1960 Summer Olympics

19601960 Olympic Games1960 Rome
Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal. Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. Rafer Johnson defeated his rival and friend C.K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time.

Running in Ancient Greece

Web. 5 December 2009. " Running." The Ancient Olympics. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 December 2009. " Running events." BBC History. BBC, n.d. Web. 5 December 2009.


Clare of Assisi at first went barefoot, but later came to wear sandals and shoes. The Colettine and Capuchin nuns returned to the use of sandals. Sandals were also adopted by the Camaldolese monks of the Congregation of Monte Corona (1522), the Maronite Catholic monks, the Poor Hermits of St. Jerome of the Congregation of Blessed Peter of Pisa, the Augustinians of Thomas of Jesus (1532), the Barefooted Servites (1593), the Discalced Carmelites (1568), the Feuillants (Cistercians, 1575), the Trinitarians (1594), the Mercedarians (1604), and the Passionists. Discalced Augustinians. Discalced Carmelites. Discalced Mercedarians. Discalced at Catholic Encyclopedia. Discalced Carmelite.


raceracessprint finish
They can also be found in cross country and road running events, even up to the marathon distance. A runner's ability to sprint at the end of a race is also known as their finishing kick. Multisport races, such as the triathlon, often have running as the final section and sprint finish tactics are applied as they are in running-only events. In cycling, sprint finishes are an integral part of the sport and are used in both track cycling and road cycling. Cycling sprints are often highly tactical, particularly on the track, with cyclists occasionally coming to a near halt at points before reaching a high speed finish.

Mamo Wolde

Degaga "Mamo" Wolde ({lang-amh| ማሞ ወልዴ}}; 12 June 1932 – 26 May 2002) was an Ethiopian long distance runner who competed in track, cross-country, and road running events. He was the winner of the marathon at the 1968 Summer Olympics. Degaga was born on 12 June 1932 in Ada'a to an Oromo family. His younger brother, Demissie Wolde (b. 8 March 1937), also became an international distance running star. In 1951, Degaga moved to Addis Ababa. At his first Olympic appearance in 1956, Degaga competed in the 800 m, 1,500 m and the 4x400 relay. He did not compete in the 1960 Summer Olympics, when Abebe Bikila became the first Ethiopian to win a gold medal.


fire walkingfire-walkingFire Walkers
One is more likely to be burned when running through the embers since running pushes one's feet deeper into the embers, resulting in the top of the feet being burnt. Foreign objects in the embers may result in burns. Metal is especially dangerous since it has a high thermal conductivity. Embers which have not burned long enough can burn feet more quickly. Embers contain water, which increases their heat capacity as well as their thermal conductivity. The water must be evaporated already when the firewalk starts. Wet feet can cause embers to cling to them, increasing the exposure time. Fire eating. Timiti. Can you walk on hot coals in bare feet and not get burned? from The Straight Dope.

1964 Summer Olympics

19641964 Tokyo Olympics1964 Tokyo
Abebe Bikila (Ethiopia) became the first person to win the Olympic marathon twice. New Zealand's Peter Snell became the only person to win gold medals in both the 800 m and 1500 m in the same Olympics. Billy Mills, an unfancied runner, became the only American to win the gold in the men's 10,000 m. British runner Ann Packer set a world record in becoming the surprise winner of the 800 m, having never run the distance at international level before the Games. Bob Hayes won the 100 metre title in a time of 10.06 seconds, equaling the world record, and set the current record for the fastest relay leg in the 4×100 m.


Enthesopathies may take the form of spondyloarthropathies (joint diseases of the spine) such as ankylosing spondylitis, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendinitis. Enthesopathy can occur at the shoulder, elbow, wrist, carpus, hip, knee, ankle, tarsus, or heel bone, among other regions. Further examples include: Mainly by clinical examination and provocative tests by counter acting the muscle action. Experts state that the mainstay of treatment is basically passive stretching augmented with analgesics during acute attacks. Soft cushioned foot wear for plantar fasciitis and work modification are other modalities of preventing the disease progression.

Aerobic exercise

aerobiccardiocardiovascular exercise
When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking. British physiologist Archibald Hill introduced the concepts of maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen debt in 1922. German physician Otto Meyerhof and Hill shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work related to muscle energy metabolism. Building on this work, scientists began measuring oxygen consumption during exercise.


This aspect can be viewed as an informal law in areas where slavery existed as any person sighted barefoot in public would be conclusively regarded as a slave. In certain societies this rule is valid to this day. As with the Tuareg, where slavery is still unofficially practiced, their slaves are constantly forced to remain barefoot as a recognition mark. Mainly through their bare feet their societal status and rank opposite their owners is displayed to the public in a plainly visible way. Another widespread practice was branding the slaves either to generally mark them as property or as punishment usually reserved for fugitives.

Reactive arthritis

arthritis, reactiveReactive arthropathyreiter disease
Patient can have enthesitis presenting as heel pain, Achilles tendinitis or plantar fasciitis, along with balanitis circinata (circinate balanitis), which involves penile lesions present in roughly 20 to 40 percent of the men with the disease. A small percentage of men and women develop small hard nodules called keratoderma blennorrhagicum on the soles of the feet and, less commonly, on the palms of the hands or elsewhere. The presence of keratoderma blennorrhagica is diagnostic of reactive arthritis in the absence of the classical triad. Subcutaneous nodules are also a feature of this disease.

Prison uniform

prison jumpsuitprison garbbee-striped convict’s shirt

National day of mourning

national mourningday of mourningnational days of mourning
Abebe Bikila (Ethiopia). Eusébio (Portugal). Ferenc Puskás (Hungary). Ayrton Senna Brazil had three days of mourning. Charles Aznavour (Armenia). Karel Gott (Czech Republic). Victims of the Armenian Genocide are remembered every year in Armenia on Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day on 24 April. Victims of the 19th century Circassian Genocide are remembered in the Circassian Day of Mourning. Victims of the Soviet deportations from Estonia (1941-1949) are remembered every year on 14 June in Estonia. Victims of the Soviet deportations from Latvia (1941-1949) are remembered every year on 14 June in Latvia.

Marathons at the Olympics

Olympic marathonMarathondiscipline
The men's marathon world record has been improved several times at the Olympics: in 1908, 1920, and then at successive Olympics by Abebe Bikila in 1960 and 1964. Abebe Bikila and Waldemar Cierpinski are the only athletes to have won two Olympic gold medals in the marathon. No athlete has won more than two medals of any colour. Ethiopia has won the most gold medals in the event, with six, while the United States has the greatest medal total with twelve overall.


cerebellarcerebellar cortexcerebellar nuclei
Damage to the upper part of the cerebellum tends to cause gait impairments and other problems with leg coordination; damage to the lower part is more likely to cause uncoordinated or poorly aimed movements of the arms and hands, as well as difficulties in speed. This complex of motor symptoms is called ataxia. To identify cerebellar problems, neurological examination includes assessment of gait (a broad-based gait being indicative of ataxia), finger-pointing tests and assessment of posture. If cerebellar dysfunction is indicated, a magnetic resonance imaging scan can be used to obtain a detailed picture of any structural alterations that may exist.

Cadence (gait)

cadenceleg turnoverrunning cadence
. * Gait

Foot whipping

Barefoot. Physical restraint. Prisoners' rights. Submissive.

Onitsuka Tiger

OnitsukaOnitsuka Co
Onitsuka Tiger worked with marathon runner Toru Terasawa in 1953 to develop a running shoe that would keep long distance runners from developing blisters. Ethiopian runner Abebe Bikila started wearing Onitsuka Tiger shoes in 1957, the first time in his running career he had ever worn shoes, convinced by Onitsuka that they would be superior to his barefoot style. The shoes were also worn in 1958 by short-distance runner Oliver Skilton when he won bronze in the Continental European games. In 1959, the sneakers brand launched the Magic Runner with improved technology on ventilation to prevent blisters and build comfort.

Heel pad syndrome

Condition can often be attributed to a blow to the heel – landing hard while barefoot on a hard surface, jumping in dress shoes with a hard heel, stepping on a stone while running. Pain is aggravated by walking barefoot on hard surfaces like ceramic tile, concrete, hardwood floors, etc.

Sport of athletics

Runner's World has been in print since 1966 and the Track & Field Magazine of Japan (Rikujyo Kyogi Magazine) is another long-running publication. Athletics events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Running commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. In the obverse of the coin, a modern athlete figure appears in the foreground, shown in the starting position, while in the background two ancient runners are carved in a manner that gives the appearance of a coin that is "worn" by time. This scene originally appeared on a black-figure vase of the 6th century BC. F = Field athletes.

Croagh Patrick

Tochar PhádraigBen GoramCroagh Patrick Visitor Center
From ancient times pilgrims have climbed the mountain barefoot, as an act of penance, a practice that still continues today. Some pilgrims carry out 'rounding rituals', in which they pray while walking sunwise around features on the mountain. In medieval times, pilgrims carried stones as an act of penance, or to represent a prayer intention. The stones were carried to the cairn on top of the mountain, or to the Cairn on the "saddle" of the mountain, which marks the unofficial "half-way" point at the base of the summit.

Aurèle Vandendriessche

Aurele VandendriesscheAureel Vandendriessche
Aurèle Vandendriessche (born 4 July 1932) is a retired Belgian marathon runner, who won silver medals at the 1962 and 1966 European Championships. He competed at the 1956, 1960 and 1964 Olympics with the best result of seventh place in 1964. Twice winner of the Boston Marathon (1963 and 1964), he recorded his best time there, 2:17:44 in 1965, while finishing fourth. At the 1960 Olympics, Abebe Bikila, followed barefoot at the rear of the lead pack, which was moving at a scorching pace and included Arthur Keily, Bakir Benaïssa, Rhadi Ben Abdesselam who was the reigning world cross-country champion, Bertie Messitt, the marathon world record holder Sergey Popov, and Vandendriessche.


Custom-made foot orthoses are effective at reducing pain for people with painful high-arched feet, and may be effective for people with rheumatoid arthritis, plantar fasciitis or hallux valgus ("bunions"). For children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) custom-made and pre-fabricated foot orthoses may also reduce foot pain. Foot orthoses may also be used in conjunction with properly fitted orthopaedic footwear in the prevention of foot ulcers in the at-risk diabetic foot. An ankle–foot orthosis (AFO) is an orthosis or brace that encumbers the ankle and foot.


Conditions for which ultrasound may be used for treatment include the follow examples: ligament sprains, muscle strains, tendonitis, joint inflammation, plantar fasciitis, metatarsalgia, facet irritation, impingement syndrome, bursitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and scar tissue adhesion. Ultrasound also has therapeutic applications, which can be highly beneficial when used with dosage precautions. Relatively high power ultrasound can break up stony deposits or tissue, accelerate the effect of drugs in a targeted area, assist in the measurement of the elastic properties of tissue, and can be used to sort cells or small particles for research.

Mile run

MileOne mile1 Mile
Thus, the history of the mile run began in England and it initially found usage within the wagered running contests of the 18th and 19th century. Such contests would attract large numbers of spectators and gamblers – so many that the activity became a professional one for its more-established participants. The mile run was at the heart of the divide between professional and amateur sports in the late 19th century. Separate world record categories were kept for amateurs and professionals, with professional runners providing the faster times.