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Forensic pathology focuses on determining the cause of death by post-mortem examination of a corpse or partial remains. An autopsy is typically performed by a coroner or medical examiner, often during criminal investigations; in this role, coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. The requirements for becoming a licensed practitioner of forensic pathology varies from country to country (and even within a given nation ) but typically a minimal requirement is a medical doctorate with a specialty in general or anatomical pathology with subsequent study in forensic medicine.
natural causes#Unnatural Death
Coroners are independent judicial officers who investigate deaths reported to them, and subsequently whatever inquiries are necessary to discover the cause of death, this includes ordering a post-mortem examination, obtaining witness statements and medical records, or holding an inquest. In the unified legal jurisdiction of England and Wales, most deaths are certified by doctors without autopsy or coroner involvement. Almost all deaths certified by the coroner involve an autopsy but most do not involve a formal inquest. In England and Wales, a specific list of choices for verdicts is not mandated, and "narrative verdicts" are allowed, which are not specifically classified.
medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death, type of weapon used to inflict trauma, reconstruction of the facial features using remains of deceased (skull) thus aiding identification. Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. Hospice and Palliative Medicine is a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure. Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients.
The WHO further recommended that outcomes should be classified as: death, morbidity, and no morbidity. There was also consensus that the terms wet, dry, active, passive, silent, and secondary drowning should no longer be used. Experts differentiate between distress and drowning. Forensic diagnosis of drowning is considered one of the most difficult in forensic medicine. External examination and autopsy findings are often non-specific, and the available laboratory tests are often inconclusive or controversial. The purpose of investigation is generally to distinguish whether the death was due to immersion, or whether the body was immersed post mortem.
The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and can be related to smoking or exposure to harmful substances. A number of occupational lung diseases can be caused by substances such as coal dust, asbestos fibres, and crystalline silica dust. Diseases such as bronchitis can also affect the respiratory tract. Medical terms related to the lung often begin with pulmo-, from the Latin pulmonarius (of the lungs) as in pulmonology, or with pneumo- (from Greek πνεύμων "lung") as in pneumonia.
– Forensic medicine – Forensic testimony – Forensics – Foreseeability – Foreseeable risk – Forfeit – Forger – Forgery – Formal contract – Fornication – forum conveniens – forum non conveniens – Forum shopping – Foster child – Four Cardinal Virtues – Four corners of an instrument – Franc-tireur – Franchise – Franchise tax – Franchising – Fraud – Fraud in the inducement – Fraudulent conveyance – Fraudulent trading – Free and clear – Free economic zone – Free on board – Free port – Free software license – Free speech – Free will – Freedom of assembly – Freedom of association – Freedom of expression – Freedom of Information Act – Freedom of religion – Freedom of speech – Freedom of speech by country
Autopsies are either performed for legal or medical purposes. A forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those where the body is dissected and an internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is generally reconstituted by sewing it back together.
heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Cardiac arrest, and atypical symptoms such as palpitations, occur more frequently in women, the elderly, those with diabetes, in people who have just had surgery, and in critically ill patients. "Silent" myocardial infarctions can happen without any symptoms at all. These cases can be discovered later on electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests, or at autopsy after a person has died. Such silent myocardial infarctions represent between 22 and 64% of all infarctions, and are more common in the elderly, in those with diabetes mellitus and after heart transplantation.
In the 1960s, there were many challenges to the concept of mental illness itself. These challenges came from psychiatrists like Thomas Szasz, who argued mental illness was a myth used to disguise moral conflicts; from sociologists such as Erving Goffman, who said mental illness was another example of how society labels and controls non-conformists; from behavioural psychologists who challenged psychiatry's fundamental reliance on unobservable phenomena; and from gay rights activists who criticised the APA's listing of homosexuality as a mental disorder. A study published in Science by Rosenhan received much publicity and was viewed as an attack on the efficacy of psychiatric diagnosis.
International Classification of DiseasesICDICD-9
This group recommended that further detail be provided for coding hospital and morbidity data. The American Hospital Association's "Advisory Committee to the Central Office on ICDA" developed the needed adaptation proposals, resulting in the publication of the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted (ICDA). In 1968, the United States Public Health Service published the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted, 8th Revision for use in the United States (ICDA-8a). Beginning in 1968, ICDA-8a served as the basis for coding diagnostic data for both official morbidity [and mortality] statistics in the United States.
infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
In certain cases, infectious diseases may be asymptomatic for much or even all of their course in a given host. In the latter case, the disease may only be defined as a "disease" (which by definition means an illness) in hosts who secondarily become ill after contact with an asymptomatic carrier. An infection is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as some infections do not cause illness in a host. Bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms. It can be difficult to distinguish which is the cause of a specific infection. It's important to distinguish, because viral infections cannot be cured by antibiotics.
Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lisa Downing, Desiring the Dead: Necrophilia and Nineteenth-Century French Literature. Oxford: Legenda, 2003. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis. New York: Stein & Day, 1965. Originally published in 1886. Gabrielle Wittkop, The Necrophiliac, 1972. Barbara Gowdy, We So Seldom Look on Love, 1992. Frank O'Hara, Ode on Necrophilia, 1960.
mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
A 2002 editorial in the British Medical Journal warned of inappropriate medicalization leading to disease mongering, where the boundaries of the definition of illnesses are expanded to include personal problems as medical problems or risks of diseases are emphasized to broaden the market for medications. The 2004 WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders" stated that "Prevention of these disorders is obviously one of the most effective ways to reduce the [disease] burden."
WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Its first legislative act was concerning the compilation of accurate statistics on the spread and morbidity of disease.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Antidote. Biosecurity. Contaminated haemophilia blood products. Food taster. List of extremely hazardous substances. List of poisonings. List of poisonous plants. List of types of poison. Mr. Yuk. Poison ring. Saxitoxin. Toxics use reduction. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. American Association of Poison Control Centers. American College of Medical Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology Teaching Wiki. Find Your Local Poison Control Centre Here (Worldwide). Poison Prevention and Education Website.
Forensic Sci. Int. 231 (2013), 219-228. F.S. Romolo. Advances in Analysis of Gunshot Residue. In Emerging Technologies for the analysis of forensic traces, Edited by Simona Francese, Springer Publishing Company, pagine 183-202, ISBN: 978-3-030-20541-6. A.J. Schwoeble, D.L. Exline, Current Methods in Forensic Gunshot Residue Analysis, (2000) CRC Press LLC. J.S. Wallace, J. McQuillan, Discharge residues from cartridge-operated industrial tools, J. Forens. Sci. Soc. 24 (1984) 495-508. J.S. Wallace, Chemical Analysis of Firearms, Ammunition, and Gunshot Residue, (2008) CRC Press LLC. G.M. Wolten, R.S. Nesbitt, A.R. Calloway, G.L. Loper, P.F.
post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
However, triers of fact (judges and juries) often regarded the PTSD diagnostic criteria as imprecise, a view shared by legal scholars, trauma specialists, forensic psychologists, and forensic psychiatrists. Professional discussions and debates in academic journals, at conferences, and between thought leaders, led to a more clearly-defined set of diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV, particularly the definition of a "traumatic event". The DSM-IV classified PTSD under anxiety disorders, but the DSM-5 created a new category called "Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders," in which PTSD is now classified.
Dissection is used to help to determine the cause of death in autopsy (called necropsy in other animals) and is an intrinsic part of forensic medicine. A key principle in the dissection of human cadavers is the prevention of human disease to the dissector. Prevention of transmission includes the wearing of protective gear, ensuring the environment is clean, dissection technique and pre-dissection tests to specimens for the presence of HIV and Hepatitis viruses. Specimens are dissected in morgues or anatomy labs. When provided, they are evaluated for use as a "fresh" or "prepared" specimen.
Chief Medical ExaminerM.E.medical examiners
In the United States, there are less than 500 board-certified pathologists, but the National Commission on Forensic Science estimates the country needs 1100-1200 to perform the needed number of autopsies. The shortage is attributed to the nature of the work and the higher pay in other medical specialties.
a pioneering workEgy kínai halottkém feljegyzéseiWashing Away of Wrongs
The author combined many historical cases of forensic science with his own experiences and wrote the book with an eye to avoiding injustice. The book was esteemed by generations of officials, and it was eventually translated into English, German, Japanese, French and other languages. It is the first ever written book of forensic science. Different versions of the book exist, but the earliest existing version was published during the Yuan Dynasty, containing fifty-three chapters in five volumes. The first volume describes the imperial decree issued by Song Dynasty on the inspection of bodies and injuries. The second volume contains notes and methods on post-mortem examinations.
SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynasty
Shen Kuo's Dream Pool Essays argued against traditional Chinese beliefs in anatomy (such as his argument for two throat valves instead of three); this perhaps spurred the interest in the performance of post-mortem autopsies in China during the 12th century. The physician and judge known as Song Ci (1186–1249) wrote a pioneering work of forensic science on the examination of corpses in order to determine cause of death (strangulation, poisoning, drowning, blows, etc.) and to prove whether death resulted from murder, suicide, or accidental death.
fingerprintingfingerprint recognitionfingerprint sensor
In forensic science a partial fingerprint lifted from a surface, is called a latent fringerprint. Moisture and grease on fingers result in latent fingerprints on surfaces such as glass. But because they are not clearly visible their detection may require chemical development through powder dusting, the spraying of ninhydrin, iodine fuming, or soaking in silver nitrate. Depending on the surface or the material on which a latent fingerprint has been found, different methods of chemical development must be used. Forensic scientists use different techniques for porous surfaces, such as paper, and nonporous surfaces, such as glass, metal or plastic.
Assist with Post Mortem Examinations. Preparation and Operation of a Mortuary. Prepare for Post Mortem Examinations. Team Working. Viewing of the Dead.
Typically, murder books include crime scene photographs and sketches, autopsy and forensic reports, transcripts of investigators' notes, and witness interviews. The murder book encapsulates the complete paper trail of a murder investigation, from the time the murder is first reported through the arrest of a suspect. Law enforcement agencies typically guard murder books carefully, and it is unusual for civilians to be given unfettered access to these kinds of records, especially for unsolved cases.