marathon racemarathon runnermen's marathon
Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" (increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant) during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen. Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy. Runners can store about 8 MJ or 2,000 kcal worth of glycogen in their bodies, enough for about 30 km/18–20 miles of running. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point. When glycogen runs low, the body must then obtain energy by burning stored fat, which does not burn as readily.

Triceps surae muscle

calf muscletriceps suraecalf
Stretches such as alternating calf raises can improve flexibility as well as mobilize legs before running. Calf muscles are also very suspectable to Fasciculations and people with Benign Fasciculation Syndrome often complain of twitching in either one or both calves. The term is pronounced. It is from Latin caput and sura meaning "three-headed [muscle] of the calf". * The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femur directly above the knee. The deep (profundus) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

patellofemoral syndromePatellofemoral painPatellofemoral disorders
Changes in activity patterns such as excessive increases in running mileage, repetitions such as running up steps and the addition of strength exercises that affect the patellofemoral joint are commonly associated with symptom onset. Excessively worn or poorly fitted footwear may be a contributing factor. To prevent recurrence the causal behaviour should be identified and managed correctly. The medical cause of PFPS is thought to be increased pressure on the patellofemoral joint.


arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseKnee osteoarthritis
However exercise, including running in the absence of injury, has not been found to increase the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Nor has cracking one's knuckles been found to play a role. The development of osteoarthritis is correlated with a history of previous joint injury and with obesity, especially with respect to knees. Changes in sex hormone levels may play a role in the development of osteoarthritis, as it is more prevalent among post-menopausal women than among men of the same age. Conflicting evidence exists for the differences in hip and knee osteoarthritis in African American and Caucasians.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Several terms redirect here. For the song by Ed Sheeran, see Bloodstream (song). For the album by Youves, see Cardio-Vascular.


GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Among the box office hits, there were films such as Chariots of the Gods (1970), Das Boot (The Boat, 1981), The Never Ending Story (1984), Otto – The Movie (1985), Run Lola Run (1998), Manitou's Shoe (2001), the Resident Evil series (2002–2016), Good Bye, Lenin! (2003), Head On (2004), The White Ribbon (2009), Animals United (2010), and Cloud Atlas (2012). The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films.

Gastrocnemius muscle

The gastrocnemius is primarily involved in running, jumping and other "fast" movements of leg, and to a lesser degree in walking and standing. This specialization is connected to the predominance of white muscle fibers (type II fast twitch) present in the gastrocnemius, as opposed to the soleus, which has more red muscle fibers (type I slow twitch) and is the primary active muscle when standing still, as determined by EMG studies. The plan to use the gastrocnemius in running, jumping, knee and plantar flexing is created in the precentral gyrus in the cerebrum of the brain. Once a plan is produced, the signal is sent to and down an upper motor neuron.


Seoul, South KoreaSeoul, KoreaHanseong
The nearby Namdaemun Market, named after the Namdaemun Gate, is the oldest continually running market in Seoul. Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold. Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products. Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. While Itaewon had catered mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city, Koreans now comprise the majority of visitors to the area.


OO 2 molecular oxygen
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust.

Sports medicine

sport medicinesports doctorsports medical
Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care.


physical exerciseexercisingphysical activity
Continuous aerobic exercise can induce a transient state of euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid), β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid), and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog). Preliminary evidence from a 2012 review indicated that physical training for up to four months may increase sleep quality in adults over 40 years of age.

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
Unified Physics Theory Explains Animals' Running, Flying And Swimming.

Puma (brand)

PumaPuma SEPuma AG
It also introduced the RS Computer shoe, with "RS" standing for "running system," an integrated device that measured runner's speed, pace, and caloric use. It sold poorly. In May 1989, Rudolf's sons Armin and Gerd Dassler agreed to sell their 72 percent stake in PUMA to Swiss business Cosa Liebermann SA. For the fiscal year 2003, the company had revenue of €1.274 billion. PUMA was the commercial sponsor for the 2002 anime series Hungry Heart: Wild Striker, with the jerseys and clothing sporting the PUMA brand. PUMA ranks as one of the top shoe brands with Adidas and Nike.


athletic shoetrainerssneaker
Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

Pronation of the foot

overpronationexcessive pronation of the footinward rolling of the foot
Specific patterns of lacing running shoes also reduce pronation. Pronation significantly decreases when the highest number of eyelets in the shoe is used for lacing and the shoes are tied as tight as possible, Several studies have shown that running barefoot can decrease pronation on the foot’s impact with the ground. This is thought to be because running shoes have extra weight for cushioning at the heel of the shoe, causing the runner to heel-strike more, which in turn results in increased pronation during the step. According to researchers at the Biomechanics Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, “The least amount of pronation takes place when running barefoot."

List of water sports

water sportsAquaticswatersports
Modern pentathlon includes épée fencing, pistol shooting, swimming, a show jumping course on horseback, and cross country running. Rescue swimming is swimming with the goal to rescue other swimmers. Snorkeling is the practice of swimming at the surface (typically of the sea) being equipped with a mask, fins, and a short tube called a snorkel. Swimming, including pool swimming and open water swimming. Synchronized diving. Triathlon, a multi-sport event involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance events, usually a combination of swimming, cycling and running. Water aerobics is aerobics in the water.

Fatuma Roba

Fatuma Roba (ፋጡማ ሮባ; born 18 December 1973) is an Ethiopian long distance runner, best known for being the first African woman to win a gold medal in the women's Olympic marathon race at the Atlanta 1996 Summer Olympics and for winning three successive Boston Marathons. Fatuma Roba was born on 18 December 1973 in Bekoji, Ethiopia. As Fatuma grew up, there were no female role models in long distance running within Ethiopia, only Abebe Bikila. While Fatuma was at school, she was not encouraged to run but decided to continue regardless. She was coached by Sentayehu Eshetu, who had previously worked with athletes such as Derartu Tulu.

Child development stages

developmental milestonesdevelopmental stagesmilestones
Runs, starts, stops, and moves around obstacles with ease. Uses arm movement to increase running speed. Throws a ball overhand; distance and aim improving. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies, snakes, simple animals. Reproduces some shapes and letters. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. Paints and draws with purpose; may have an idea in mind, but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. Threads small wooden beads on a string. Can run in a circle. Can jump. Can recognize that certain words sound similar.

Rome Marathon

Rome City MarathonRomeMaratona di Rome
The 2010 race was held in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Abebe Bikila's win at the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon race, a watershed moment in the development of East African competitive running. The 2010 men's winner, Siraj Gena, earned a 5000€ bonus for crossing the finish line barefoot in honour of Abebe Bikila's style. Key: * Official website List of winners. Città di Roma Marathon. Association of Road Racing Statisticians (2009-03-27). Retrieved on 2010-01-31.


Animals will use different gaits for different speeds, terrain and situations. For example, horses show four natural gaits, the slowest horse gait is the walk, then there are three faster gaits which, from slowest to fastest, are the trot, the canter and the gallop. Animals may also have unusual gaits that are used occasionally, such as for moving sideways or backwards. For example, the main human gaits are bipedal walking and running, but they employ many other gaits occasionally, including a four-legged crawl in tight spaces. Mammals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion.

List of long-distance runners

Long-distance runners
Abebe Bikila, double Olympic marathon champion in 1960 and 1964, most famous for winning the marathon in the 1960 Summer Olympics while running barefoot. Brahim Boulami, former steeplechase world record holder. Christopher Chataway, set a 5000 m world record of 13 minutes 51.6 seconds in 1954, and was a pacesetter when Roger Bannister ran the first ever sub-4 minute mile that same year. Ron Clarke, held the 10,000 meter world record for eight years. Eamonn Coghlan, World 5000m champion 1983.

Hitomi Niiya

On January 31, 2014, at a press conference, Niiya officially announced her retirement from running professionally, citing her foot injury as the cause. In November 2012, she was diagnosed with plantar fasciitis in her right foot and had decided then that the 2013 World Championships would be her last professional race. When asked to reflect back on her past career as a runner, she said, "Once I'm a granny I might think, 'Man that was hard,' but right now I have nothing but good memories" and that her favorite memory was winning the National High School Ekiden Championships while attending Kōjōkan High School. When asked about her future away from the sport, she said, "It's a complete blank.

Locomotor effects of shoes

Unshod condition is where one is without any shoes, or is barefoot. Much of the research on unshod locomotion has been conducted on barefoot running. However, some of the learned principles may apply to both running and walking. Barefoot runners run very differently from typical shod runners. Shod runners tend to heel strike due to the designs of the modern shoes, which have thick heels to reduce the impact force from the ground. When running barefoot, however, some runners tend to shift to a forefoot striking pattern to avoid such impact, which is equivalent to 2-3 times the body weight. The forefoot strike is where the forefoot lands first, followed by the heels coming down.


fashion footwearApparel/Footwear Retaildesigner
Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot. Some religious communities explicitly require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. In several cultures people remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In a similar context deliberately forcing other people to go barefoot while being shod oneself has been used to clearly showcase and convey one's superiority within a setting of power disparity. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers.

Hand walking

handstand walkwalking on his handshand balancers
Hand walking is an unusual form of human locomotion in which a person travels in a vertically inverted orientation with all body weight resting on the hands. It can be executed with legs fully extended or with variations such as stag, straddle or front splits. Hand walking is performed in various athletic activities, including acro dance and circus acrobatics.