Musa acuminata

M. acuminataMusa nanaapple
In 1955, Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd revised the classification of modern edible bananas based on their genetic origins. Their classification depends on how many of the characteristics of the two ancestral species (Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) are exhibited by the cultivars. Most banana cultivars which exhibit purely or mostly Musa acuminata genomes are dessert bananas, while hybrids of ''M. acuminata and M. balbisiana'' are mostly cooking bananas or plantains. Musa acuminata is one of the earliest plants to be domesticated by humans for agriculture. They were first cultivated in Southeast Asia and surrounding areas (possibly New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and the Philippines).

True plantains

plantainplantainsMusa acuminata × balbisiana
For other starchy bananas used in cooking, see cooking banana, East African Highland bananas (Matoke) and Fe'i banana. For all other uses of "plantain", see plantain (disambiguation). "True" plantains are a group of cultivars of the genus Musa (bananas and plantains) placed in the Plantain subgroup of the AAB genome group. The term "plantain" can refer to all the banana cultivars which are normally eaten after cooking, rather than raw (see cooking banana), or it can refer to members of other subgroups of Musa cultivars, such as the Pacific plantains. True plantains are divided into four groups based on their bunch type: French, French Horn, False Horn and Horn plantains.

List of banana cultivars

AAAAABanana cultivars
Cultivars derived from Musa acuminata are more likely to be used as dessert bananas, while those derived from Musa balbisiana and hybrids of the two are usually plantains or cooking bananas. Banana plants were originally classified by Linnaeus into two species, which he called Musa paradisiaca – those used as cooking bananas (plantains), and ''M. sapientum'' – those used as dessert bananas. The primary center of diversity of cultivated bananas is Southeast Asia. Botanical exploration of this area led to many more species being named, along with subspecies and varieties.

Fe'i banana

Fe'i banana cultivarsM.'' × ''troglodytarumMusa uranoscopos
The name may be written as M. × troglodytarum to stress the hybrid origin of Fe'i bananas. Synonyms of ''M. troglodytarum'' are: Whereas most cultivated bananas and plantains are derived from species in Musa section Musa, Fe'i bananas are clearly part of section Callimusa (in particular the species formerly grouped as section Australimusa). However, their precise origins are unclear. On the basis of appearance (morphology), Musa maclayi, native to Papua New Guinea, has been proposed as a parent. More recent genetic studies suggest they are close to M. lolodensis and M. peekelii, both from New Guinea and neighbouring islands.

List of banana dishes

This is a list of banana dishes and foods in which banana or plantain is used as a primary ingredient. Foods prepared with banana or plantain as a primary ingredient are also included in this list. A banana is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. (In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains.) The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. 🇨🇮 Alloco. Banana boat. Banana bread. Banoffee pie.

Musa balbisiana

banana treesM. balbisiana
Seeded Musa balbisiana fruit are called butuhan ('with seeds') in the Philippines, and kluai tani in Thailand, where its leaves are used for packaging and crafts. Natural parthenocarpic clones occur through polyploidy and produce edible bananas, examples of which are wild saba bananas. List of banana cultivars. Plantain. Musa balbisiana. A type of wild banana.

Plant stem

Pseudostem: a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 or 3 m tall as in banana. Rhizome: a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris. Runner (plant part): a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. e.g. garden strawberry, Chlorophytum comosum. Scape: a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Lily, Iris, Garlic. Stolon: a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground. Thorn: a modified stem with a sharpened point.

Hybrid (biology)

Triploid bananas and watermelons are intentionally bred because they produce no seeds and are also parthenocarpic. Folk tales and myths sometimes contain mythological hybrids; the Minotaur was the offspring of a human, Pasiphaë, and a white bull. More often, they are composites of the physical attributes of two or more kinds of animals, mythical beasts, and humans, with no suggestion that they are the result of interbreeding, as in the centaur (man/horse), chimera (goat/lion/snake), hippocamp (fish/horse), and sphinx (woman/lion).

Musa × paradisiaca

Musa paradisiacaMusa sapientumMusa'' × ''paradisiaca
Musa × paradisiaca is the accepted name for the hybrid between Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Most cultivated bananas and plantains are triploid cultivars either of this hybrid or of ''M. acuminata'' alone. Linnaeus originally used the name ''M. paradisiaca'' only for plantains or cooking bananas, but the modern usage includes hybrid cultivars used both for cooking and as dessert bananas. Linnaeus's name for dessert bananas, Musa sapientum, is thus a synonym of Musa × paradisiaca. Almost all cultivated plantains and many cultivated bananas are triploid cultivars of M. × paradisiaca. It is believed that Southeast Asian farmers first domesticated ''M. acuminata''.


ZingiberanaeCannalesZingiberales sp.
Musa bananas). family Strelitziaceae Hutch. (3/7 e.g. Strelitzia birds of paradise). family Zingiberaceae Martinov (50/1,600 e.g. Zingiber gingers). Banana-families. Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae, Heliconiaceae. A paraphyletic basal assemblage with 5 or (rarely) 6 fertile stamens at maturity, arranged in as trimerous inner and outer whorls. In those with five stamina, the sixth may regress and be absent (Strelitziaceae and Lowiaceae, some Musaceae) or develop as an infertile staminode (Heliconiaceae, some Musaceae). Petals and stamens are often fused at the base to form a floral tube. These are known as the banana-families or the bananas on the basis of large banana-like leaves.


cultivarscultivated varietyvariety
A cultivar (cultivated variety) is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, a cultivar is the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild.

Banana chip

banana chipsSharkara upperi
Banana chips are dried, generally crispy slices of bananas (fruits of herbaceous plants of the genus Musa of the soft, sweet "dessert banana" variety). They can be covered with sugar or honey and have a sweet taste, or are more commonly fried in oil and spices and have a salty or spicy taste. Banana chips are similar to chifle, usually made from firmer, starchier fruit varieties of the genus Musa commercially called plantains or "cooking bananas". Fried banana chips are usually produced from under-ripe banana slices deep-fried in sunflower oil or coconut oil. These chips are dry (like potato chips), contain about 4% water (table), and can be salted, spiced, sugar coated or jaggery coated.

Grand Nain

Grande Naine
These include the utilization of kidney weed, which discourages weed growth without adversely affecting banana plants. Chiquita has also established a 284 acre reserve in Costa Rica and now recycles many waste materials associated with the industry. These efforts have reduced but not eliminated ecological concerns associated with banana plantations. Issues discussed apply to all banana cultivars commercially farmed of which the Grand Nain constitutes the majority. Banana. Banana cultivar groups. Cavendish banana subgroup. Cooking plantain. Musa. Musa acuminata.

Tropical Asia

Bananas are the most famous members of Musa with 21 species and edible subspecies. Especially in the Mayan area, it is probably native to Southeast Asia and widely refined in the tropics. Black pepper is vine to the East Indies—made by drying the whole fruit (peppercorn); white pepper is made by first hulling the fruit, then grinding. The majority of production is in India and Indonesia; outside the region, America is a chief importer. Four of the main cultivators of this plant are capsicum annuum: cayenne pepper, sweet pepper, paprika, and jalapenos grown in temperate regions. Native to India, saffron, vanilla, and cardamom are the most expensive spices.

Cavendish banana

CavendishbananasCavendish banana subgroup
Banana industry. Musa (genus). Can This Fruit Be Saved? (June 2005 Popular Science article). Banana Nutrition Information & Label (August 2009). Yes, We Will Have No Bananas (June 2008 The New York Times article on Panama Disease potentially affecting the Cavendish banana).

Rhino Horn bananas

Rhino Horn banana
Rhino Horn bananas, also called Rhino Horn plantains or African Rhino Horn, are hybrid banana cultivars from Africa. It produces strongly curved and elongated edible bananas which can grow to a length of two feet, the longest fruits among banana cultivars. The Rhino Horn banana is a triploid (AAB Group, commonly known as Horn plantains) hybrid of the seeded banana Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata. Its official designation is Musa acuminata × balbisiana (AAB Group) 'African Rhino Horn'. Rhino Horn banana plants can grow to a height of 12 to 20 feet. The pseudostem and leaves are dappled red.

Lists of cultivars

The lists of cultivars in the table below are indexes of plant cultivars, varieties, and strains. A cultivar is a plant that is selected for desirable characteristics that can be maintained by propagation.

List of snack foods from the Indian subcontinent

List of Indian snack foodsList of Indian snacksnamkeen
This is a list of Indian snack foods. Snack foods are a significant aspect of Indian cuisine, and are sometimes referred to as chaat.

Wilt disease

Pine wiltwiltWilting
The bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and related species cause bacterial wilt of bananas and plantains. The same bacteria also cause wilt diseases of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), aubergine (eggplant) (Solanum melongena), banana (Musa species), geranium (Pelargonium species), ginger (Zingiber officinale), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), sweet peppers (Capsicum species), olive (Olea europea), and others. Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi, it affects elm trees. Elm yellows sometimes called elm phloem necrosis, affects elm trees and is caused by a Mycoplasma like organism. It is spread by the white-banded leafhopper.

List of garden plants

Garden plantsList of flowersplants
Musa (banana, plantain). Muscari (grape hyacinth). Mussaenda. Mutisia. Myoporum. Myosotidium. Myosotis (forget-me-not). Myrica. Myriophyllum (milfoil). Myrrhis (sweet cicely). Myrsine. Myrteola. Myrtillocactus. Myrtus (myrtle). Nandina (heavenly bamboo). Narcissus (daffodil). Nasturtium (watercress). Nautilocalyx. Nectaroscordium. Neillia. Nelumbo (lotus). Nematanthus. Nemesia. Nemopanthus (mountain holly). Nemophila. Neobuxbaumia. Neolitsea. Neolloydia. Neomarica. Neoporteria. Neoregelia. Nepenthes (pitcher plant). Nepeta (catmint). Nephrolepis. Nerine. Nerium (oleander). Nertera. Nicandra. Nicotiana (tobacco). Nidularium. Nierembergia. Nigella. Nipponanthemum. Nolana. Nomocharis.


banana familybanana and plantainbananas
Before 1753 the genus had already been described by the pre-Linnaean botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius and Linnaeus himself had described the banana he had seen as Musa cliffortiana in 1736 (this might be described as a "pre-Linnaean" Linnaean name). The 1753 name Musa paradisiaca L. for plantains and Musa sapientum L. for dessert bananas are now known to refer to hybrids, rather than natural species. It is known today that most cultivated seedless bananas are hybrids or polyploids of two wild banana species - Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.

Antonius Musa

MusaPs.-Antonius Musa
Antonius Musa (Greek Ἀντώνιος Μούσας) was a Greek botanist and the Roman Emperor Augustus's physician; Antonius was a freedman who received freeborn status along with other honours. In the year 23 BC, when Augustus was seriously ill, Musa cured the illness with cold compresses and became immediately famous. Musa, the plant group which includes the banana, the plantain and numerous other species, was apparently named after him. However, Musa may be a Latinization the Arabic mauz name for the fruit. Mauz meaning Musa is discussed in the 11th century Arabic encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine, which was translated to Latin in medieval times and well known in Europe.

Saba banana

sabasaba bananasa variety of banana
As such, they are viewed as a possible source for breeding new hybrid cultivars to replace more susceptible cooking banana cultivars grown today (in particular, the threatened East African Highland bananas). * Musapedia page on Saba Musa × paradisiaca L. cultigroup Plantain cv. 'Saba'. Musa sapientum L. var. compressa (Blanco) N.G.Teodoro. Fruit-scarring beetles. Banana thrips. Mealy bug. Banana aphids. Corm weevil. Borers. Root nematodes. Grasshoppers. Banana skipper butterfly. Panama disease/Fusarium wilt. Sigatoka. Moko or bacterial wilt. Black leaf streak. Banana bunchy top disease. Banana. List of banana cultivars. Plantain.

Herbaceous plant

Some herbaceous plants can grow rather large, such as the genus Musa, to which the banana belongs. The age of some herbaceous perennial plants can be determined by herbchronology, the analysis of annual growth rings in the secondary root xylem. Herbaceous plants do not produce perennializing above ground structures using lignin, which is a complex phenolic polymer deposited in the secondary cell wall of all vascular plants. The development of lignin during vascular plant evolution provided mechanical strength, rigidity, and hydrophobicity to secondary cell walls, allowing plants to grow tall and transport water and nutrients over longer distances within the plant body.

East African Highland bananas

MatookematokeEast African Highland banana
Banana. Cooking plantain. Cuisine of Burundi. Cuisine of Rwanda. Cuisine of Uganda. List of African dishes. Plantain. Banana cultivar groups. Ensete. Musa balbisiana. The Congo Cookbook (African Recipes). Photo of Green Bunches of Matooke. Musapedia, page on East African highland bananas.