Krishna III

King Krishna IIIJura recordKrishna Vallabha
In c. 949, he defeated the Cholas decisively in a battle of Takkolam in the North Arcot district. Krishna III was helped by his Western Ganga feudatory Butuga II in these campaign. Chola prince Rajaditya Chola was killed "while seated on his elephant with a well-aimed arrow". From the famous Atakur inscription it is known that Krishna III gave Buthuga II extensive Ratta territories near Banavasi in return for this victory. With the fall of the Cholas, he was able to extract tribute from the Pandyas and the Chera ruler of Kerala. He also obtained the submission of the King of Ceylon, extracted tributes from the Manadlika rulers, and erected a pillar of victory at Ramesvaram.

Rajaditya Chola

According to the Atakur inscription, during the battle, Rajaditya was struck while seated atop his war elephant by an arrow from prince Butuga II. The Chola prince died instantly. The Chola army was subsequently defeated and retreated in disorder. The collapse of the Chola resistance after the battle of Takkolam lead to the virtual destruction of the Chola empire. Here is an excerpt from Atakur inscription : Hail! While the samvatsara named Saumya, the eight hundred and seventy second [in] the centuries of years that have gone by from the time of the Saka king, was current:- ''Hail!

Western Ganga dynasty

Western GangaGangaGanga Dynasty
After an uneventful period, Butuga II ascended the throne in 938 with the help of Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha III (whose daughter he married). He helped the Rashtrakutas win decisive victories in Tamilakam in the battle of Takkolam against the Chola Dynasty. With this victory, the Rashtrakutas took control of modern northern Tamil Nadu. In return for their valour, the Gangas were awarded extensive territories in the Tungabhadra river valley. King Marasimha II who came to power in 963 aided the Rashtrakutas in victories against the Gurjara Pratihara King Lalla and the Paramara kings of Malwa in Central India.

Rashtrakuta dynasty

RashtrakutaRashtrakutasRashtrakuta Empire
The Atakur inscription (hero stone, virgal) was made for the favourite hound of the feudatory Western Ganga King Butuga II that died fighting a wild boar in a hunt. There are records of game preserves for hunting by royalty. Astronomy and astrology were well developed as subjects of study, and there were many superstitious beliefs such as catching a snake alive proved a woman's chastity. Old persons suffering from incurable diseases preferred to end their lives by drowning in the sacred waters of a pilgrim site or by a ritual burning.

Chola dynasty

CholaCholasChola Empire
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire (Ashoka Major Rock Edict No.13). As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.

Arakeshvara Temple, Hole Alur

Arakeshvara Temple
It was constructed by King Butuga II around 949 A.D. to celebrate his victory over the Cholas of Tanjore in the historically important battle of Takkolam. It was a military engagement between crown prince Rajaditya, son of the Chola King Parantaka I, and King Butaga II (a powerful vassal of the Rashtrakuta emperor Krishna III). The temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the central Archaeological Survey of India. The temple has a simple plan characteristic of Western Ganga constructions.

Atakur inscription

It is known from this inscription which is dated to 949-950 C.E (saka 872), King Butuga II had a favorite hound called "Kali" which helped a warrior named Manlarata (or Manalera, an aid-de-camp of Butuga II) fight the Chola king Rajaditya on the battlefield. Manlarata, whom the inscription refers to as Valabhipuravaresvara ("Lord of Vallabhi") was able to drive the Chola armies away while King Butuga II, riding an elephant on the battlefield, killed the Chola King. In the inscription, the Rashtrakuta Emperor Krishna III showeres high praise on Butuga II for his achievement (the Neralige inscription illustrates in more detail the battle of Takkolam).

Parantaka I

Parantaka Chola IParantaka CholaParantaka
Records gift of 20 sheep for offerings and of two lamps to the shrines of Rajadityesvara and Agastyesvara by a servant of Rajadityadeva. '' * Battle of Takkolam Venkata Ramanappa, M. N. (1987). Outlines of South Indian History. (Rev. edn.) New Delhi: Vikram. Early Chola temples: Parantaka I to Rajaraja I, A.D. 907–985 By S. R. Balasubrahmanyam. South Indian Inscriptions: Miscellaneous inscriptions in Tamil (4 pts. in 2) By Eugen Hultzsch, Hosakote Krishna Sastri, V. Venkayya, Archaeological Survey of India. A topographical list of the inscriptions of the Madras Presidency, collected till 1915: with notes and references, Volume 1 By Vijayaraghava Rangacharya.

Amoghavarsha III

His daughter was married to Western Ganga King Butuga II to whom a large territory was given as dowry. * * History of Karnataka, Mr. Arthikaje

Vellan Kumaran

He was one of the few Chola commanders to have survived the battle of Takkolam in 949 AD. He is best known for engraving his own tragic autobiography in an inscription in northern Tamil Nadu (around 10 years after he had become an ascetic). The true significance of the life of Kumaran was discovered by historian V. Raghavan. Rajaditya was the son of the Ko Kizhan Atikal, the Chera princess, and the Chola king Parantaka I (907–955 AD). The battle of Takkolam (948–49 AD) was a military engagement between a contingent of troops led by Rajaditya and another led by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III (939–967 AD).

Pandya dynasty

The Cholas were defeated by a Rashtrakuta-lead confederacy in the battle of Takkolam in 949 CE. By mid-950s, the Chola kingdom had shrunk to the size of a small principality (its vassals in the extreme south had proclaimed their independence). It is a possibility that Pandya ruler Vira Pandya defeated Chola king Gandaraditya and claimed independence. Chola ruler Sundara Parantaka II (r. 957–73) responded by defeating Vira Pandya in two battles (and Chola prince Aditya II killed Vira Pandya on the second occasion). The Pandyas were assisted by Sri Lanka forces of king Mahinda IV. Chola emperor Rajaraja I (r. 985–1014 CE) is known to have attacked the Pandyas.


Thakkolam is a panchayat town in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, India. Thakkolam has a temple called Jalanatheeswarar Temple.


IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India."; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)"; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat."; – "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "Officially, Republic of India"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)" is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world.

Rajaraja I

Raja Raja Chola IRajaraja Chola IRajaraja Chola
Rajaraja I, born Arunmozhi Varman (also transliterated as Raja Raja Cholan), was a Chola emperor from present day south India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of medieval Tamil Nadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two thirds of Sri Lankan territory, Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE. During his reign, the Cholas expanded beyond the Kaveri delta with their domains stretching from Sri Lanka in the south to Kalinga (modern-day Odisha) in the north. Rajaraja also launched several naval campaigns on the ports of Malabar Coast (Kerala), Maldives and Sri Lanka.

Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra CholaRajendra IChola empire
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of South India (Present day Tamil Nadu, Andhra pradesh, Kerala, Part of Karnataka and Telangana) who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE. During his reign, he extended the influence of the Chola empire to the banks of the river Ganga in North India and across the Indian ocean to the West and South East Asia, making the Chola Empire one of the most powerful maritime empires of India. Rajendra’s conquests included Sri Lanka, Maldives, and he successfully invaded the territories of Srivijaya in Malay Peninsula, Southern Thailand, Sumatra and Java in South East Asia.


A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support by knights in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief. The term is also applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies.

Malaprabha River

Malaprabhariver Malaprabha
The Malaprabha River (Kannada ಮಲಪ್ರಭಾ ನದಿ) is a tributary of the Krishna River and flows through the state of Karnataka in India. It rises in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 792.4 m in the state's Belgaum district. The river joins Krishna River at Kudalasangama in Bagalkot district.

Bana Kingdom

The Banas were a dynasty of South India, who claimed descent from the asura Mahabali. The dynasty takes its name from Bana, the son of Mahabali. The Banas faced opposition from several neighbouring dynasties and served some major dynasties such as the Cholas and Pandyas as feudatories, sometimes after they were subjugated by them. They also served as Samantas to some dynasties such as Chalukyas. The Banas had their capital at various places at different times, including Kolar and Gudimallam. The earliest mention of the Banas in authentic historical records is in the middle of the fourth century AD, and as the feudatories of the Satavahana and early Pallavas.

Krishna River

KrishnaRiver KrishnaKistna
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra. The river is almost 1400 km long. The river is also called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Chera dynasty

CheraCherasChera Kingdom
The Chera dynasty (or Cēra) was one of the principal lineages in the early history of the present day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India. Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers (muventar) of ancient Tamilakam (a macro region in south India ) in the early centuries of the Common Era.

Ko Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli

Chera princessesKizhan AtikalKo Kizhan Adigal
Ko Kizhan Adikal Ravi Neeli was the traditional title of the queens/princesses of the Kodungallur Chera kingdom in medieval south India. It was initially assumed that Kizhan Adikal was a proper given name (and not a royal title).

Tungabhadra River

TungabhadraRiver TungabhadraTunga Bhadra
The Tungabhadra River is a river in India that starts and flows through the state of Karnataka during most of its course, before flowing along the border between Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and ultimately joining the Krishna River near Sangameswaram village in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. In the epic Ramayana, the Tungabhadra River was known by the name of Pampa.


Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
Kerala is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-third largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.


Ganga-Yamuna DoabGanges-Yamuna DoabAntaravedi
Doab is a term used in South Asia for the "tongue," or tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "(Persian do-āb: a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Yamuna)."