3rd Battalion, 9th Marines

3rd Battalion 9th Marines3rd Battalion2nd Battalion, 9th Marines
The battalion was initially deployed to Cape Paerata, New Zealand in February 1943 and then moved to Guadalcanal in July of that year. 3/9 participated in the following campaigns during World War Two: Bougainville, Northern Solomons, Guam, and Iwo Jima. At Iwo Jima, 3/9 had the distinction of making the only battalion size unsupported, non-illuminated night attack against the Japanese in the Pacific War. Attesting to the ferocity of combat on Iwo Jima, all 22 of the battalion's officers who landed on D-Day were killed or wounded by the end of the battle. For their service at Iwo Jima, the battalion received the Presidential Unit Citation. The battalion was disbanded on 31 October 1945.

Pacific War

Pacific TheaterPacificPacific Theatre
However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when the Japanese invaded Thailand and attacked the British colonies of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter aided by Thailand and to a lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy.

22nd Marine Regiment (United States)

22nd Marine Regiment22nd Marines22nd
This greatly reduced the number of experienced Marines, corpsmen, and leaders within the regiment just prior to the Battle of Guam in July. For the invasion of the island of Guam, the 4th Marine Regiment, 22nd Marine Regiment, and the Army's 305th Infantry Regiment, formed the core of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade which was reactivated on April 18, 1944, on Guadalcanal. Colonel Walker was replaced with regiment's Executive officer, Colonel Merlin F.

Mariana Islands

MarianasMarianas IslandsMariana
Historically, the southern village of Umatac, Guam has been credited as the site of the Spanish landing, however, scholarly study of the navigator's diary, now kept in preservation in the Philippines, revealed a drawing of the islands with a tiny island to the south of a much larger island above it. The described placement of the islands made it much more likely that Magellan had actually sailed between Guam and Cocos Island, and not Guam and Rota, as originally thought. This discovery meant that Magellan could not have landed in Umatac, but more likely in a northern location like Tanguisson or Tumon Bay.

Marine defense battalions

3rd Defense BattalionDefense Battalion4th Defense Battalion
By summer, they landed in the Mariana Islands, including Saipan, and Guam. During that time, Commandant of the Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Alexander Vandegrift began to scale back on defense battalions. Two were disbanded, and the remaining began to gradually focus on anti-aircraft defense, rather than coastal defense. Only the 6th, the 51st, and the 52nd remained designated as defense battalions; the rest had become anti-aircraft units under Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. In late 1944, the 2nd, 5th, 8th, and 16th Antiaircraft Artillery (formerly Defense) Battalions formed the 1st Provisional Antiaircraft Artillery Group in preparation to invade the Japanese Home Islands.

Boeing B-29 Superfortress

B-29 SuperfortressB-29Boeing B-29
Operations followed against Guam and Tinian, with all three islands secured by August. Naval construction battalions (Seabees) began at once to construct air bases suitable for the B-29, commencing even before the end of ground fighting. In all, five major air fields were built: two on the flat island of Tinian, one on Saipan, and two on Guam. Each was large enough to eventually accommodate a bomb wing consisting of four bomb groups, giving a total of 180 B-29s per airfield. These bases could be supplied by ship, and unlike the bases in China, were not vulnerable to attacks by Japanese ground forces.

21st Marine Regiment (United States)

21st Marine Regiment21st Marines1st Battalion
During the war, the regiment took part in the Battle of Bougainville, Battle of Guam (Fig. 1) and the Battle of Iwo Jima. Following the Japanese surrender, 21st Marines moved to Guam where they were inactivated on December 20, 1945. On Iwo the 21st RCT relieved the decimated 23rd on D-plus3 That placed the 21st in the 4th Marines ZofA assigned to yellow beach 2.(Fig. 2) The front lines were in the vicinities of Motoyama Airfields #1 and #2. On D-plus6 the Regiment reverted to the 3rd Marine Divisions control and was passed through by the 9th Marines. * Navy Unit Commendation, 21st Marine Regiment(and all units attached to or serving with) Lowell E. English - Major General. Hershel W.

Rafael Peralta

On November 15, 2004, the 25-year-old Peralta deployed to Iraq as a sergeant and scout team leader assigned to Company A, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment to clear houses in Operation Phantom Fury. Although Peralta was not assigned to enter the buildings, he did so. Peralta led his team through three house-clearings before charging into the fourth house. After finding two rooms empty on the ground floor he opened a third door and was hit multiple times with AK-47 fire, leaving him severely wounded. Peralta fell to the floor, moving aside to enable the Marines behind him to return fire.

2nd Battalion, 4th Marines

2nd Battalion 4th Marines2nd Battalion2/4
During the remainder of World War II the battalion saw action in the Battles of Guam (2/4 was the first ashore) and of Okinawa. On Okinawa, the battalion was involved in the fighting for the Motobu Peninsula, the capture of Naha, and the assault on the Oruku Peninsula. Once organized resistance ended, the regiment was redeployed to Guam to prepare for the assault on mainland Japan. Following the surrender of Japan, Fourth Marines seized and occupied the large naval base at Yokosuka in Tokyo Bay. This gesture was designed to avenge the capture of the "Old Fourth" on Corregidor.

Ray A. Robinson

Butler), action at Guam and Iwo Jima in World War II, sea duty, and China service between World Wars. He also served in 1929 as officer in charge of the Marine detachment which built President Herbert Hoover's Rapidan Camp mountain retreat near Criglersville, Virginia.

Operation Keystone Cardinal

departed South Vietnamleft South VietnamKeystone Cardinal
Operation Keystone Cardinal was the withdrawal of the 3rd Marine Division from South Vietnam, taking place from 30 September to 27 November 1969.

Robert E. Cushman Jr.

Robert E. Cushman, Jr.Robert E. CushmanRobert Cushman
During the two years he held that post, he led his battalion repeatedly into combat, earning the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V" on Bougainville, the Navy Cross during the Battle of Guam, and the Legion of Merit with Combat "V" during the Battle of Iwo Jima, where two of his companies were nearly wiped out (10 survivors – 3 from F Company, and 7 from E Company) when they were trapped in a defilade later called "Cushman's Pocket." Upon his return to the United States in May 1945, Cushman was stationed at Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, for three years.

Arthur H. Butler

The regiment under Butler's command participated in the combats on Guam until August 10, when island was declared secured and subsequently conducted jungle patrols during the search for disorganized remnants of the enemy. For his service on Guam, Butler was decorated with the Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat. Butler remained with the 21st Marines until November 30, 1944, when he was relieved by his Naval Academy classmate, Hartnoll J. Withers and attached to the staff, 3rd Marine Division under Major General Graves B. Erskine as Operations and Planning Officer.

Jaime Sabater Sr.

Jaime Sabater, Sr.Jaime Sabater
(May 28, 1904 – April 24, 1955) was a United States Marine Corps officer who commanded the 1st Battalion 9th Marines during the Bougainville amphibious operations in World War II. Sabater was also the executive officer of the 9th Marines during the Battle of Guam in 1944. Sabater was born and raised in San Juan, Puerto Rico. There he received his primary and secondary education before he was appointed to the United States Naval Academy on July 9, 1923, by Félix Córdova Dávila, the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico in Washington D.C.. He graduated from the academy in the Class of 1927 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps.

3rd Battalion, 4th Marines

3rd Battalion 4th Marines3rd Battalion3d Battalion, 4th Marines
Forming part of the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade and later 6th Marine Division, the 4th Marines fought in the battles of Guam and Okinawa. On April 14, 1965 3rd battalion 4th Marines was deployed to an area near Chu Lai, South Vietnam. Two companies were sent north to Phu Bai to secure a small airfield just 8 miles south of Huế City. First contact was made on April 22 southwest of Da Nang with a VC unit. The Marines at Phu Bai made their first contact on April 24. Both sides lost 2 men. These patrols continued until the whole battalion re-deployed back to Okinawa on December 24, 1965. In March 1966, the Battalion returned to the Phu Bai, Huế City areas.

1st Provisional Marine Brigade

1st Marine BrigadeProvisional Marine Brigade1st Brigade
The 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, south of the east-west road, gained its objective when North Korean soldiers broke under air attack. Air strikes, artillery concentrations, and machine gun and rifle fire of the 1st Battalion now caught North Korean reinforcements in open rice paddies moving up from the second ridge and killed most of them. In the afternoon, the 1st Battalion advanced to Hill 91. North of the road the 2nd Battalion had a harder time, encountering heavy North Korean fire when it reached the northern tip of Hill 116, 2 mi west of Yongsan. The North Koreans held the hill during the day, and at night D Company of the 5th Marines was isolated there.

Merlin F. Schneider

Schneider led his regiment during the recapture of Guam in the Marianas in July 1944 and distinguished himself during that operation. He was decorated with the Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat.

Allen H. Turnage

In 1935, General Turnage was appointed director of the Marine Officers' Basic School at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, following which he served with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, as battalion commander and regimental executive officer, respectively. Ordered overseas in 1939, he served as commanding officer of Marine Forces in North China, and commanding officer of the Marine detachment, American embassy, Peiping. He returned to Headquarters Marine Corps in April 1941, and was serving as director of the Division of Plans and Policies when World War II broke out.

Henry Louis Larsen

Henry L. Larsen
During the war he served as military governor of both American Samoa and Guam. On Guam he faced an island with large infrastructure damage from the two battles that had taken place there and undertook a project to transform Guam into a forward military base housing large numbers of troops. In the single largest construction project ever undertaken by the United States Navy, Larsen converted the island into an air and sea base that frequently launched attacks on the main Japanese islands. He also oversaw the capturing of remaining guerrilla Japanese forces and contended with race rioting between white and African American sailors and Marines.

Alan Shapley

He was awarded the Silver Star for his gallantry on December 7, 1941, and later the Navy Cross for his extraordinary heroism during the Battle of Guam. His last command was as the commanding general of the Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. The general, who competed in football, basketball and track at the United States Naval Academy, was active in athletics throughout his career. He coached and played on the All-Marine Corps football teams of 1927 and 1928, refereed U.S. Fleet boxing events for three years, and coached or participated in football, basketball, baseball and boxing at most of his duty stations before World War II. Alan Shapley was born on February 9, 1903, in New York City.

Apra Harbor

Apra Harbor, GuamApraApra, Guam
While Hagatna was the capital of Guam, Summay became the commercial and financial part of town. During the whaling period, Apra was considered to be one of the best ports in the Pacific. As the whaling era came to an end Guam's economy was in decline. Guam's economy started to improve when Spain's reign came to an end. U.S. naval Captain Henry Glass claimed Guam as part of the U.S. on June 20, 1898. Guam connected with the rest of the world in 1903 when it became the site of telegraph cable stations. Since 1898, ships that burned coal, and later petroleum products, used Guam's ports, mainly Apra.

19th Marine Regiment (United States)

19th Marine Regiment19th Marines19th Marine Engineer Regiment
From there it went to Guadalcanal in preparation for the Battle of Guam (1944). It landed in the assault on Guam with Companies C, F, & I attached to the 3rd Marine Regimental Combat Team, Companies A, D, & G attached to the 9th Marine Regimental Combat Team and Companies B, E, & H attached to the 21st Marine Regimental Combat Team. The regiment was decommissioned on 17 August. The 25th NCB was returned to the Navy and assigned to the 5th Naval Construction Brigade, remaining on Guam until the war ended. With the inactivation of the 19th Marine Regiment the 3rd Engineer Battalion and the 3rd Pioneer Battalion were posted directly to the 3rd Marine Division.

Japanese occupation of Guam

subjected the indigenous people of GuamGuamJapanese-held
The Japanese occupation of Guam was the period in the history of Guam between 1941 and 1944 when Imperial Japanese forces occupied Guam during World War II. The island was renamed Ōmiya-Jima (Great Shrine Island). The Battle of Guam in 1941 was an engagement during the Pacific War in World War II which took place on 8 December 1941 on Guam in the Mariana Islands between the Japanese and Allied forces. During the battle, the was scuttled after shooting down a Japanese plane. Naval Governor of Guam George McMillin surrendered to the Japanese forces around 7:00 a.m. on 10 December 1941, ceding control of the island.

Second Battle of Fallujah

Operation Phantom FuryBattle of FallujahFallujah
Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3rd Marines, 1st Battalion 12th Marines Charlie Battery's artillery, the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/2nd Infantry,2nd Battalion/12th Cavalry and 1st battalion 6th field artillery. About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault. All were supported by 3D Marine Aircraft Wing fixed and rotary aircraft, Navy, and Air Force fixed wing aircraft and U.S. Army artillery battalions and USSOCOM Sniper Elements. The 850-strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U.S. and Iraqi forces with the encirclement of Fallujah.

Da Nang Air Base

Da Nang ABDa NangDanang Air Base
On 8 March 1965, in coordination with the amphibious landing of the 9th Marine Regiment at Red Beach north of Da Nang, the 1st Battalion 3rd Marines landed at Da Nang AB from Naha Air Base, this marked the first deployment of US combat troops to South Vietnam. On 9 March HMM-365 was replaced by HMM-162. The 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade (9th MEB) were tasked with defending Da Nang AB, while overall responsibility for defending the Da Nang area remained with the ARVN, SHUFLY was absorbed into Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16), part of 9th MEB. On 10 April, F-4Bs from VMFA-531 landed at Da Nang AB, this would be the first USMC fighter-bomber squadron deployed to Vietnam.