Cooking banana

plantainplantainscooking plantain
Many are hybrids derived from the cross of two wild species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The currently accepted scientific name for all such crosses is Musa × paradisiaca. Using Simmonds and Shepherds' 1955 genome-based nomenclature system, cultivars which are cooked often belong to the AAB Group, although some (e.g. the East African Highland bananas) belong to the AAA Group, and others (e.g. Saba bananas) belong to the ABB Group. Fe'i bananas (Musa × troglodytarum) from the Pacific Islands are often eaten roasted or boiled, and thus informally referred to as "mountain plantains."

Musaceae

banana familybanana and plantainbananas
Before 1753 the genus had already been described by the pre-Linnaean botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius and Linnaeus himself had described the banana he had seen as Musa cliffortiana in 1736 (this might be described as a "pre-Linnaean" Linnaean name). The 1753 name Musa paradisiaca L. for plantains and Musa sapientum L. for dessert bananas are now known to refer to hybrids, rather than natural species. It is known today that most cultivated seedless bananas are hybrids or polyploids of two wild banana species - Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.

Musa acuminata

M. acuminataappledessert banana
In 1955, Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd revised the classification of modern edible bananas based on their genetic origins. Their classification depends on how many of the characteristics of the two ancestral species (Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) are exhibited by the cultivars. Most banana cultivars which exhibit purely or mostly Musa acuminata genomes are dessert bananas, while hybrids of M. acuminata and M. balbisiana are mostly cooking bananas or plantains. Musa acuminata is one of the earliest plants to be domesticated by humans for agriculture.

Fe'i banana

Fe'i banana cultivarsM.'' × ''troglodytarumMusa × troglodytarum
A few cultivars have been found which appear to be intermediate between Fe'i bananas and the more common Musa section Musa bananas and plantains. Although the part of the stem holding the fruit is upright, the rest of the stem then bends over so that the terminal bud faces sideways or downwards. An example is the cultivar 'Tati'a' from Tahiti. Molecular analysis of bananas with this growth habit from Papua New Guinea has shown evidence of genetic input from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, the parents of the section Musa cultivars. Rumphius' illustration of his "Musa uranoscopos" shows the same morphology, although this might be artistic license.

Antonius Musa

MusaPs.-Antonius Musa
Antonius Musa (Greek Ἀντώνιος Μούσας) was a Greek botanist and the Roman Emperor Augustus's physician; Antonius was a freedman who received freeborn status along with other honours. In the year 23 BC, when Augustus was seriously ill, Musa cured the illness with cold compresses and became immediately famous. Musa, the plant group which includes the banana, the plantain and numerous other species, was apparently named after him. However, Musa may be a Latinization the Arabic mauz name for the fruit. Mauz meaning Musa is discussed in the 11th century Arabic encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine, which was translated to Latin in medieval times and well known in Europe.

Musa balbisiana

banana treesM. balbisiana
Seeded Musa balbisiana fruit are called butuhan ('with seeds') in the Philippines, and kluai tani in Thailand. Natural parthenocarpic clones occur through polyploidy and produce edible bananas, examples of which are wild saba bananas. Banana. List of banana cultivars. Musa. Musa acuminata. Plantain. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia. Musa balbisiana. A type of wild banana.

Herbaceous plant

herbherbaceousherbs
Some herbaceous plants can grow rather large, such as the genus Musa, to which the banana belongs. The age of some herbaceous perennial plants can be determined by herbchronology, the analysis of annual growth rings in the secondary root xylem.

True plantains

plantainplantainsMusa acuminata × balbisiana
For other starchy bananas used in cooking, see cooking banana, East African Highland bananas (Matoke) and Fe'i banana. For all other uses of "plantain", see plantain (disambiguation). "True" plantains are a group of cultivars of the genus Musa (bananas and plantains) placed in the Plantain subgroup of the AAB genome group. The term "plantain" can refer to all the banana cultivars which are normally eaten after cooking, rather than raw (see cooking banana), or it can refer to members of other subgroups of Musa cultivars, such as the Pacific plantains. True plantains are divided into four groups based on their bunch type: French, French Horn, False Horn and Horn plantains.

Musa × paradisiaca

Musa'' × ''paradisiacabananabananas
Musa × paradisiaca is the accepted name for the hybrid between Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Most cultivated bananas and plantains are triploid cultivars either of this hybrid or of M. acuminata alone. Linnaeus originally used the name M. paradisiaca only for plantains or cooking bananas, but the modern usage includes hybrid cultivars used both for cooking and as dessert bananas. Linnaeus's name for dessert bananas, Musa sapientum, is thus a synonym of Musa × paradisiaca. of the ancestors of M. × paradisiaca: M. acuminata is shown in green and M. balbisiana in orange. Almost all cultivated plantains and many cultivated bananas are triploid cultivars of M. × paradisiaca.

List of banana cultivars

AAAAAAAB
Prata-anã banana (Dwarf Brazilian banana, Dwarf Prata). Silk subgroup. Latundan banana (Silk banana, Apple banana). Others. Pisang Seribu banana. plu banana. Kalamagol banana. Pisang Awak (Ducasse banana). Blue Java banana (Ice Cream banana, Ney mannan, Ash plantain, Pata hina, Dukuru, Vata). Bluggoe Subgroup. Bluggoe banana (also known as orinoco and "burro"). Silver Bluggoe banana. Pelipita banana (Pelipia, Pilipia). Saba Subgroup. Saba banana (Cardaba, Dippig). Cardaba banana. Benedetta banana. Lists of cultivars. Musa (genus). True plantains.

Ensete

ensetfalse banana
Ensete ventricosum - enset or false banana, widely cultivated as a food plant in Ethiopia. Asia. Ensete glaucum - widespread in Asia from India to Papua New Guinea. Ensete superbum - Western Ghats of India. Ensete wilsonii - Yunnan, China, but doubtfully distinct from E. glaucum. Ensete sp. "Thailand" - possibly a new species or a disjunct population of E. superbum. List of Ethiopian dishes and foods. List of Southern African indigenous trees. Musa (genus). Musella lasiocarpa. Plantain. 🇦🇹 (1999):. IPNI Listing. Enset as a crop (UNEUE). Enset Culture (UNEUE). American Association for the Advancement of Science - The Tree Against Hunger: Enset-based Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia.

Tree

treessaplingarboreal
Large herbaceous plants such as papaya and bananas are trees in this broad sense. A commonly applied narrower definition is that a tree has a woody trunk formed by secondary growth, meaning that the trunk thickens each year by growing outwards, in addition to the primary upwards growth from the growing tip. Under such a definition, herbaceous plants such as palms, bananas and papayas are not considered trees regardless of their height, growth form or stem girth.

Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
Pseudostem – a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 or 3 m tall as in banana. Rhizome – a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris. Runner (plant part) – a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. e.g. garden strawberry, Chlorophytum comosum. Scape – a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta, Lily, Iris, Garlic. Stolon – a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground. Thorn – a modified stem with a sharpened point.

Wolof language

WolofwolClassical Wolof
The English language is believed to have adopted some Wolof words, such as banana, via Spanish or Portuguese, and yum/yummy, from Wolof nyam "to taste"; nyam in several Caribbean English Creoles meaning "to eat" (compare Seychellois Creole nyanmnyanm, also meaning "to eat"). Wolof is spoken by more than 10 million people and about 40 percent (approximately 5 million people) of Senegal's population speak Wolof as their native language. Increased mobility, and especially the growth of the capital Dakar, created the need for a common language: today, an additional 40 percent of the population speak Wolof as a second or acquired language.

Parthenocarpy

parthenocarpic parthenocarpousparthenocarp
Seedlessness is seen as a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds such as banana, pineapple, orange and grapefruit. Parthenocarpy is also desirable in fruit crops that may be difficult to pollinate or fertilize, such as fig, tomato and summer squash. In dioecious species, such as persimmon, parthenocarpy increases fruit production because staminate trees do not need to be planted to provide pollen. Parthenocarpy is undesirable in nut crops, such as pistachio, for which the seed is the edible part. Horticulturists have selected and propagated parthenocarpic cultivars of many plants, including banana, fig, cactus pear (Opuntia), breadfruit and eggplant.

Ensete ventricosum

ensetenseteAbyssinian Banana (''Ensete ventricosum'')
Ensete ventricosum, commonly known as the Ethiopian banana, Abyssinian banana, false banana, enset or ensete, is an herbaceous species of flowering plant in the banana family Musaceae. The domesticated form of the plant is only cultivated in Ethiopia, where it provides the staple food for approximately 20 million people. The name Ensete ventricosum was first published in 1948 in the Kew Bulletin, 1947, p. 101. Its synonyms include Musa arnoldiana De Wild., Musa ventricosa Welw. and Musa ensete J.F.Gmel.

Ploidy

diploidhaploid2n
Because of this, triploidy is a common way of making seedless fruit such as bananas and watermelons. If the fertilization of human gametes results in 3 sets of chromosomes the condition is called triploid syndrome. The term ploidy is a back-formation from haploidy and diploidy. Ploid is a combination of Ancient Greek -παλτος (-paltos), -πλος (-plos), -πλόος (-plóos, "fold"), and -oid from Ancient Greek -ειδής (-eidḗs), -οειδής (-oeidḗs), from εἶδος (eîdos, "form, likeness"). The principal meaning of the Greek word ἁπλόος haplóos is "two-fold", from ἅμα, which means, "at once, at the same time". From this comes the secondary sense of "single", since folding double produces a unity.

Musa velutina

M. velutinapink banana
Musa velutina, the hairy banana or pink banana, is a species of seeded banana. These plants are originally from Assam and the eastern Himalayas. They are also cultivated in greenhouses and places like Australia. Its fruits are 3 in long, pink, and fuzzy. They are borne on erect flower stalks with a pink inflorescence. Musa velutina flowers at a young age, doing so within a year. The fruits peel back when ripe. It is often grown as an ornamental plant, but has soft, sweet flesh that can be eaten. The seeds are quite hard and can chip a tooth. To sow, first soak the seeds in warm water for 24 hours.

Musa coccinea

M. coccineascarlet banana
Musa coccinea, commonly known as scarlet banana or red-flowering banana, is a species of flowering plant in the banana and plantain family Musaceae, native to tropical China (in Guangdong, Guangxi, and southeastern Yunnan) and Vietnam. It is a bat-pollinated evergreen perennial, placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. The flower cluster is more rounded than in the related species M. beccarii. It is made up of erect spirals of red bracts which enclose tubular yellow flowers. The inedible fruits are orange, only about 2 cm long, and contain seeds.

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Triploid bananas and watermelons are intentionally bred because they produce no seeds and are also parthenocarpic. There is evidence of hybridisation between modern humans and other species of the genus Homo. In 2010, the Neanderthal genome project showed that 1–4% of DNA from all people living today, apart from most Sub-Saharan Africans, is of Neanderthal heritage. Analyzing the genomes of 600 Europeans and East Asians found that combining them covered 20% of the Neanderthal genome that is in the modern human population. Ancient human populations lived and interbred with Neanderthals, Denisovans, and at least one other extinct Homo species.

Karat banana

Karat
However, it is believed that because beta-carotenes are important metabolic precursors of vitamin A, essential for the proper functioning of the retina, giving Karat bananas to young children could help ward off certain kinds of blindness. A campaign to increase the consumption of Karat bananas (and of Fe'i bananas in general) has therefore taken place in Pohnpei. *Musa *http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6120

Zingiberales

Zingiberales sp.zingiberaleans
Musa bananas). family Strelitziaceae Hutch. (3/7 e.g. Strelitzia birds of paradise). family Zingiberaceae Martinov (50/1,600 e.g. Zingiber gingers). Banana-families. Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae, Heliconiaceae. A paraphyletic basal assemblage with 5 or (rarely) 6 fertile stamens at maturity, arranged in as trimerous inner and outer whorls. In those with five stamina, the sixth may regress and be absent (Strelitziaceae and Lowiaceae, some Musaceae) or develop as an infertile staminode (Heliconiaceae, some Musaceae). Petals and stamens are often fused at the base to form a floral tube. These are known as the banana-families or the bananas on the basis of large banana-like leaves.

Grand Nain

Grand Nain bananas (also spelled Grande Naine) are banana cultivars of Musa acuminata. It is one of the most commonly cultivated bananas and a source of commercial Cavendish bananas. It is also known as the Chiquita banana, because it is the main product of Chiquita Brands International. Taxonomically speaking, the Grand Nain is a monocot and belongs to the genus Musa. Species designations are difficult when considering bananas because nearly all banana cultivars are descendants and/or hybrids of the Musa acuminata or Musa balbisiana, wild species that have been propagated for agricultural use. The Grand Nain is a cultivar of the well known Cavendish bananas.

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Tropical race 4F. oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubenseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubense
*List of banana and plantain diseases * Information on Fusarium wilt on Musapedia Race 1 attacks cultivars in the Musa (AAA group) 'Gros Michel' and caused the 20th century epidemic. It also attacks Musa (AAB group) 'Pome' and its subgroups, Musa (AAB group) 'Silk' and Musa (ABB group) 'Pisang Awak'. Race 2 attacks Musa (ABB group) 'Bluggoe' and its close relatives. Race 3 attacks Heliconia spp. Race 4 attacks Musa (AAA group) 'Dwarf Cavendish' as well as the hosts of races 1 and 2.

Latundan banana

Latundanpisang raja
In older classifications, the Latundan cultivar was once the plant referred to as Musa sapientum. It has since been discovered that Musa sapientum is actually a hybrid cultivar of the wild seeded bananas Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata and not a species. The Latundan banana is a triploid (AAB) hybrid. Its full name is Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana (AAB Group) 'Silk'. Latundan bananas are popular dessert bananas. They are also cultivated as ornamental plants. *Panama disease Banana. Banana Cultivar Groups. Musa. Musa acuminata. Musa balbisiana. Plantain.