Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Tropical race 4F. oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubenseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubense
*List of banana and plantain diseases * Information on Fusarium wilt on Musapedia Race 1 attacks cultivars in the Musa (AAA group) 'Gros Michel' and caused the 20th century epidemic. It also attacks Musa (AAB group) 'Pome' and its subgroups, Musa (AAB group) 'Silk' and Musa (ABB group) 'Pisang Awak'. Race 2 attacks Musa (ABB group) 'Bluggoe' and its close relatives. Race 3 attacks Heliconia spp. Race 4 attacks Musa (AAA group) 'Dwarf Cavendish' as well as the hosts of races 1 and 2.

Latundan banana

Latundanpisang raja
In older classifications, the Latundan cultivar was once the plant referred to as Musa sapientum. It has since been discovered that Musa sapientum is actually a hybrid cultivar of the wild seeded bananas Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata and not a species. The Latundan banana is a triploid (AAB) hybrid. Its full name is Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana (AAB Group) 'Silk'. Latundan bananas are popular dessert bananas. They are also cultivated as ornamental plants. *Panama disease Banana. Banana Cultivar Groups. Musa. Musa acuminata. Musa balbisiana. Plantain.


abacaMusa textilisabaca fiber
The abacá plant belongs to the banana family, Musaceae; it resembles the closely related wild seeded bananas, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Its scientific name is Musa textilis. Within the genus Musa, it is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. Before synthetic textiles came into use, M. textilis was a major source of high quality fiber: soft, silky and fine.

Colombian cuisine

ColombianColombiaColombian cuisine dishes
In the city of Cali, the most traditional dish is "sancocho de gallina" - a soup composed mostly of chicken, plantain, corn, coriander, yuca root, and other seasonings. Sancocho is usually served with a portion of rice, tostadas (fried plantains), and a chicken leg covered in hogao (a tomato and onion sauce). The city is also known for its empanadas (a fried corn dough filled with potatoes and meat), marranitas / puerquitas (a fried ball of plantain filled with chicharron, also known as pork rinds), pandebono (a delicious cheese bread made with yucca dough), and aborrajados (sweet ripe fried plantains filled with cheese and served with guava paste).

Musa ornata

M. ornata
Musa ornata (flowering banana) is one of more than 50 species of banana in the genus Musa of the family Musaceae. Most of these species are large tropical evergreen perennials, mainly from lowland areas with high temperature and humidity. Musa ornata originated in southeast Asia, and is cultivated for its commercial and ornamental value. The fruit is attractive but tends to be inedible. M. ornata belongs to the Musa subgenus Rhodochlamys. Rhodochlamys is one of the four sections into which the genus Musa is divided (the others being Australimusa, Callimusa and Eumusa, which is sometimes called Musa).

Banana Xanthomonas wilt

Xanthomonas wiltBanana bacterial wilt
BXW awareness campaigns have helped reduce the numbers of farmers growing bananas on contaminated plantains aiding in the control of the disease overall. Transmission of contaminated disease itself is thought to be low. It widely thought that Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum bacteria is transmitted to airborne vectors through exposed male flowers (see plant reproductive morphology). Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum bacteria has been isolated from the ooze and nectar excreted from openings of fallen male flowers.


Bananas (Musa spp.). Ensete spp. (enset). Rhizome. Root vegetable. Tuber.

Banana peel

banana peelsbanana skinstrategically placed banana skins
Green plantain peels contain 40% starch that is transformed into sugars after ripening. Green banana peels contain much less starch (about 15%) when green than plantain peels, while ripe banana peels contain up to 30% free sugars. Banana peels are also used for water purification, to produce ethanol, cellulase, laccase, as fertilizer and in composting. Banana peel is also part of the classic physical comedy slapstick visual gag, the "slipping on a banana peel". This gag was already seen as classic in 1920s America. It can be traced to the late 19th century, when banana peel waste was considered a public hazard in a number of American towns.

Musa maclayi

M. maclayi
Musa maclayi is a species of seeded banana native to Papua New Guinea and possibly the Solomon Islands. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa). It is regarded as one of the progenitors of the Fe'i banana cultivars. The plant has red sap and an upright flowering and fruiting stem. The fruits are rounded and arranged closely together in bunches – partly joined along their edges in some varieties.


tamalestamalTamales Tolimenses
The dough is usually made from plantains, although sometimes cassava is used as well; the meat filling is typically ground beef, but chicken and pork is also common. They are wrapped in plantain leaves, bound with twine, and steamed. In Santo Domingo, some eateries sell them, as well as street vendors. They are especially popular in the nearby city of San Cristobal. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is called a pastelle and is associated almost entirely with Christmas. Raisins and capers along with other seasonings are added to the meat filling. The entire thing is wrapped in a banana leaf, bound with twine and steamed. The sweet version is called paymee.

Lao cuisine

Mok pa - fish steamed in banana leaf. Mok gai - chicken steamed in banana leaf. Mok khai. Mok kai pa. Ua dok kae. Titi gai - steak in a banana leaf wrap. Khao khua or khao phat - Laotian-styled fried rice. Khao niao - steamed glutinous rice. Popularly known as "sticky rice". This type of rice is usually kept in a bamboo basket and is shared among all diners. Different ingredients such as coconut milk and red beans can be added to make the rice into a sweet dessert. Khao piak khao (lit. 'rice wet rice') - rice porridge. Toppings may contain blood curds, century eggs, fried onions or garlic, and scallions. Khao ping or khao chee - baked sticky rice seasoned with eggs.

Assamese cuisine

AssameseCuisine of AssamAssam
The traditional ingredient is made by filtering water through the ashes of the sun-dried skin of a few varieties of banana, which is then called kola khar (The name derived from the local term for banana, "kol" or "kola.") A traditional meal invariably begins with a khar dish, which can be prepared with raw papaya, mustard leaves, vegetables, pulses, fish or any other main ingredient. Xôkôta is a severely bitter type of preparation. It is prepared with dry jute leaf, urad bean and khar. However, the combination of khar (alkaline) and tenga (acidic) is not recommended. The liquid khar is also simply eaten as kharoli with rice which is prepared by adding a few drops of mustard oil.

Blood banana

M acuminata'' ssp. ''zebrinaMusa acuminata'' subsp. ''zebrina
The blood banana (Musa acuminata var. zebrina), is a variety of the wild banana Musa acuminata native to Sumatra, Indonesia. The blood banana is an ornamental plant, named for the dark red patches on its leaves, though its small-seeded fruits are also edible. The blood banana is a variety of the wild banana species Musa acuminata, one of the two ancestors of modern edible bananas. It was once classified as separate species under the now invalid names (synonyms) Musa zebrina and Musa sumatrana. It was also sometimes incorrectly classified as a cultivar.

Filipino cuisine

One such example is banana-cue which is a whole banana or plantain skewered on a short thin bamboo stick, rolled in brown sugar, and pan-fried. Kamote-cue is a peeled sweet potato skewered on a stick, covered in brown sugar and then pan-fried. Fish balls or squid balls including Calamares are also pan-fried, then skewered on bamboo sticks and given to the customer, who then has a choice of dipping in a sweet or savory sauce. These are commonly sold frozen in markets and peddled by street vendors. Turon, a kind of lumpia consisting of an eggroll or phyllo wrapper commonly filled with sliced plantain and occasionally jackfruit, is fried and sprinkled with sugar.

Bioversity International

Agreement on the Establishment of the International Plant Genetic Resources InstituteINIBAPInternational Plant Genetic Resources Institute’s
At the request of the CGIAR, in 1994 IPGRI took over the governance and administration of the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP). In 2006, IPGRI and INIBAP became a single organization and subsequently changed their operating name to Bioversity International. Bioversity International still maintains the world's largest banana gene bank, the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre, that is hosted at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) in Leuven, Belgium, and manages ProMusa - a platform that shares knowledge about bananas and plantains.

Ada (food)

Ada or Ela Ada, is an Indian sweet and traditional Kerala delicacy, consisting of rice parcels encased in a dough made of rice flour, with sweet fillings, steamed in banana leaf and served as an evening snack or as part of breakfast. It can be seen even in parts of Tamil Nadu as well. Grated coconut and rice flour are the two main ingredients. It's a snack made out of raw rice flour, sugar or jaggery and grated coconut. It is usually prepared on Onam. Poovada, is prepared in the tip end of the plantain leaf as the Nivedyam for Onam, into this ada goes, with the coconut filling, a sprinkling of the Thumbapoo(a white flower Leucas aspera), making it more auspicious.

United Brands Company v Commission of the European Communities

United Brands v Commission
Instead, because of the notion of cross elasticity of demand, the product market was defined as the banana market. (It was argued that if a customer wants a tangerine, yet none are available, then a satsuma, clementine, mandarin, or a tangelo would do; but nothing, not even a plantain, will serve instead of a banana). UBC had about 45% of the EU banana market, and 45% was deemed to amount to a "dominant position". Since the "green banana clause" effectively prevented any competing logistics firms from carrying Chiquita bananas, it was anti-competitive and in breach of Art 86. EU competition law. Consten & Grundig v Commission.

Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

canoe plantscanoe plantoriginal major crops
Fe'i bananas (Musa × troglodytarum), also spelled Fehi or Féi, are banana cultivars unique to Melanesia, the Maluku Islands, and Polynesia. Unlike other domesticated banana cultivars which are derived from Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, fe'i bananas are believed to be hybrids derived from entirely different species. Proposed progenitors of fe'i bananas include Musa jackeyi, Musa lolodensis, Musa maclayi, and Musa peekelii, all of which are native to New Guinea and surrounding islands. Like other bananas, they were spread eastwards to Polynesia for use as food. However, they are absent in Island Southeast Asia, reaching only as far as the Maluku Islands.


generageneric namegeneric
A genus (, pl. genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Southeast Asia

south-east AsiaSoutheastSouth East Asia
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of Japan, Korea and China, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere.


Zingiberales, such as Bananas etc.Palmate-parallel (multicostate parallel):Several equally prominent primary veins arising from a single point at the base and running parallel towards tip or margin. The term multicostate refers to having more than one prominent main vein. e.g. "fan" (palmate) palms (Arecaceae)Multicostate parallel convergent:Mid-veins converge at apex e.g. Bambusa arundinacea = B. bambos (Aracaceae), EichorniaMulticostate parallel divergent:Mid-veins diverge more or less parallel towards the margin e.g. Borassus (Poaceae), fan palms.

Petiole (botany)

In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called sessile or epetiolate.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Linnaeus C
Carl Linnaeus ( 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné).


🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
Indonesia (, ; Indonesian: ), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia ), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 km2, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, contains more than half of the country's population.


Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand in the north and maritime borders with Singapore in the south, Vietnam in the northeast, and Indonesia in the west. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government.