA UK). The Audio Engineering Society (AES). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (ASME-NCAD). International Commission for Acoustics (ICA).

Mastering (audio)

masteringmasteredaudio mastering
Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master), the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters—such as audio tapes—are still being used by the manufacturing industry, particularly by a few engineers who specialize in analog mastering. Mastering requires critical listening; however, software tools exist to facilitate the process.

Audio signal processing

audio processoraudio processingsound processing
Audio signal processing is a subfield of signal processing that is concerned with the electronic manipulation of audio signals. Audio signals are electronic representations of sound waves—longitudinal waves which travel through air, consisting of compressions and rarefactions. The energy contained in audio signals is typically measured in decibels. As audio signals may be represented in either digital or analog format, processing may occur in either domain. Analog processors operate directly on the electrical signal, while digital processors operate mathematically on its digital representation.