AsianAsian continentAsian countries
For several decades in the late twentieth century Japan was the largest economy in Asia and second-largest of any single nation in the world, after surpassing the Soviet Union (measured in net material product) in 1986 and Germany in 1968. (NB: A number of supernational economies are larger, such as the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or APEC). This ended in 2010 when China overtook Japan to become the world's second largest economy. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japan's GDP was almost as large (current exchange rate method) as that of the rest of Asia combined.

Tennis at the 1912 Summer Olympics

Tennis19121912 Summer Olympics
At the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden eight tennis events were contested divided over two tournaments; an indoor covered courts tournament, played on wood, held from May 5 until May 12 and an outdoor hard court tournament, played on clay, held from June 28 until July 5. Tennis on covered courts was agreed initially for the 1912 Games, with competitions run for gentlemen's singles and doubles, ladies' singles and mixed doubles. The outdoor tournament was confirmed once the Östermalm Athletic Grounds were completed in late 1911, with the plans modified to have both indoor and outdoor tournaments.

Australasia at the Olympics

Australasiaa joint team with AustraliaAustralasia combined team
Australasia was a combined team of athletes from Australia and the Dominion of New Zealand that competed together at the 1908 and 1912 Summer Olympics. When the Olympic Games resumed in 1920 after World War I, the two nations sent separate teams to the Games, and have done so ever since. The Australasia team won a total of twelve medals in the two Olympiads in which they competed, mostly in swimming.

1908 Summer Olympics

19081908 Olympics1908 London
Finland, Turkey and New Zealand (as part of the team from Australasia) made their first appearance at the Olympic Games. The fact that the United Kingdom competed as a single team was upsetting to some Irish competitors, who felt that Ireland should compete on its own, despite being part of the UK at the time. Fearing an Irish boycott, the authorities changed the name of the team to Great Britain/Ireland, and in two sports, field hockey and polo, Ireland participated as a separate country, winning silver medals in both. Irish athletes in the United States were not affected by this controversy, and many Irish born athletes competed for the U.S.

New Zealand

New Zealand participated at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1912 as a joint team with Australia, before first participating on its own in 1920. The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games. The "All Blacks", the national rugby union team, are the most successful in the history of international rugby and have won the World Cup three times. The national cuisine has been described as Pacific Rim, incorporating the native Māori cuisine and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia and Asia.

Australasia at the 1912 Summer Olympics

1912Australasia1912 Stockholm
Australasia was the name of a combined team at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden, consisting of 26 athletes from Australia and New Zealand. The combined team had also competed at the 1908 Games, but Australia and New Zealand would send separate teams to the next Games in 1920. There were three New Zealanders in the 1912 team; Malcolm Champion, Anthony Wilding and George Hill. Wilding won a bronze medal in the men's indoor singles event, and Champion won a gold medal as part of the swimming relay team. Five athletes competed for Australasia at the 1912 Games. Ten athletes competed for Australasia at the 1912 Games. It was a match racing format.

Frank Schryver

He competed for Australasia at the 1912 Summer Olympics in the men's 200 metre breaststroke and the men's 400 metre breaststroke. In doing so, he became the first Western Australian to represent Australia at an Olympic Games. Schryver also served with the Australian Imperial Force in the First World War. A stretcher-bearer with the 2nd Australian Stationary Hospital for much of the war, he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal and Military Medal for bravery on the Western Front.

Cecil Healy

Cecil Patrick Healy (1881-1918)Healy
In 1912, Healy came third in the 110 yd, 220 yd and 880 yd events at the Australasian titles to qualify for the Australasian team at the 1912 Summer Olympics. (At the time, Australia sent a combined team with New Zealand.) In Stockholm, Healy entered the 100 m event with fellow Australian Bill Longworth and American Duke Kahanamoku. All three qualified for the semi-final, with Kahanamoku clearly the quickest. Healy and Longworth then qualified from the first semifinal, but the three Americans, who were scheduled to qualify in the second semi-final did not, due to an error by their team management.

Henry Hauenstein

H. Hauenstein
He was a three-time Australian national champion rower who competed for Australasia at the 1912 Summer Olympics in the men's eight. He was a member of the Australian men's selection eight which won the Grand Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta of 1912. He saw active service on the Western Front where he won the Military Medal and was a member of the AIF crew which at war's end, won at the 1919 Peace Regatta and brought the King's Cup to Australia. Hauenstein was the eldest of six children born to Carl Herman Hauenstein, a Swiss German immigrant who came to Australia in 1881, married Elizabeth Annabelle Field and settled in Barmedman in New South Wales.

Hugh Ward (bacteriologist)

Hugh Ward Hugh Ward
He was an Australian national champion rower who competed for Australasia at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Ward was born at Petersham, New South Wales on 17 September 1887. His father Frederick was editor of the Sydney Mail and then The Daily Telegraph. Ward was the youngest of eight children. In May 1927, he married librarian Constance Isabella Docker. She was the daughter of NSW District Court judge Ernest Brougham Docker. Ward and his wife had a son and daughter. He died in Sydney Hospital on 22 November 1972. Ward attended Sydney Grammar School. In 1910, he graduated from the University of Sydney with Bachelor of Medicine. In 1911, he awarded a Rhodes Scholarship at New College, Oxford.

Athletics in Australia

Australian athleteAustralian athleticsVictorian Amateur Athletics Association
The Australasian Athletics Union of Australasia was formed in 1897 to govern the sport, with combined Australian and New Zealand teams representing at the 1908 and 1912 Olympic Games. In 1928, New Zealand withdrew from the Union to form their own national association and the Amateur Athletics Union of Australia became the peak-body for athletics in Australia. The Australasian Championships now became Australian Championships, with official women's events held from 1930. Female participation in women's athletics at the turn of the 20th century was usually restricted to 'picnic' meets where ladies races were conducted, along with egg-and-spoon races and other carnival events.

Australia–New Zealand relations

Australia and New ZealandAustralia – New Zealand relationsAustralia-New Zealand relations
While there is little prospect of political union now, in 2006 there was a recommendation from an Australian federal parliamentary committee that a full union should occur or Australia and New Zealand should at least have a single currency and more common markets. New Zealand Government submissions to that committee concerning harmonisation of legal systems however noted:Differences between the legal systems of Australia and New Zealand are not a problem in themselves.

List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games

In the 1908 and 1912 Games, athletes from Australia and New Zealand competed together as a single team, designated Australasia (ANZ). ROC. The Republic of China (ROC) was designated as China from 1932 to 1948, representing all of China (including Taiwan at the 1948 Games). After the Chinese Civil War, Taiwan participated using the Republic of China designation in 1956, 1960, and 1972. BOH, TCH. Prior to the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, athletes from Bohemia (BOH) (now part of the present-day Czech Republic) competed in 1900, 1908, and 1912.

William Longworth

Bill LongworthLongworthWilliam
William Longworth (26 September 1892 – 19 October 1969) was an Australian freestyle swimmer who competed for Australasia in the 1912 Summer Olympics. He was born in Rix's Creek, Singleton, New South Wales, and died in Wahroonga, New South Wales. Longworth attended Sydney Grammar School where he excelled in athletics, swimming and rugby union. In January 1911, he won the 1320-yard freestyle in world record time at Australian Championship by 30 yards. He defeated Cecil Healy and Frank Beaurepaire. In 1912, he won all the New South Wales and Australian freestyle championships from 100 yards to one mile.

National colours of Australia

green and goldnational coloursAustralia's national colours
In the 1912 Olympics, an official Australian uniform was adopted for the first time: green vests with gold trimming, and white shorts with green and gold trimming. Of the football codes, the Australian national soccer team first wore green and gold in 1924 with the Australian national rugby league team and Australia national rugby union team following in 1928 and 1929 respectively. Teams that wear the green and gold include: Since 1961, the Wallabies have worn a gold jersey with green lettering and trim; they changed from a primarily green jersey to avoid a colour clash with the Springboks of South Africa.

John Ryrie

J. A. RyrieJack Ryrie
John Augustus George "Jack" Ryrie (21 December 1886 – 1 June 1927) was a two-time Australian national champion rower who represented for Australasia at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Jack Ryrie's father was John Cassels Ryrie a pastoralist from Trangie in central northern New South Wales. Jack was educated at The King's School in Sydney where he distinguished himself in his studies as well as in the sporting fields of cricket, rowing and football. His senior club rowing was from the Sydney Rowing Club. He was a member of the New South Wales eight which won the 1908 Australian Interstate Championship, the first time in 15 years his state had won the title.

Swimming (sport)

swimmerswimmingSwimming and Diving
The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbor, marked the beginning of electronic timing. Male swimmers wore full-body suits until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swimwear counterparts experience. Competition suits now include engineered fabric and designs to reduce swimmers' drag in the water and prevent athlete fatigue. In addition, over the years, pool designs have lessened the drag. Some design considerations allow for the reduction of swimming resistance, making the pool faster.

1912 in Australia

The Golden Wattle is declared Australia's floral emblem. 10 October – The Maternity Allowance Act 1912 is passed, granting a "Baby Bonus" of five pounds to the mother of every child born in Australia (indigenous mothers and other non-citizens are excluded). 12 October – Forty-two people die in the North Mount Lyell Disaster on the west coast of Tasmania. 29 January – New South Wales wins the Sheffield Shield. 5 May to 27 July – Australia sends women to the Olympic Games, the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, for the first time. Australasia won 2 gold, 2 silver and 3 bronze medals. Fanny Durack won the 100 metres freestyle.

List of New Zealand flags

New ZealandFlags of New ZealandKotahitanga flag
This is a list of flags used in New Zealand.


Stockholm, SwedenStockholm Citycity of Stockholm
Historically, the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics. From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics. Other major sport arenas are Friends Arena the new national football stadium, Stockholm Globe Arena, a multi-sport arena and one of the largest spherical buildings in the world and the nearby indoor arena Hovet. Besides the 1912 Summer Olympics, Stockholm hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics Equestrian Games and the UEFA Euro 1992. The city was also second runner up in the 2004 Summer Olympics bids. Stockholm hosted the 1958 FIFA World Cup.

Swimming at the 1912 Summer Olympics

Swimmingtwo events1912 Summer Olympics
At the 1912 Summer Olympics, nine swimming events were contested. Swimming events were held in a 100 m course built in Stockholm harbor. For the first time, women's events were part of the Olympic swimming program. The competitions were held from Saturday July 6, 1912, to Friday July 12, 1912. There was a total of 120 participants from 17 countries competing. A total of 120 swimmers (93 men and 27 women) from 17 nations (men from 17 nations - women from 8 nations) competed at the Stockholm Games: * (men:7 women:2). (men:3 women:5). (men:4 women:1). (men:1 women:0). (men:1 women:0). (men:4 women:2). (men:3 women:0). (men:13 women:4). (men:12 women:6). (men:1 women:0). (men:8 women:0).

United States at the 1912 Summer Olympics

United StatesUnited States Olympic Team1912 United States Olympic Team
The United States competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. 174 competitors, took part in 68 events in 11 sports. Out of the 174 athletes who had participated, 63 won medals with 25 of them being gold medals. Two divers, both men, represented the United States. It was the nation's third appearance in diving, appearing in each edition of the diving competition. Both men competed in all three events. Gaidzik, the defending bronze medalist in the springboard, advanced to the final in that event and placed eighth. Neither diver advanced to the final in either of the other two events. Rankings given are within the diver's heat.

Sweden at the 1912 Summer Olympics

Sweden was the host nation for the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. 444 competitors, 421 men and 23 women, took part in 95 events in 16 sports. Quarterfinals Semifinals Repechage second round Silver medal match 107 athletes represented Sweden. Round of 16 Official Olympic Reports. International Olympic Committee results database.

Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics

Athletics19121912 Summer Olympics
These are the results of athletics competition at the 1912 Summer Olympics. 30 events were contested, all for men only. The athletics programme grew by 4 events since the 1908 Summer Olympics. The 5000 and 10000 metre races were introduced, as the 5 mile event was eliminated. The 400 metre hurdle event made a brief disappearance, making the 1912 Olympics the only time that event was not held since its introduction in 1900. The 4x100 and 4x400 relays replaced the medley relay while the team race was shortened from 3 miles to 3000 metres. The decathlon, which had been held in 1904 but not in 1908, returned to the programme.

Art competitions at the 1912 Summer Olympics

art competitions1912art competition at the Summer Olympics
Art competitions were held as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. It was the first time that art competitions were part of the Olympic program. Medals were awarded in five categories (architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture), for works inspired by sport-related themes. Art competitions were part of the Olympic program from 1912 to 1948, but were discontinued due to concerns about amateurism and professionalism. Since 1952, a non-competitive art and cultural festival has been associated with each Games.