Banana Xanthomonas wilt

Xanthomonas wiltBanana bacterial wilt
Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), or banana bacterial wilt (BBW) or enset wilt is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum. After being originally identified on a close relative of banana, Ensete ventricosum, in Ethiopia in the 1960s, BXW emanated in Uganda in 2001 affecting all types of banana cultivars. Since then BXW has been diagnosed in Central and East Africa including banana growing regions of: Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, and Uganda. Of the numerous diseases infecting bananas, BXW alongside banana bunchy top virus has been the most devastating in recent years.

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
Belle de Boskoop, Jonagold, Mutsu, Ribston Pippin), banana, citrus, ginger, watermelon. Tetraploid crops: very few apple varieties, durum or macaroni wheat, cotton, potato, canola/rapeseed, leek, tobacco, peanut, kinnow, Pelargonium. Hexaploid crops: chrysanthemum, bread wheat, triticale, oat, kiwifruit. Octaploid crops: strawberry, dahlia, pansies, sugar cane, oca (Oxalis tuberosa).

Musa lokok

M. lokok
Musa lokok is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa peekelii

M. peekelii
Musa peekelii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to eastern New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20. It is a very tall plant, reaching over 10 m, with a narrow green drooping bud. The ripe bananas are red with bright yellow flesh. It is one of the possible parents of the cultivated Fe'i bananas. The subspecies M. peekelii subsp. angustigemma has been treated as a separate species, M. angustigemma.

Musa basjoo

bananaBashōJapanese banana
Musa basjoo, known variously as Japanese banana, Japanese fibre banana or hardy banana, is a species belonging to the genus Musa. It was previously thought to have originated in the Ryukyu islands of southern Japan, from where it was first described in cultivation, but is now known to have originated in subtropical southern China, where it is also widely cultivated, with wild populations found in Sichuan province. Musa basjoo is a herbaceous perennial with trunk-like pseudostems growing to around 2 - 2.5 m, with a crown of mid-green leaves growing up to 2 m long and 70 cm wide when mature. The species produces male and female flowers on the same inflorescence which may extend for over 1 m.

Musa monticola

M. monticola
Musa monticola is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sabah on the island of Borneo. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Musa johnsii

M. johnsii
Musa johnsii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to western New Guinea. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
Esters are responsible for the aroma of many fruits, including apples, durians, pears, bananas, pineapples, and strawberries. Several billion kilograms of polyesters are produced industrially annually, important products being polyethylene terephthalate, acrylate esters, and cellulose acetate. : Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two reactants (typically an alcohol and an acid) form an ester as the reaction product. Esters are common in organic chemistry and biological materials, and often have a characteristic pleasant, fruity odor. This leads to their extensive use in the fragrance and flavor industry. Ester bonds are also found in many polymers.

Musa viridis

M. viridis
Musa viridis is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to northern Vietnam. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Kuk Swamp

KukKuk Early Agricultural Site
Dated to 6,900 – 6,400 years ago, additional archaeobotanical evidence has been found showing the cultivation of bananas and sugar cane. Many banana phytoliths have been found in the cultivation plots of Kuk Swamp. Since bananas do not produce phytoliths in the same quantity and frequency as grass and other plants, researchers have concluded that the abundance of banana phytoliths found in a managed grassed landscape between 6950 and 6550 years ago suggests deliberate planting. The bananas grown at Kuk Swamp were Eumusa bananas, which developed as the most significant and largest group of banana domesticates.

Andrew Preston

Andrew W. Preston
In 1884, Preston and nine others formed the Boston Fruit Company, the birth of the modern banana business. Later, in 1899, Preston and Minor C. Keith combined ventures to form the United Fruit Company. Preston was the president, and Keith became vice-president. "Andrew W. Preston." In: Massachusetts of today: a memorial of the state, historical and biographical, issued for the World's Columbian exposition at Chicago. Columbia publishing company, 1892. Google books. National cyclopaedia of American biography. 1910 Google books.

Musa nagensium

M. nagensium
Musa nagensium is a species of the genus Musa, found in tropical Asia.

Musa banksii

M. banksii
Musa banksii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to New Guinea and Australia (Queensland), and most likely introduced to Samoa. It was first described by Ferdinand von Mueller in 1863 from plants collected in Queensland, Australia. Thereafter, taxonomists have variously treated it as a unique species or as a subspecies of Musa acuminata. The first one to note an affinity with Musa acuminata was Ernest E. Cheesman in 1948. In 1957, Norman Simmonds reclassified it as a subspecies of Musa acuminata based on extensive field observations in New Guinea, Australia, and Samoa. In 1976, George Argent chose to treat it as a species. [http://www.promusa.org/Musa+acuminata+ssp.

Musa voonii

M. voonii
Musa voonii is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Sarawak on the island of Borneo. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Ripening

riperipenfruit ripening
Some fruits can be ripened by placing them in a plastic bag with a ripe banana, as the banana will release ethylene. Iodine (I) can be used to determine whether fruit is ripening or rotting by showing whether the starch in the fruit has turned into sugar. For example, a drop of iodine on a slightly rotten part (not the skin) of an apple will stay yellow or orange, since starch is no longer present. If the iodine is applied and takes 2–3 seconds to turn dark blue or black, then the process of ripening has begun but is not yet complete.

Lorenzo Dow Baker

Lorenzo Dow Baker (March 15, 1840 in Wellfleet, Massachusetts – June 21, 1908) was an American sailor, ship's captain and businessman whose 1870 voyage from the Orinoco to Jamaica and then to Philadelphia launched the modern banana production industry. In 1881 he partnered with his brother-in-law Elisha Hopkins to form L.D. Baker & Co. In 1885 he joined forces with Andrew W. Preston and eight others to form the Boston Fruit Company, which led to several successive partnerships, ending in the 1899 formation of the United Fruit Company, now Chiquita Brands International. Baker's success caused Wellfleet to become a summer resort.

Musa jackeyi

M. jackeyi
Musa jackeyi (Johnstone River banana ) is a species of wild banana (genus Musa). It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa). It has only a small native range in north-east Queensland, Australia. It resembles the cultivated bananas called "fe'i" or "fehi", having an upright rather than a drooping fruit stalk, with the green terminal bud pointing upwards, and sap which is reddish in colour.

Musa violascens

M. violascens
Musa violascens is a species of wild banana (genus Musa), native to Peninsular Malaysia. It is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.

Fusarium

Fusarium sppFusarium'' yellows
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana. Panama disease affects a wide range of banana cultivars, which are propagated asexually from offshoots and therefore have very little genetic diversity. Panama disease is one of the most destructive plant diseases of modern times, and caused the commercial disappearance of the once dominant Gros Michel cultivar. A more recent strain also affects the Cavendish cultivars used as a substitute for Gros Michel.

Musa sikkimensis

M. sikkimensis
Musa sikkimensis, also called Darjeeling Banana is a species of the genus Musa. It is one of the highest altitude banana species and is found in Bhutan and India. The plant is robust and about 4 m tall with a yellowish-green foliage and reddish tinged pseudostem. The sheath is smudged with blackish-brown and is without wax when mature, unlike Musa nagensium which has thick wax deposits in the pseudostem sheaths. The bases of the lamina bear a red-purple colour when young, which gradually fades, latest on the midrib. The inflorescence far outshoots the pseudostem, producing an oblique fruit bunch.

Luigi Aloysius Colla

Colla
In 1820 Colla described two species, Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata, that are the basis for almost all cultivated bananas. Colla was a member of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Dictionary of botanic terminology - index of names - retrieved June 6, 2006. Musa paradisiaca - retrieved June 6, 2006. Italian States before 1861 - retrieved June 6, 2006. Haverford College Libraries: Robert B. Haines, III Collection - retrieved June 6, 2006.

Potassium permanganate

KMnO 4 permanganateCondy's Crystals
Ethylene absorbents extend storage time of bananas even at high temperatures. This effect can be exploited by packing bananas in polyethylene together with potassium permanganate. By removing ethylene by oxidation, the permanganate delays the ripening, increasing the fruit's shelf life up to 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration. Potassium permanganate is typically included in survival kits: as a fire starter (mixed with antifreeze from a car radiator or glycerol), water sterilizer, and for creating distress signals on snow. Potassium permanganate is added to "plastic sphere dispensers" to create backfires, burnouts, and controlled burns.

Banana Pancake Trail

"Banana Pancake Trail" or "Banana Pancake Circuit" is the name given to growing routes around Southeast Asia travelled by backpackers and other tourists. The Trail has no clear geographical definition, but is used as a metaphor for places that are popular among Western tourists. The phrase '"Banana Pancake Trail" is usually used tongue-in-cheek as an affectionate nickname for various routes in Southeast Asia, and may reference guesthouses, cafes and restaurants catering to backpackers and serving banana pancakes as a form of sweet breakfast or snack.

KU Leuven

Catholic University of LeuvenUniversity of LeuvenKatholieke Universiteit Leuven
KU Leuven hosts the world's largest banana genebank, the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre, that celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2017 and was visited by Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Development Cooperation, Alexander De Croo. Academics at KU Leuven is organized into three groups, each with its own faculties, departments, and schools offering programs up to doctoral level. While most courses are taught in Dutch, many are offered in English, particularly the graduate programs.

Ernest Entwistle Cheesman

CheesmanE. E. CheesmanErnest E. Cheesman
Cheesman, E.E. 1931 Banana breeding at the Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture - A progress report. H.M. Stationery Office in London. Cheesman, E.E. 1932 Genetic and cytological studies of Musa. I. Certain hybrids of the Gros Michel banana ''Journal of Genetics 26: 291-312. Cheesman, E.E. 1947 Classification of the bananas. II. The genus Musa L. Kew Bulletin 2: 106-117. Cheesman, E.E. 1948a Classification of the bananas. III. Critical notes on species a. Musa balbisiana Colla. Kew Bulletin 3: 11-17. Cheesman, E.E. 1948b Classification of the bananas. III. Critical notes on species b. Musa acuminata Colla. Kew Bulletin 3: 17-28.