For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage. Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as information stored on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years, there have been numerous reports of confidential data, such as customers' personal records, being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives; encrypting such files at rest helps protect them if physical security measures fail.

Enterprise client-server backup

client–server backupinteractive
Some applications offer seeding and large-scale recovery via third-party services, which may use a high-speed Internet channel to/from cloud storage rather than a shippable physical device. About backup. Backup software. List of backup software. Glossary of backup terms. Remote backup service. Virtual backup appliance. Related topics. Data consistency. Data degradation. Data proliferation. Database dump. Digital preservation. Disaster recovery and business continuity auditing. File synchronization. Information repository.

Glossary of backup terms

Virtual Tape Library (VTL) : a storage device that appears to be a tape library to backup software, but actually stores data by some other means. A VTL can be configured as a temporary storage location before data is actually sent to real tapes or it can be the final storage location itself. * Online Backup Glossary Computer data storage. Data proliferation. File synchronization. Information repository. Disaster recovery and business continuity auditing. Digital preservation. Reversible computing.

Computer file

filefilescomputer files
One of the most effective countermeasures for unintentional file corruption is backing up important files. In the event of an important file becoming corrupted, the user can simply replace it with the backed up version. When computer files contain information that is extremely important, a back-up process is used to protect against disasters that might destroy the files. Backing up files simply means making copies of the files in a separate location so that they can be restored if something happens to the computer, or if they are deleted accidentally. There are many ways to back up files.

File system

filesystemfile systemsfilesystems
Data backup systems typically do not provide support for direct backup of data stored in a transactional manner, which makes the recovery of reliable and consistent data sets difficult. Most backup software simply notes what files have changed since a certain time, regardless of the transactional state shared across multiple files in the overall dataset. As a workaround, some database systems simply produce an archived state file containing all data up to that point, and the backup software only backs that up and does not interact directly with the active transactional databases at all.

List of file copying software

file-copying software
List of backup software. List of Unix commands. File managers. List of data erasing software. Versioning file system.

Hard disk drive

hard drivehard diskhard drives
Older compact Macintosh computers did not have user-accessible hard drive bays (indeed, the Macintosh 128K, Macintosh 512K, and Macintosh Plus did not feature a hard drive bay at all), so on those models external SCSI disks were the only reasonable option for expanding upon any internal storage. Driven by ever increasing areal density, HDDs have continuously improved; a few highlights are listed in the table above. Market applications expanded through the 2000s, from the mainframe computers of the late 1950s to most mass storage applications including computers and consumer applications such as storage of entertainment content.

Comparison of online backup services

List of online backup servicesonline backup servicesOnline backup providers
Remote backup service. Comparison of online music lockers. Comparison of file synchronization software. Comparison of file hosting services. Cloud storage. Shared disk access. File sharing. List of backup software.


Structured storagenon-relationalNoSQL Database
Oracle Database. CAP theorem. Comparison of object database management systems. Comparison of structured storage software. Correlation database. Database scalability. Distributed cache. Faceted search. MultiValue database. Multi-model database. Triplestore. Schema-agnostic databases.

USB flash drive

flash driveUSB flash drivesUSB drive
Some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the exact type of memory chip used, and are thought to last between 10 and 100 years under normal circumstances (shelf storage time ). USB flash drives are often used for storage, data back-up and transfer of computer files. Compared with floppy disks or CDs, they are smaller, faster, have significantly more capacity, and are more durable due to a lack of moving parts. Additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference (unlike floppy disks), and are unharmed by surface scratches (unlike CDs).

Snapshot (computer storage)

A full backup of a large data set may take a long time to complete. On multi-tasking or multi-user systems, there may be writes to that data while it is being backed up. This prevents the backup from being atomic and introduces a version skew that may result in data corruption. For example, if a user moves a file into a directory that has already been backed up, then that file would be completely missing on the backup media, since the backup operation had already taken place before the addition of the file. Version skew may also cause corruption with files which change their size or contents underfoot while being read.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
For instance, a compression scheme for video may require expensive hardware for the video to be decompressed fast enough to be viewed as it is being decompressed, and the option to decompress the video in full before watching it may be inconvenient or require additional storage. The design of data compression schemes involves trade-offs among various factors, including the degree of compression, the amount of distortion introduced (when using lossy data compression), and the computational resources required to compress and decompress the data.

@MAX SyncUp

Comparison of file synchronization software. Comparison of online backup services.


Since Duplicati produces incremental backups, a corrupt or missing incremental volume can render all following incremental backups (up to the next full backup) useless. Duplicati 2 regularly tests the backup to detect corrupted files early. Duplicati 1.x only stores the file modification date, not metadata like permissions and attributes. This has been addressed in Duplicati 2. *List of backup software *

Double Image Backup

*List of backup software * * Official website Files are copied natively and remain non-proprietary on the target. Designed to run multi-threaded allowing for simultaneous copy sessions. Graphical user interface or commands: can run from a user interface or from another initiating program or script using commands and command variables. Works with any disk or disc or network share Windows recognizes including local and external drives, network drives, virtual storage, CD drives, DVD drives, USB Flash drives, Memory cards, drives using the UDF file system and newer optical disc formats.

Iperius Backup

Iperius Online Storage
Iperius Backup is a software for FTP backup on any type of server or NAS. Iperius can send backups to a remote server with a few configurations, with the secure FTPS protocol and also with zip compression and AES 256 bit encryption. It can perform automated upload of entire websites, limit the transfer bandwidth, make parallel transfers to multiple servers. Iperius Backup is a software for backing up SQL Server databases. Compatible with all editions of Microsoft database server: 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2012. It back up unlimited databases and servers, even remote, and run the restore in a simple way, even creating a new database.


Duplicity is a variation on rdiff-backup that allows for backups without cooperation from the storage server, as with simple storage services like Amazon S3. It works by generating the hashes for each block in advance, encrypting them, and storing them on the server. It then retrieves them when doing an incremental backup. The rest of the data is also stored encrypted for security purposes. As of macOS 10.5 and later, there is a special or switch which allows retaining much of the HFS file metadata when syncing between two machines supporting this feature.

Backup and Restore

Backup and Restore CenterWindows BackupWindows Backup and Restore
. * The Filing Cabinet: Storage Team Blog about file services and storage features in Windows File backups are saved to ZIP files. Two methods of file backup are supported. The first, normal backup, stores everything selected for backup. The second, incremental backup stores only files that are changed after a previous backup. The other method of backup, system image, is a disk image of the backed up system saved block by block in a VHD file (versus file by file in the file backup and NTBackup). Block-based backup is more efficient at performing subsequent differential backups, as only the blocks that have changed need to be backed up.


Ability to sync network folders and external USB drives to Google Drive. Up to 16 accounts can be synced to Google Drive concurrently. Synchronization of file and folder changes and contacts between Google and local computers. Compression Support. End-to-End Google Drive Encryption using 256 bit Advanced Encryption Standard. File versioning and Unicode filename support. File sharing. Drive mapping of Google Drive to a local drive letter. File synchronization. Comparison of file synchronization software. Backup. List of backup software. Dropbox. GDocsDrive. Google Drive.


A tree view of the intended synchronization, with many views such as files to overwrite, files to delete, files with same length, but different time and excluded files. Like SuperFlexible file synchronizer, Allway sync and Unison, it has the capability to remember the previous state of directories in a database, and thus also propagate deletions. Can automatically keep backups of old files that are deleted/overwritten. GoodSync can detect when just the time or state of a file has been changed and modify it on the other side, without copying the entire file. GoodSync can update and back-up files over a local network or the Internet.

Super Flexible

SuperFlexible file synchronizer
Super Flexible File Synchronizer is backup and file synchronization software that allows backing up and synchronizing files to the same or different drives, to different media (CD, DVD, Flash, zip), or to a remote server. * http://www.syncovery.com Like Allway Sync, GoodSync and Unison, it has the capability to remember the previous state of directories in a database, and thus also synchronize deletions. It can also detect moved files and move them on the other side. The program fully supports Unicode characters so that it can copy filenames in all languages. Includes a scheduler.

Allway Sync

Allway Sync 'n' Go (For USB and other removable drives). Allway Sync 'n' Go U3 (For U3-enabled flash devices). Allway Sync 'n' Go in Portable Application Format (for USB sticks). Backup. List of backup software. Disk image. Comparison of disc image software. File synchronization. Comparison of file synchronization software.


Mobiliti has a management console that lets administrators create individual user or group profiles, change individual settings and produce a single synchronization report about all users. Mobiliti came in three editions: Basic, Plus and Enterprise. It was available as shareware and had a trial period of 21 days. List of backup software. WAN optimization. Personal Folders (.pst) files. File Synchronization. CIFS. Packeteer Company Home Page. Mobiliti Page. Blue Coat Systems home page. Laptop tools to stay in sync. Enterprise product of the year 2007. Backing Up on the Road. Taking the network with you. Packeteer thinks remotely. WAN Optimization Inches On.

Data (computing)

datacomputer datadata representation
Data storage device. Data stream. Data type. Database. Databus. Data set. Digital data. Foreign key. Hash key. Information processor. Instruction set. Memory address/location/key. Offset (computer science). Primary/unique key. Processor register. Shift register. State (computer science). Tuple. Value (computer science). Von Neumann architecture.


CloudBerry LabCloudberry
The company also has established partnerships with Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, Backblaze B2, Wasabi, Autotask, ConnectWise, and others. * Backup. List of backup software. List of online backup services. File synchronization. Disk image. List of disk imaging software.