Individual sport

individual sportsindividualindividual events
Running. Cycling. Darts. Dance. Disc golf. Diving. Equestrian. Fencing. Figure skating. Golf. Gymnastics. Knife throwing. Mixed martial arts. Orienteering. Pool. Power lifting. Racquetball. Rock climbing. Rowing. Sailing. Shooting. Skiing. Skimboarding. Snowboarding. Snooker. Speed skating. Sport stacking. Squash. Surfing. Skateboarding. Swimming. Table Tennis. Table Football. T'ai chi ch'uan. Tenpin bowling. kungfu. Tennis. Triathlon. Wrestling. Jump Rope. Team camaraderie dominates individual sport. Team or Individual Sports? Detailed argument in favour of individual sports.

Kōkichi Tsuburaya

Kokichi TsuburayaTsuburaya Kōkichi
Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the race decisively, becoming the first man to defend his Olympic title in the event, having won in Rome in 1960, running barefoot. Tsuburaya entered the stadium second, but was overtaken on the final lap by the furious sprint of Britain's Basil Heatley and finished third, earning the bronze medal. Tsuburaya was mortified by the loss to Heatley, saying to fellow marathoner Kenji Kimihara, "I committed an inexcusable blunder in front of the Japanese people. I have to make amends by running and hoisting the Hinomaru in the next Olympics, in Mexico". Shortly after the Tokyo Olympics, Kokichi suffered from an ongoing back problem, known as lumbago.


A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait. Limping may be caused by pain, weakness, neuromuscular imbalance, or a skeletal deformity. The most common underlying cause of a painful limp is physical trauma; however, in the absence of trauma, other serious causes, such as septic arthritis or slipped capital femoral epiphysis, may be present. The diagnostic approach involves ruling out potentially serious causes via the use of X-rays, blood tests, and sometimes joint aspiration. Initial treatment involves pain management. A limp is the presenting problem in about 4% of children who visit hospital emergency departments. A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait.

Ethiopia at the Olympics

EthiopiaEthiopian Olympic team
Ethiopia first participated at the Olympic Games in 1956, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except for the 1976, 1984 and 1988 Games. Ethiopia also participated in the Winter Olympic Games for the first time at the 2006 Games in Turin.

Athletics at the 1964 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon

marathon1964Men's marathon
The men's marathon was part of the Athletics at the 1964 Summer Olympics program in Tokyo. It was held on 21 October 1964. 79 athletes from 41 nations entered, with 68 starting and 58 finishing.

Abebe Wakgira

Abebe Wakgira (also spelled Abebe Wakjira born 21 October 1921) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner. Abebe competed in the marathon at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, finishing seventh in 2:21.09.4. Both he and Abebe Bikila notably run and completed this Olympic marathon barefoot, after having found their team provided shoes uncomfortable.

Stadion (running race)

stadionstadion racestade
If the officials decided there was a tie, the race would be re-run. Runners started the race from a standing position, probably with their arms stretched out in front of them, instead of starting in a crouch like modern runners. They ran naked on a packed earth track. By the fifth century, the track was marked by a stone-starting line, the balbis. Advancements in this stone starting block led to it having a set of double grooves (10 – apart) in which the runner placed his toes. The design of these grooves were intended to give the runner leverage for his start. The winner of the stadion in the first Olympic Games was Coroebus of Elis. Running in Ancient Greece.

Lake Biwa Marathon

Lake Biwa Mainichi MarathonBiwako Mainichi MarathonOsaka
Key: The runners need to meet both of the following requirements, or have a special recommendation from the JAAF, to enter the competition. 1, The runner must be at least 19 years old on the day of competition. 2, The runner should have achieved one of the following time within two years from the date of the competition. * Marathoninfo - Lake Biwa Marathon (1)Marathon: 2 hours 30 minutes or less. (2)Half Marathon: 1 hour 10 minutes or less. (3)30km: 1 hour 40 minutes or less. (4)20km: 1 hour 5 minutes or less. (5)10000m: 31 minutes or less. Marathoninfo - Lake Biwa Marathon.

Abebe Bikila Stadium

Abebe Bikila
Abebe Bikila Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It is currently used mostly for football matches, on club level by Dedebit F.C. of the Ethiopian Premier League. The stadium has a capacity of 30,000 spectators. It is named after famed Olympic Marathon champion Abebe Bikila. The stadium hosted the final of the inaugural Ethiopian Super Cup in 2016. In March of 2017 the project to renovate the stadium was awarded to the Chinese firm Zhongmei Engineering Group Ltd. with the total cost of the project being 105.5 million Birr.

Waldemar Cierpinski

Although Gerard Nijboer from the Netherlands narrowed the gap in the last kilometre, Cierpinski sprinted the last 200 m to win his second consecutive Olympic gold medal and duplicate the feat of legendary Ethiopian Abebe Bikila of winning two straight Olympic marathons. Cierpinski finished third in the marathon in the 1983 World Championships in Athletics. He was denied a chance of an unprecedented third Olympic marathon win by the Eastern Bloc boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, which was Tit for tat for the United States-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.

Appian Way

Via AppiaVia Appia AnticaAppia
For the 1960 Summer Olympics, it served as part of the men's marathon course that was won by Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the road fell out of use; Pope Pius VI ordered its restoration. A new Appian Way was built in parallel with the old one in 1784 as far as the Alban Hills region. The new road is the Via Appia Nuova ("New Appian Way") as opposed to the old section, now known as Via Appia Antica. The old Appian Way close to Rome is now a free tourist attraction. It was extensively restored for Rome's Millennium and Great Jubilee celebrations.

Fissure of the nipple

jogger's nipplefissurenipple
The issue is commonly seen in athletes, such as runners or surfers who do not wear rash guards. Cracked nipple. List of cutaneous conditions.

Billy Mills

Mills, BillyWilliam Mervin "Billy" Mills
Clarke finished in 9th place, and Mills finished in 14th, in 2:22:55.4, approximately two-and-a-half minutes behind Clarke and about 10 minutes behind winner Abebe Bikila. Mills later set U.S. records for 10,000 m (28:17.6) and the three-mile run, and had a 5,000 m best of 13:41.4. In 1965, he and Gerry Lindgren both broke the world record for the six-mile run when they finished in a tie at the AAU National Championships, running 27:11.6. Mills is the co-founder of the nonprofit Running Strong for American Indian Youth with Eugene Krizek.

Evelyn Glennie

Dame Evelyn GlennieEvelyn Elizabeth Ann GlennieGlennie
She achieved a new kind of recognition in June 2016 when her name was the solution to an anagram clue in the Everyman Crossword in the UK's Observer Sunday newspaper - "Percussionist playing line gently, even with time running out (6,7)". * Touch the Sound (2004). Directed by Thomas Riedelsheimer, featuring a collaboration with Fred Frith.

Gait abnormality

gait abnormalitiesgaitgait ataxia
Likewise, difficulty in walking due to arthritis or joint pains (antalgic gait) sometimes resolves spontaneously once the pain is gone. Hemiplegic persons have circumduction gait, where the affected limb moves through an arc away from the body, and those with cerebral palsy often have scissoring gait. * Videos of various abnormal gaits Ataxia. Foot drop. Gait Abnormality Rating Scale. Limp.

Mountain running

mountain runnermountainLong distance mountain running
Mountain running is a sports discipline which takes place mainly off-road in mountainous terrain, but if there is significant elevation gain on the route, surfaced roads may be used. In this it differs from fell running; also its courses are more clearly marked and avoid dangerous sections. It is a form of trail running if it is run on unpaved surfaces. Mountain running is a combination of running, jogging, and walking, depending on how steep the trail is. It is recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations and governed by the World Mountain Running Association that since 1985 organizes world championships.

Flat feet

pes planusflat footflat-footed
It is generally assumed by running professionals (primarily including some physical trainers, podiatrists, and shoe manufacturers) that a person with flat feet tends to overpronate in the running form. However, some also assert that persons with flat feet may have an underpronating if they are not a neutral gait. With standard running shoes, these professionals claim, a person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee. Running in shoes with extra medial support or using special shoe inserts, orthoses, may help correct one's running form by reducing pronation and may reduce risk of injury.

Tony Franklin (kicker)

Tony FranklinFranklin
Franklin was best known for his barefoot kicking style. He played college football at Texas A&M. Franklin played college football at Texas A&M University where he set the record for the longest field goal in Division I-A history when he made a kick of 65 yards on October 16, 1976 against Baylor University. For a very brief period, this was tied for the overall record for all of American college football with J.T. Haxall of Princeton University, having made a 65-yard kick in 1882, but it did not last as Ove Johansson of Abilene Christian University, which at the time was a member of NAIA Division I, made a 69-yard field goal on the same day.

Outline of running

*Arthur Lydiard (1917–2004), runner and coach. *Lamine Diack, president of the IAAF since November 1999 * Exercise. Aerobic exercise. A sport. A component of athletics. An individual sport. A team sport (see relay race). A form of travel. Animal locomotion. Terrestrial locomotion. Backward running. Barefoot running. Sprinting. Jogging. ChiRunning. Level and Incline Running. Long-distance running – form of continuous running over distances of at least five kilometres (3.1 miles). Physiologically, it is largely aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength. Track and field. Sprints. 50 m. 55 m. 60 m. 100 m. 150 m. 200 m. 300 m. 400 m. 500 m.

Running energetics

Well-trained runners are often found to be significantly more economical than untrained individuals. Also, performance level has been observed to influence the energy expenditure of running at a given speed, even within groups of trained runners. For example, elite runners are often more economical than sub-elite or average runners. This suggests that running economy, or the energy cost of running at a given submaximal speed, may be a valid predictor of performance especially within homogeneous groups of trained runners. There is also evidence that intense endurance training can improve economy within an individual.


Hamboards are intended to be ridden barefoot, like surfboards. Most promotional materials, such as videos show barefoot riders Pete Hamborg, a Huntington Beach Fireman and father of five boys, created the first Hamboards as a garage hobby to allow his sons (and their friends) to surf the pavement on days that the actual surf was too big or too small. Years of tinkering and optimization led to the first Hamboards assembled in bulk. The design comprised bamboo or birch decks, fitted with commercially available branded trucks, wheels and bearings. For the next several years, Hamboards were assembled by friends and family from a small shop in Huntington Beach where they were also sold locally.

Gait Abnormality Rating Scale

Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS) is a videotape-based analysis of 16 facets of human gait. It has been evaluated as a screening tool to identify patients at risk for injury from falls. and has been used in remote gait evaluation. A modified version was published in 1996. The scale comprises three categories: Each item has a score range from 0 (good function) to 3 (poor function).

Florence Welch

Evelyn WelchFlo WelchFlorence
She is known for her distinctive clothing style, often performing concerts wearing light Gucci dresses, barefoot and without jewelry. Vogue described her style as Bohemian and called her "the queen of Bohemian style." When discussing her fashion style, Welch said that, "For the stage, it's The Lady of Shalott meets Ophelia...mixed with scary gothic bat lady. But in real life I'm kind of prim." 2011 saw Gucci dressing her for her summer tour and a performance at the Chanel runway show at Paris Fashion Week. Welch describes 1970s American drag queen troupe The Cockettes and French chanson singer Françoise Hardy as fashion mentors.

Level and incline running

Terrestrial locomotion by means of a running gait can be accomplished on level surfaces. However, in most outdoor environments an individual will experience terrain undulations requiring uphill running. Similar conditions can be mimicked in a controlled environment on a treadmill also. Additionally, running on inclines is used by runners, both distance and sprinter, to improve cardiovascular conditioning and lower limb strength. One complete gait cycle is defined as beginning when one foot comes into contact with the ground and continuing until that same foot contacts the ground again. The gait cycle can be further broken down into a number of component parts.


Astasia abasia
The term abasia literally means that the base of gait (the lateral distance between the two feet) is inconstant or unmeasurable. When seen in conversion disorder, the gait is bizarre and is not suggestive of a specific organic lesion: often the patient sways wildly and nearly falls, recovering at the last moment. An acquired total inability to stand and walk can be seen in true neurological diseases, including stroke, Parkinson's disease, damage to the cerebellum, Guillain–Barré syndrome, normal pressure hydrocephalus and many others.