Exercise

physical exercisephysical activityexercising
Continuous aerobic exercise can induce a transient state of euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid), β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid), and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog). Preliminary evidence from a 2012 review indicated that physical training for up to four months may increase sleep quality in adults over 40 years of age.

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
Unified Physics Theory Explains Animals' Running, Flying And Swimming.

Sneakers

trainersathletic shoesneaker
Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

Pronation of the foot

overpronationpronationexcessive pronation of the foot
Specific patterns of lacing running shoes also reduce pronation. Pronation significantly decreases when the highest number of eyelets in the shoe is used for lacing and the shoes are tied as tight as possible, Several studies have shown that running barefoot can decrease pronation on the foot’s impact with the ground. This is thought to be because running shoes have extra weight for cushioning at the heel of the shoe, causing the runner to heel-strike more, which in turn results in increased pronation during the step. According to researchers at the Biomechanics Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, “The least amount of pronation takes place when running barefoot."

List of water sports

water sportsAquaticswatersports
Modern pentathlon includes épée fencing, pistol shooting, swimming, a show jumping course on horseback, and cross country running. Rescue swimming is swimming with the goal to rescue scuba]]. Snorkeling is the practice of swimming at the surface (typically of the sea) being equipped with a mask, fins, and a short tube called a snorkel. Swimming, including pool swimming and open water swimming. Synchronized diving. Triathlon, a multi-sport event involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance events, usually a combination of swimming, cycling and running.

Child development stages

developmental milestonesdevelopmental stagesmilestones
Runs, starts, stops, and moves around obstacles with ease. Uses arm movement to increase running speed. Throws a ball overhand; distance and aim improving. Builds a tower with ten or more blocks. Forms shapes and objects out of clay: cookies, snakes, simple animals. Reproduces some shapes and letters. Holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp. Paints and draws with purpose; may have an idea in mind, but often has problems implementing it so calls the creation something else. Becomes more accurate at hitting nails and pegs with hammer. Threads small wooden beads on a string. Can run in a circle. Can jump. Can recognize that certain words sound similar.

Mammal

mammalsmammalianmammalia
Animals will use different gaits for different speeds, terrain and situations. For example, horses show four natural gaits, the slowest horse gait is the walk, then there are three faster gaits which, from slowest to fastest, are the trot, the canter and the gallop. Animals may also have unusual gaits that are used occasionally, such as for moving sideways or backwards. For example, the main human gaits are bipedal walking and running, but they employ many other gaits occasionally, including a four-legged crawl in tight spaces. Mammals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion.

Hitomi Niiya

On January 31, 2014, at a press conference, Niiya officially announced her retirement from running professionally, citing her foot injury as the cause. In November 2012, she was diagnosed with plantar fasciitis in her right foot and had decided then that the 2013 World Championships would be her last professional race. When asked to reflect back on her past career as a runner, she said, "Once I'm a granny I might think, 'Man that was hard,' but right now I have nothing but good memories" and that her favorite memory was winning the National High School Ekiden Championships while attending Kōjōkan High School. When asked about her future away from the sport, she said, "It's a complete blank.

Locomotor effects of shoes

Unshod condition is where one is without any shoes, or is barefoot. Much of the research on unshod locomotion has been conducted on barefoot running. However, some of the learned principles may apply to both running and walking. Barefoot runners run very differently from typical shod runners. Shod runners tend to heel strike due to the designs of the modern shoes, which have thick heels to reduce the impact force from the ground. When running barefoot, however, some runners tend to shift to a forefoot striking pattern to avoid such impact, which is equivalent to 2-3 times the body weight. The forefoot strike is where the forefoot lands first, followed by the heels coming down.

Footwear

Apparel/Footwear Retaildesignerfashion footwear
Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot. Some religious communities explicitly require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. In several cultures people remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In a similar context deliberately forcing other people to go barefoot while being shod oneself has been used to clearly showcase and convey one's superiority within a setting of power disparity. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers.

Hand walking

handstand walkwalking on his handshand balancers
Hand walking is an unusual form of human locomotion in which a person travels in a vertically inverted orientation with all body weight resting on the hands. It can be executed with legs fully extended or with variations such as stag, straddle or front splits. Hand walking is performed in various athletic activities, including acro dance and circus acrobatics.

Running in Ancient Greece

footracesrunnerRunning
Web. 5 December 2009. " Running." The Ancient Olympics. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 December 2009. " Running events." BBC History. BBC, n.d. Web. 5 December 2009.

Racing

raceracessprint finish
They can also be found in cross country and road running events, even up to the marathon distance. A runner's ability to sprint at the end of a race is also known as their finishing kick. Multisport races, such as the triathlon, often have running as the final section and sprint finish tactics are applied as they are in running-only events. In cycling, sprint finishes are an integral part of the sport and are used in both track cycling and road cycling. Cycling sprints are often highly tactical, particularly on the track, with cyclists occasionally coming to a near halt at points before reaching a high speed finish.

Discalced

AlcantarinesBarefeet
Clare of Assisi at first went barefoot, but later came to wear sandals and shoes. The Colettine and Capuchin nuns returned to the use of sandals. Sandals were also adopted by the Camaldolese monks of the Congregation of Monte Corona (1522), the Maronite Catholic monks, the Poor Hermits of St. Jerome of the Congregation of Blessed Peter of Pisa, the Augustinians of Thomas of Jesus (1532), the Barefooted Servites (1593), the Discalced Carmelites (1568), the Feuillants (Cistercians, 1575), the Trinitarians (1594), the Mercedarians (1604), and the Passionists. Discalced Augustinians. Discalced Carmelites. Discalced Mercedarians. Discalced at Catholic Encyclopedia. Discalced Carmelite.

Firewalking

fire-walkingfire walkingfirewalk
One is more likely to be burned when running through the embers since running pushes one's feet deeper into the embers, resulting in the top of the feet being burnt. Foreign objects in the embers may result in burns. Metal is especially dangerous since it has a high thermal conductivity. Embers which have not burned long enough can burn feet more quickly. Embers contain water, which increases their heat capacity as well as their thermal conductivity. The water must be evaporated already when the firewalk starts. Wet feet can cause embers to cling to them, increasing the exposure time. Fire eating. Timiti. Can you walk on hot coals in bare feet and not get burned? from The Straight Dope.

Aerobic exercise

aerobiccardiocardiovascular exercise
Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call "hitting the wall". Training, lower intensity levels, and carbohydrate loading may allow postponement of the onset of exhaustion beyond 4 hours. Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a moderate pace is an aerobic exercise, but sprinting is not. Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic.

Reactive arthritis

arthritis, reactivereiter diseasejoint inflammation
Patient can have enthesitis presenting as heel pain, Achilles tendinitis or plantar fasciitis, along with balanitis circinata (circinate balanitis), which involves penile lesions present in roughly 20 to 40 percent of the men with the disease. A small percentage of men and women develop small hard nodules called keratoderma blennorrhagicum on the soles of the feet and, less commonly, on the palms of the hands or elsewhere. The presence of keratoderma blennorrhagica is diagnostic of reactive arthritis in the absence of the classical triad. Subcutaneous nodules are also a feature of this disease.

Enthesopathy

disorderperiarthritis
Enthesopathies may take the form of spondyloarthropathies (joint diseases of the spine) such as ankylosing spondylitis, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendinitis. Enthesopathy can occur at the shoulder, elbow, wrist, carpus, hip, knee, ankle, tarsus, or heel bone, among other regions. Further examples include: Mainly by clinical examination and provocative tests by counter acting the muscle action. Experts state that the main stay of treatment is basically with passive stretching augmented with analgesics during acute attacks. Soft cushioned foot wear for plantar fasciitis, work modification are other modalities of preventing the disease progression.

Prison uniform

prison jumpsuitprison garbbee-striped convict’s shirt
Barefoot.

Cerebellum

cerebellarcerebellar cortexcerebellar nuclei
Damage to the upper part of the cerebellum tends to cause gait impairments and other problems with leg coordination; damage to the lower part is more likely to cause uncoordinated or poorly aimed movements of the arms and hands, as well as difficulties in speed. This complex of motor symptoms is called ataxia. To identify cerebellar problems, neurological examination includes assessment of gait (a broad-based gait being indicative of ataxia), finger-pointing tests and assessment of posture. If cerebellar dysfunction is indicated, a magnetic resonance imaging scan can be used to obtain a detailed picture of any structural alterations that may exist.

Foot whipping

bastinadofalakabastinadoed
Seizing and withholding the footwear from a person in a situation of imprisonment, which is commonplace in many countries (Barefoot#Imprisonment and slavery), often has a disconsolating and victimizing effect on the individual. As bare feet are traditionally regarded as a token of subjection and captivity, the unaccustomed and largely reluctant exposure is often perceived as humiliating or oppressive. The increased physical vulnerability by having to remain barefoot often leads to trepidation and the feeling of insecurity. This measure alone can therefore already cause significant distress. This circumstance is usually aggravated if the bare feet are the target for corporal punishment.

Heel pad syndrome

Condition can often be attributed to a blow to the heel – landing hard while barefoot on a hard surface, jumping in dress shoes with a hard heel, stepping on a stone while running. Pain is aggravated by walking barefoot on hard surfaces like ceramic tile, concrete, hardwood floors, etc.

Cadence (gait)

cadenceleg turnoverrunning cadence
. * Gait

Orthotics

orthosesbracesbrace
Custom-made foot orthoses are effective at reducing pain for people with painful high-arched feet, and may be effective for people with rheumatoid arthritis, plantar fasciitis or hallux valgus ("bunions"). For children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) custom-made and pre-fabricated foot orthoses may also reduce foot pain. Foot orthoses may also be used in conjunction with properly fitted orthopaedic footwear in the prevention of foot ulcers in the at-risk diabetic foot. An ankle–foot orthosis (AFO) is an orthosis or brace that encumbers the ankle and foot.