Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
In 1960, Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the Olympic marathon in Rome barefoot after discovering that Adidas, the Olympic shoe supplier, had run out of shoes in his size. He was in pain because he had received shoes that were too small, so he decided to simply run barefoot; Bikila had trained running barefoot prior to the Olympics. He would go on to defend his Olympic title four years later in Tokyo while wearing shoes and setting a new world record. British runner Bruce Tulloh competed in many races during the 1960s while barefoot, and won the gold medal in the 1962 European Games 5,000 metre race.

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
Achilles tendinitis is most commonly found in individuals aged 30–40 Runners are susceptible, as well as anyone participating in sports, and men aged 30–39. Risk factors include participating in a sport or activity that involves running, jumping, bounding, and change of speed. Although Achilles tendinitis is mostly likely to occur in runners, it also is more likely in participants in basketball, volleyball, dancing, gymnastics and other athletic activities. Other risk factors include gender, age, improper stretching, and overuse.

Plantar fasciitis

Dancer's heelplantar fascia injuryplantar fasciitus
Identified risk factors for plantar fasciitis include excessive running, standing on hard surfaces for prolonged periods of time, high arches of the feet, the presence of a leg length inequality, and flat feet. The tendency of flat feet to excessively roll inward during walking or running makes them more susceptible to plantar fasciitis. Obesity is seen in 70% of individuals who present with plantar fasciitis and is an independent risk factor.


gallopleaping gaitsaction
In spite of the differences in leg number shown in terrestrial vertebrates, according to the inverted pendulum model of walking and spring-mass model of running, "walks" and "runs" are seen in animals with 2, 4, 6, or more legs. The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms that produce distinct patterns of wake vortices. de:Gangart Bipedal gait cycle. Gait analysis. Gait abnormality. Gait (dog). Gait (human). Horse gait. Parkinsonian gait.

Terrestrial locomotion

Animals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion. Gaits can be grouped into categories according to their patterns of support sequence. For quadrupeds, there are three main categories: walking gaits, running gaits, and leaping gaits. In one system (relating to horses), there are 60 discrete patterns: 37 walking gaits, 14 running gaits, and 9 leaping gaits. Walking is the most common gait, where some feet are on the ground at any given time, and found in almost all legged animals. In an informal sense, running is considered to occur when at some points in the stride all feet are off the ground in a moment of suspension.


A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait. Several lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats. Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment. Several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground. Many animals rear up on their hind legs whilst fighting or copulating. Some animals commonly stand on their hind legs, in order to reach food, to keep watch, to threaten a competitor or predator, or to pose in courtship, but do not move bipedally.


The fastest "walks" with a four-beat footfall pattern are actually the lateral forms of ambling gaits such as the running walk, singlefoot, and similar rapid but smooth intermediate speed gaits. If a horse begins to speed up and lose a regular four-beat cadence to its gait, the horse is no longer walking, but is beginning to either trot or pace. Elephants can move both forwards and backwards, but cannot trot, jump, or gallop. They use only two gaits when moving on land, the walk and a faster gait similar to running. In walking, the legs act as pendulums, with the hips and shoulders rising and falling while the foot is planted on the ground.


Jogging may also be used as a warm up or cool down for runners, preceding or following a workout or race. It is often used by serious runners as a means of active recovery during interval training. For example, a runner who completes a fast 400 metre repetition at a sub-5-minute mile pace (3 minute km) may drop to an 8-minute mile jogging pace (5 minute km) for a recovery lap. Jogging can be used as a method to increase endurance or to provide a means of cardiovascular exercise but with less stress on joints or demand on the circulatory system.

Limb (anatomy)

Many animals use limbs for locomotion, such as walking, running, or climbing. Some animals can use their front limbs (or upper limbs in humans) to carry and manipulate objects. Some animals can also use hind limbs for manipulation. Human legs and feet are specialized for two-legged locomotion – most other mammals walk and run on all four limbs. Human arms are weaker, but very mobile allowing us to reach at a wide range of distances and angles, and end in specialized hands capable of grasping and fine manipulation of objects. Limb development. Orthosis.

Iliotibial band syndrome

injured her left kneeIT Band Syndrome
ITBS can result from one or more of the following: training habits, anatomical abnormalities, or muscular imbalances: Training habits Abnormalities in leg/feet anatomy Muscle imbalance Iliotibial band syndrome is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia on the lateral aspect of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, as it moves from behind the femur to the front of the femur during activity.

Achilles tendon

Achillescalcaneal tendonheel cord
It provides elastic energy storage in hopping, walking, and running. Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by more than three-quarters. It has been suggested that the "absence of a well-developed Achilles tendon in the nonhuman African apes would preclude them from effective running, both at high speeds and over extended distances." The oldest-known written record of the tendon being named for Achilles is in 1693 by the Flemish/Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen. In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles."

Ancient Olympic Games

Olympic GamesOlympicOlympics
Leonidas of Rhodes (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos) (His record of 12 individual olympic titles was broken in 2016 by Michael Phelps who received his 13th original title. ). From Croton:. Astylos of Croton (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos). Milo of Croton (wrestling). Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling). From other cities/kingdoms:. Koroibos of Elis (stadion, the very first Olympic champion). Orsippus of Megara (running: diaulos). Theagenes of Thasos (boxer, pankratiast and runner). Alexander I of Macedon (running: stadion). Dionysodorus, Theban. Non-Greek:. Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot). Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot).

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral painpatellofemoral syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), also known as runner's knee, is a condition characterized by knee pain ranging from severe to mild discomfort seemingly originating from the contact of the posterior surface of the patella (back of the kneecap) with the femur (thigh bone). It is "anterior knee pain involving the patella and retinaculum that excludes other intra-articular and peri-patellar pathology". The population most at risk from PFPS are runners, cyclists, basketball players and other sports participants.

Stress fracture

hairline fracturestress fracturesfractures, stress
They may also occur in athletes completing high volume, high impact training, such as running or jumping sports. Stress fractures are also commonly reported in soldiers who march long distances. Muscle fatigue can also play a role in the occurrence of stress fractures. In a runner, each stride normally exerts large forces at various points in the legs. Each shock—a rapid acceleration and energy transfer—must be absorbed. Muscles and bones serve as shock absorbers. However, the muscles, usually those in the lower leg, become fatigued after running a long distance and lose their ability to absorb shock. As the bones now experience larger stresses, this increases the risk of fracture.

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
Unified Physics Theory Explains Animals' Running, Flying And Swimming.


trainersathletic shoesneaker
Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

List of water sports

water sportsAquaticswatersports
Modern pentathlon includes épée fencing, pistol shooting, swimming, a show jumping course on horseback, and cross country running. Rescue swimming is swimming with the goal to rescue scuba]]. Snorkeling is the practice of swimming at the surface (typically of the sea) being equipped with a mask, fins, and a short tube called a snorkel. Swimming, including pool swimming and open water swimming. Synchronized diving. Triathlon, a multi-sport event involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance events, usually a combination of swimming, cycling and running.

Sole (foot)

solesolessole of the foot
Gait (human). Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism.

Vibram FiveFingers

FiveFingersToe shoeToe shoes
Lieberman stated that "People who wear conventional running shoes tend to run with a significantly different strike than those who run in minimalist shoes or barefoot. By landing on the middle or front of the foot, barefoot runners have almost no impact collision." Lieberman et al.'s study was an experiment that involved five groups of runners from Kenya and the United States. The two American groups were adult athletes who had run with shoes since childhood, and those who habitually ran barefoot or with minimal footwear such as Vibram FiveFingers (mentioned by name in the study).

Child development stages

developmental milestonesdevelopmental stagesmilestones
Runs, starts, stops, and moves around obstacles with ease. Uses arm movement to increase running speed. Throws a ball overhand; distance and aim improving. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies, snakes, simple animals. Reproduces some shapes and letters. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. Paints and draws with purpose; may have an idea in mind, but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. Threads small wooden beads on a string. Can run in a circle. Can jump. Can recognize that certain words sound similar.


Animals will use different gaits for different speeds, terrain and situations. For example, horses show four natural gaits, the slowest horse gait is the walk, then there are three faster gaits which, from slowest to fastest, are the trot, the canter and the gallop. Animals may also have unusual gaits that are used occasionally, such as for moving sideways or backwards. For example, the main human gaits are bipedal walking and running, but they employ many other gaits occasionally, including a four-legged crawl in tight spaces. Mammals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion.