Chiquita Brands International

ChiquitaChiquita BananaUnited Brands
In 1993, the company was hit by European tariffs on the import of Latin American bananas. In 1994, select Chiquita farms were certified the Rainforest Alliance's Better Banana Project as being environmentally friendly. In 1995, the company sold the John Morrell meat business that was part of the original AMK Corporation. In 1998, the world's largest banana processing facility debuted in Costa Rica.

Banana wine

bananas
Water (to dilute the rather thick banana mash), wine yeast and sugar is added to the "banana mash". The traditional banana beer processing (as described in the banana beer page and in Blocker et al. (2001) ) is different from commercial banana wine processing. For example, the process of making banana wine used by Banana Investment Ltd. is as follows: In commercial production, ‘Cavendish’ bananas are used, while in informal production, a variety of cultivars, including both cooking and beer East African Highland bananas, ‘Pisang awak’, ‘Gros Michel’ and Apple bananas are used.

East African Highland bananas

matokematookeibitoke
Their official designation is Musa acuminata Colla (AAA-EA). Synonyms include Musa brieyi De Wild. Their paternal parent is the blood banana subspecies (M. acuminata ssp. zebrina) of the wild banana species Musa acuminata. East African Highland bananas are a subgroup that refers to about 200 individual banana cultivars (or clones). They can be subdivided into five distinct groups of clones known as clone sets: Over 500 local names are known for cultivars from the EAHB subgroup. East African Highland bananas were introduced early into Africa from Southeast Asia during the first to sixth centuries AD, probably via trade.

Perennial plant

perennialperennialsherbaceous perennial
Some of the more completely perennial vegetables are: Examples of evergreen perennials include Begonia and banana. Examples of deciduous perennials include goldenrod and mint. Examples of monocarpic perennials include Agave and some species of Streptocarpus. Examples of woody perennials include maple, pine, and apple trees. Examples of herbaceous perennials used in agriculture include alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, and Red clover. Gulmohur. Hibiscus. Apple. Apricot. Avocado. Banana. Blackcurrant. Blueberry. Blackberry. Currant. Feijoa. Grape. Kiwi fruit. Japanese wineberry. Pear. Persimmon. Pineapple. Plum. Pomegranate. Raspberries.

Peel (fruit)

peelrindcitrus peel
Banana peel. Fruit anatomy, describing the botanical terms of fruit and skin layers. Peeler. Zest (ingredient).

Banana republic

banana republicsBanana Republic Dayethical record
Henry book of short stories wherein he coined the banana republic term. The Banana Republic: The Myth of the United Fruit Company.

Musa beccarii

M. beccarii
Musa beccarii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), found in Malaysia, in Sabah (in the northern part of the island of Borneo). It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa). The flower bud is narrow, bright scarlet with green-tipped bracts. The fruit is green and thin. The species is named after Italian naturalist Odoardo Beccari. It includes two subspecies, Musa beccarii subsp. beccarii (the autonym) and Musa beccarii subsp. hottana Häkkinen.

Musa boman

M. boman
Musa boman is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to the West Sepik (Sandaun) Province of Papua New Guinea, in the eastern portion of the island of New Guinea. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. The male bud is cream in colour. Its relationships have been disputed. On the basis of appearance, it has been considered close to M. ingens, placed in a different section of the genus. However, it hybridizes with M. lolodensis, in section Callimusa, and is generally placed in the same section.

Dole Food Company

DoleDole PhilippinesHawaiian Pineapple Company
Bobby Banana is a mascot of Dole Food Company and the leader of the SuperKids (children who regularly eat five to nine fruits and vegetables every day). He is an anthropomorphic banana who appears in Dole comics and games for children, along with friends Courtney Cauliflower, Mia Mango, Pinellopy Pineapple, and Gavin Grape, all of whom are also anthropomorphic fruits and vegetables. In 1985 and 1986, the Dole banana was featured as the official banana of the Pittsburg State University (KS) Gorillas' athletic programs. The project was the brainchild of then Pitt State radiosports play-by-play voice Scott Burton.

Musa borneensis

M. borneensis
Musa borneensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to the island of Borneo, in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. Musa flavida M.Hotta is now considered to be only a variety of this species, M. borneensis var. flavida.

Panama disease

soil fungus outbreak
Panama disease (or Fusarium wilt) is a plant disease that infects banana plants (Musa spp.). It is a wilting disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The pathogen is resistant to fungicides and until now, its control is limited to phytosanitary measures. Although a transgenic banana cultivar that proved resistant to Panama disease has been recently developed, it is not commercially available yet. During the 1950s, a first outbreak of Panama disease almost wiped out the commercial Gros Michel banana production.

Black sigatoka

BlackMycosphaerella fijiensisPseudocercospora (Paracercospora) fijiensis
[[File:Black Sigatoka.jpg|thumb|Black Sigatoka lesions on mature banana leaf. Black Sigatoka is also known as Black Leaf Streak, and is found mostly on the banana crop. The pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes streaks that run parallel to the leaves. It is an ascomycete fungus that affects banana trees specifically in tropical climates; including Asia, West Africa, China, and South America. Tropical weather is the preferred climate to grow banana trees, but it is also the environment that the pathogen thrives in, hot, humid, with plenty of rainfall to aid in dispersal. The optimal environment of the pathogen would be similar to that of the banana tree.

Musa bauensis

M. bauensis
Musa bauensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sarawak, Malaysia. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa campestris

M. campestris
Musa campestris is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to the island of Borneo, in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa azizii

M. azizii
Musa azizii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sarawak, Malaysia. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa barioensis

M. barioensis
Musa barioensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sarawak, Malaysia. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa fitzalanii

M. fitzalanii
Musa fitzalanii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), which was native to north-east Queensland, Australia, but is now believed to be extinct. The type specimen was collected in the 19th century, from the vicinity of 'Daintree's River'. Along with M. acuminata and M. jackeyi, it was one of the three species native to Australia. It was placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa).

Musa exotica

M. exotica
Musa exotica is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Vietnam. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. It was only described in 2004, from a collection in the Cúc Phương Forest Reservation, Ninh Bình Province, Vietnam. The clear orange bud is upright; small yellow bananas develop below the male flowers.

Giant leopard moth

The giant leopard moth or eyed tiger moth (Hypercompe scribonia) is a moth of the family Erebidae. They are distributed through North America from southern Ontario, and southern and eastern United States through New England, Mexico and down to Panama. The obsolete name Ecpantheria scribonia is still occasionally encountered.

Musa gracilis

M. gracilis
Musa gracilis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Peninsular Malaysia. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. It grows to less than 2 m tall. It has an upright pink-purple bud and produces narrow fruits (bananas), which have magenta and green stripes.

Musa lolodensis

M. lolodensis
Musa lolodensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), occurring naturally from the Moluccas through to New Guinea. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. It is one of the possible parents of the cultivated Fe'i bananas. Musa lolodensis is native to Indonesia (in Halmahera of the Moluccas, and Irian Jaya) and northwestern Papua New Guinea.

Musa bukensis

M. bukensis
Musa bukensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa) from the Solomon Islands. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Fusarium oxysporum

F. oxysporumPanama diseaseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''narcissi
These results showed that pathogens of banana causing Panama disease could be as closely related to other host's pathogens, such as melon or tomato, as they are to each other. Exceptional amounts of genetic diversity within F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense were deduced from the high level of chromosomal polymorphisms found among strains, random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints and from the number and geographic distribution of vegetative compatibility groups. Presented with the wide-ranging occurrence of F. oxysporum strains that are nonpathogenic, it is reasonable to conclude that certain pathogenic forms were descended from originally nonpathogenic ancestors.

Gros Michel banana

Gros Michel
We Have No Bananas", a novelty song about a grocer from the 1922 Broadway revue Make It Snappy, is said to have been inspired by a shortage of Gros Michel bananas, which began with the infestation of Panama disease early in the 20th century. Musa acuminata L. cv. 'Gros Michel'. Musa × paradisiaca L. cv. 'Gros Michel'. Banana cultivar groups. Grand Nain (Chiquita banana). Banana breeding impeded by triploidy. Cooking plantain.

Musa lawitiensis

M. lawitiensis
Musa lawitiensis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to the island of Borneo (both the Indonesian and Malaysian portions). It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.