Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
In 1960, Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the Olympic marathon in Rome barefoot after discovering that Adidas, the Olympic shoe supplier, had run out of shoes in his size. He was in pain because he had received shoes that were too small, so he decided to simply run barefoot; Bikila had trained running barefoot prior to the Olympics. He would go on to defend his Olympic title four years later in Tokyo while wearing shoes and setting a new world record. British runner Bruce Tulloh competed in many races during the 1960s while barefoot, and won the gold medal in the 1962 European Games 5,000 metre race.

Achilles tendon

Achillescalcaneal tendonheel cord
It provides elastic energy storage in hopping, walking, and running. Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by more than three-quarters. It has been suggested that the "absence of a well-developed Achilles tendon in the nonhuman African apes would preclude them from effective running, both at high speeds and over extended distances." The oldest-known written record of the tendon being named for Achilles is in 1693 by the Flemish/Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen. In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles."

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
Achilles tendinitis is most commonly found in individuals aged 30–40 Runners are susceptible, as well as anyone participating in sports, and men aged 30–39. Risk factors include participating in a sport or activity that involves running, jumping, bounding, and change of speed. Although Achilles tendinitis is mostly likely to occur in runners, it also is more likely in participants in basketball, volleyball, dancing, gymnastics and other athletic activities. Other risk factors include gender, age, improper stretching, and overuse.

Stress fracture

hairline fracturestress fracturesfractures, stress
They may also occur in athletes completing high volume, high impact training, such as running or jumping sports. Stress fractures are also commonly reported in soldiers who march long distances. Muscle fatigue can also play a role in the occurrence of stress fractures. In a runner, each stride normally exerts large forces at various points in the legs. Each shock—a rapid acceleration and energy transfer—must be absorbed. Muscles and bones serve as shock absorbers. However, the muscles, usually those in the lower leg, become fatigued after running a long distance and lose their ability to absorb shock. As the bones now experience larger stresses, this increases the risk of fracture.

Gait

gallopleaping gaitsaction
In spite of the differences in leg number shown in terrestrial vertebrates, according to the inverted pendulum model of walking and spring-mass model of running, "walks" and "runs" are seen in animals with 2, 4, 6, or more legs. The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms that produce distinct patterns of wake vortices. de:Gangart Bipedal gait cycle. Gait analysis. Gait abnormality. Gait (dog). Gait (human). Horse gait. Parkinsonian gait.

Sole (foot)

solesolessole of the foot
Gait (human). Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism.

Vibram FiveFingers

FiveFingersToe shoeToe shoes
The three Kenyan groups were adults who had never run in shoes until late adolescence, as well as two teenage groups: those that habitually wore shoes and those that always ran barefoot. The runners were instructed to run over a force plate that was embedded in a 25-meter track, and were recorded during the run using a three-dimensional infrared kinematic system. These measurements were used to assess the pattern with which the foot strikes the ground and how forcibly it does so. Barefoot running, which is similar to running with FiveFingers on, appears to decrease the risk of ankle sprain and plantar fasciitis.

Foot

feetinstepft
Gait analysis. Pes cavus. Sole (foot). Runner's toe, repetitive injury seen in runners. Ball (anatomy). Barefoot. Heel. Squatting position. Comparison of orthotics.

Terrestrial locomotion

locomotionterrestrialcrawling
Animals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion. Gaits can be grouped into categories according to their patterns of support sequence. For quadrupeds, there are three main categories: walking gaits, running gaits, and leaping gaits. In one system (relating to horses), there are 60 discrete patterns: 37 walking gaits, 14 running gaits, and 9 leaping gaits. Walking is the most common gait, where some feet are on the ground at any given time, and found in almost all legged animals. In an informal sense, running is considered to occur when at some points in the stride all feet are off the ground in a moment of suspension.

Bipedalism

bipedalbipedbipedally
A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait. Several lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats. Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment. Several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground. Many animals rear up on their hind legs whilst fighting or copulating. Some animals commonly stand on their hind legs, in order to reach food, to keep watch, to threaten a competitor or predator, or to pose in courtship, but do not move bipedally.

Walking

walkambulantwalkers
The fastest "walks" with a four-beat footfall pattern are actually the lateral forms of ambling gaits such as the running walk, singlefoot, and similar rapid but smooth intermediate speed gaits. If a horse begins to speed up and lose a regular four-beat cadence to its gait, the horse is no longer walking, but is beginning to either trot or pace. Elephants can move both forwards and backwards, but cannot trot, jump, or gallop. They use only two gaits when moving on land, the walk and a faster gait similar to running. In walking, the legs act as pendulums, with the hips and shoulders rising and falling while the foot is planted on the ground.

Jogging

joggersjoggerjog
Jogging may also be used as a warm up or cool down for runners, preceding or following a workout or race. It is often used by serious runners as a means of active recovery during interval training. For example, a runner who completes a fast 400 metre repetition at a sub-5-minute mile pace (3 minute km) may drop to an 8-minute mile jogging pace (5 minute km) for a recovery lap. Jogging can be used as a method to increase endurance or to provide a means of cardiovascular exercise but with less stress on joints or demand on the circulatory system.

Limb (anatomy)

limblimbsextremities
Many animals use limbs for locomotion, such as walking, running, or climbing. Some animals can use their front limbs (or upper limbs in humans) to carry and manipulate objects. Some animals can also use hind limbs for manipulation. Human legs and feet are specialized for two-legged locomotion – most other mammals walk and run on all four limbs. Human arms are weaker, but very mobile allowing us to reach at a wide range of distances and angles, and end in specialized hands capable of grasping and fine manipulation of objects. Limb development. Orthosis.

Iliotibial band syndrome

injured her left kneeIT Band Syndrome
ITBS can result from one or more of the following: training habits, anatomical abnormalities, or muscular imbalances: Training habits Abnormalities in leg/feet anatomy Muscle imbalance Iliotibial band syndrome is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia on the lateral aspect of the knee, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, as it moves from behind the femur to the front of the femur during activity.

Flat feet

pes planusflat footflat-footed
It is generally assumed by running professionals (primarily including some physical trainers, podiatrists, and shoe manufacturers) that a person with flat feet tends to overpronate in the running form. However, some also assert that persons with flat feet may have an underpronating if they are not a neutral gait. With standard running shoes, these professionals claim, a person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee. Running in shoes with extra medial support or using special shoe inserts, orthoses, may help correct one's running form by reducing pronation and may reduce risk of injury.

Ancient Olympic Games

Olympic GamesOlympicOlympics
Leonidas of Rhodes (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos) (His record of 12 individual olympic titles was broken in 2016 by Michael Phelps who received his 13th original title. ). From Croton:. Astylos of Croton (running: stadion, diaulos and hoplitodromos). Milo of Croton (wrestling). Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling). From other cities/kingdoms:. Koroibos of Elis (stadion, the very first Olympic champion). Orsippus of Megara (running: diaulos). Theagenes of Thasos (boxer, pankratiast and runner). Alexander I of Macedon (running: stadion). Dionysodorus, Theban. Non-Greek:. Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot). Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot).

Anatomical terms of motion

flexionextensionabduction
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the joints. Anatomists use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing the uniqueness of the movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes.

Triceps surae muscle

calf muscletriceps suraecalf
Stretches such as alternating calf raises can improve flexibility as well as mobilize legs before running. Calf muscles are also very suspectable to Fasciculations and people with Benign Fasciculation Syndrome often complain of twitching in either one or both calves. The term is pronounced. It is from Latin caput and sura meaning "three-headed [muscle] of the calf". The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femur directly above the knee. The deep (profundus) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia.

Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseosteoarthritic
However exercise, including running in the absence of injury, has not been found to increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Nor has cracking one's knuckles been found to play a role. The development of osteoarthritis is correlated with a history of previous joint injury and with obesity, especially with respect to knees. Changes in sex hormone levels may play a role in the development of osteoarthritis, as it is more prevalent among post-menopausal women than among men of the same age.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral painpatellofemoral syndrome
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), also known as runner's knee, is a condition characterized by knee pain ranging from severe to mild discomfort seemingly originating from the contact of the posterior surface of the patella (back of the kneecap) with the femur (thigh bone). It is "anterior knee pain involving the patella and retinaculum that excludes other intra-articular and peri-patellar pathology". The population most at risk from PFPS are runners, cyclists, basketball players and other sports participants.

Gastrocnemius muscle

gastrocnemiusCalvescalf
The gastrocnemius is primarily involved in running, jumping and other "fast" movements of leg, and to a lesser degree in walking and standing. This specialization is connected to the predominance of white muscle fibers (type II fast twitch) present in the gastrocnemius, as opposed to the soleus, which has more red muscle fibers (type I slow twitch) and is the primary active muscle when standing still, as determined by EMG studies. The plan to use the gastrocnemius in running, jumping, knee and plantar flexing is created in the precentral gyrus in the cerebrum of the brain. Once a plan is produced, the signal is sent to and down an upper motor neuron.