sandbarsandbanksand bar
In some cases, shoals may be precursors to beach expansion and dunes formation, providing a source of windblown sediment to augment such beach or dunes landforms. Since prehistoric times humans have chosen some shoals as a site of habitation. In some early cases the locations provided easy access to exploit marine resources. In modern times these sites are sometimes chosen for the water amenity or view, but many such locations are prone to storm damage. hu:Turzás Marine lagoons. Brackish water estuaries.

List of beaches

BeachesBeaches in the United StatesBeaches of Jamaica
Beach evolution. Coast. Coastal geography. List of environment topics. List of seaside resorts. List of tourist attractions worldwide. Nude beach. Shore. Urban beach.

Marine habitats

marinemarine habitatseabed topography
By contrast, sand is easily shifted by waves and currents, and when sand dries out it can be blown in the wind, accumulating into shifting sand dunes. Beyond the high tide mark, if the beach is low-lying, the wind can form rolling hills of sand dunes. Small dunes shift and reshape under the influence of the wind while larger dunes stabilise the sand with vegetation. Ocean processes grade loose sediments to particle sizes other than sand, such as gravel or cobbles. Waves breaking on a beach can leave a berm, which is a raised ridge of coarser pebbles or sand, at the high tide mark. Shingle beaches are made of particles larger than sand, such as cobbles, or small stones.

Flat coast

bermsbeach bermsberm
At a flat coast or flat shoreline, the land descends gradually into the sea. Flat coasts can be formed either as a result of the sea advancing into gently-sloping terrain or through the abrasion of loose rock. They may be basically divided into two parallel strips: the shoreface and the beach. Flat coasts consist of loose material such as sand and gravel. Wind transports finer grains of sand inland over the dunes. The sea washes pebbles and sand away from the coast and dumps it at other locations. The typical sequence of landforms created by the sea is described as a "littoral series".

Heavy mineral sands ore deposits

mineral sandsheavy mineral sandsheavy minerals
Also, sand bars developed at the mouths of rivers which feed the placer deposits are rich trap sites where the winnowing action of the waves are most efficient, because heavy minerals, if they are going to be too heavy to be moved, will deposit at an isthmus in preference to drifting too far down the beach. The coast of Namibia is host to economic diamantiferous beach sands, which are exploited by building sea walls and isolating stretches of coastline. The beaches are so isolated that they are sometimes processed in their entirety, down to the bedrock, in search of diamonds.

Coastal development hazards

Coastal development
Using the capitalised annual cost of the project, for every $1 that has been invested annually on the nourishment, Miami Beach has received almost $500 annually in foreign exchange. ru:Закрепление песков Human impacts on coasts. Sea level rise. Erosion. Global population. Natural hazard. Sand dunes. Dune restoration. Coastal sediment supply. Hard engineering. Soft engineering. Coastal management. ICZM. Beach nourishment.


maritimemarineopen sea
An even longer trench runs alongside the coast of Peru and Chile, reaching a depth of 8,065 m and extending for approximately 5900 km. It occurs where the oceanic Nazca Plate slides under the continental South American Plate and is associated with the upthrust and volcanic activity of the Andes. The zone where land meets sea is known as the coast and the part between the lowest spring tides and the upper limit reached by splashing waves is the shore. A beach is the accumulation of sand or shingle on the shore. A headland is a point of land jutting out into the sea and a larger promontory is known as a cape.


sandstonesred sandstonesandy
Sandstone shapes 'forged by gravity' (July 2014), BBC Terrestrial environments. 1) Rivers (levees, point bars, channel sands). 2) Alluvial fans. 3) Glacial outwash. 4) Lakes. 5) Deserts (sand dunes and ergs). Marine environments. 1) Deltas. 2) Beach and shoreface sands. 3) Tidal flats. 4) Offshore bars and sand waves. 5) Storm deposits (tempestites). 6) Turbidites (submarine channels and fans). Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks; this is because they have exceptional physical properties, such as hardness and chemical stability.

Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park

Lower SaxonyWattenmeer
Seals may also be observed on the sandbanks of the Wadden Sea and the adjacent salt marshes, sandy beaches and sand dunes. The salt marshes are a breeding area for the pied avocet and terns as well as a habitat for the sea holly and sea lavender that bloom in summer. The typical plant of the dunes is the beachgrass, which anchors the dunes with its extensive root system. Since the Ramsar Convention of 1971, the present-day national park regions and the Dollart Bay have been protected as "wetlands of international importance".

The Bruun Rule

Bruun Rule
L is the horizontal length of the bottom affected by the sea level rise (from the dune peak to depth of closure), in metres. h is the depth of closure (the water depth beyond which significant sediment transport does not occur ), in metres. B is the dune height above sea level, in metres. β is the average slope of the active profile. Coastal erosion. Coastal management. Coastal geography. Sediment transport. Longshore drift. Sea level rise.

Stout whiting

S. robusta
In contrast, the eastern population do use inshore nursery areas for the juveniles including bays and surf beaches, with this difference between populations attributed to increased competition between sillaginids by some authors. In both populations, spawning occurs over summer, with the fish spawning multiple times between December and March. Stout whiting are fast growers in comparison to most other smelt-whitings, reaching 80% of its final length after 2 years of life. The species is known to reach a maximum age of 7 years, although most individuals do not survive more than 3 years.

Strand plain

West coast of Namibia. South-east and south-west coasts of Australia, and in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Letea and Caraorman, Danube Delta, Romania. Beach. Beach evolution. Coast. River delta. Shore.

Ammophila (plant)

marram grassAmmophilabeach grass
In the semi-fixed dunes (community SD7), where the quantity of blown sand is declining Ammophila becomes less competitive, and other species, notably Festuca rubra (red fescue) become prominent. The ability of marram grass to grow on and bind sand makes it a useful plant in the stabilization of coastal dunes and artificial defences on sandy coasts. The usefulness was recognized in the late 18th century. On the North Sea coast of Jutland, Denmark, marram grass was traditionally much used for fuel, thatch, cattle fodder (after frost) etc. The use led to sand drift and loss of arable land.

Sand dune stabilization

sand dune plantsstabilizesand dune fixation
Figure five shows a photo of a panel put up at Spencer Park by the Christchurch City Council indicating that people should not walk on the area, as it is an area for sand dune restoration. It needs to be re-iterated that sand dune restoration and protection is in the public’s best interest as the loss of sediment on any coast line leads to the erosion of beaches, which in turn leads to a loss of recreational value of many coastlines.

Sand mining

sand minesand-miningsand
Sand mining is the extraction of sand, mainly through an open pit but sometimes mined from beaches and inland dunes or dredged from ocean and river beds. Sand is often used in manufacturing, for example as an abrasive or in concrete. It is also used on icy and snowy roads, usually mixed with salt, to lower the melting point temperature on the road surface. Sand can replace eroded coastline. Some uses require higher purity than others; for example sand used in concrete must be free of seashell fragments. Sand mining presents opportunity to extract rutile, ilmenite and zircon, which contain the industrially useful elements titanium and zirconium.

Graded shoreline

Coastal development processes
A graded shoreline is a stage in the cycle of coastal development characterised by a flat and straight coastline. It is formed under the influence of wind and water from the original bays, islands, peninsulas and promontories. Sand and gravel is carried away and dumped at other locations depending on the direction and strength of sea currents. Typical of graded shorelines are the formation of dunes, wide sandy beaches and sometimes a lagoon or a spit. Where two graded shorelines meet, a headland may form with a sandy reef in the sea beyond it. Parallel to the graded shoreline sandbanks may form as a result of sediments transported away from the shore.

Erg (landform)

ergergsSand Sea
In South America, ergs are limited by the Andes Mountains, but they do contain extremely large dunes in coastal Peru and northwestern Argentina. They are also found in several parts of the northeast coast of Brazil. The only active erg in North America is in the Gran Desierto de Altar (31.95°N, -114.14°W) that extends from the Sonoran Desert in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora to the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones Dunes of southeastern California. An erg that has been fixed by vegetation forms the Nebraska Sandhills (42.13°N, -102.19°W).

Uniola paniculata

sea oatssea oat
Uniola paniculata or sea oats, also known as seaside oats, araña, and arroz de costa, is a tall subtropical grass that is an important component of coastal sand dune and beach plant communities in the southeastern United States, eastern Mexico and some Caribbean islands. Its large seed heads that turn golden brown in late summer give the plant its common name. Its tall leaves trap wind-blown sand and promote sand dune growth, while its deep roots and extensive rhizomes act to stabilize them, so the plant helps protect beaches and property from damage due to high winds, storm surges and tides. It also provides food and habitat for birds, small animals and insects.

List of landforms

List of oceanic landformsFluvial landformscoastal and oceanic landforms
Aeolian landforms are formed by the wind and lake Coastal and oceanic landforms include: Landforms produced by erosion and weathering usually occur in coastal or fluvial environments, and many also appear under those headings. Fluvial landforms include: Landforms created by extraterrestrial impacts include: Karst landforms include: Lacustrine landforms include: Mountain and glacial landforms include: Slope landforms include: Landforms created by tectonic activity include: Volcanic landforms include: Weathering landforms include: glacier. Sandhill. Ventifact. Yardang. Bornhardt. Cinder cone. Cryptodome. Dome. Drumlin. Granite dome. Hillock. Inselberg. Lava dome. Lava spine. Mesa. Mogote.

Sediment transport

transporttransportedtransport sediment
In typical rivers the largest carried sediment is of sand and gravel size, but larger floods can carry cobbles and even boulders. Fluvial sediment transport can result in the formation of ripples and dunes, in fractal-shaped patterns of erosion, in complex patterns of natural river systems, and in the development of floodplains. Coastal sediment transport takes place in near-shore environments due to the motions of waves and currents. At the mouths of rivers, coastal sediment and fluvial sediment transport processes mesh to create river deltas. Coastal sediment transport results in the formation of characteristic coastal landforms such as beaches, barrier islands, and capes.

Ipomoea pes-caprae

beach morning gloryIpomoea pes-caprae'' subsp. ''brasiliensisrailroad vine
This species can be found on the sandy shores of the tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Goat's Foot is common on the sand dunes of Australia's upper north coast of New South Wales, and can also be found along the entire Queensland coastline. Goat's Foot is a primary sand stabilizer, being one of the first plants to colonise the dune. It grows on almost all parts of the dune but is usually found on the seaward slopes, sending long runners down towards the toe of the dune. The sprawling runners spread out from the woody rootstock, but the large two-lobed leaves are sparse and a dense cover on the sand is rarely achieved except in protected situations.

Storm beach

A storm beach is a beach affected by particularly fierce waves, usually with a very long fetch. The resultant landform is often a very steep beach (up to 45°) composed of rounded cobbles, shingle and occasionally sand. The stones usually have an obvious grading of pebbles, from large to small, with the larger diameter stones typically arrayed at the highest beach elevations. It may also contain many small parts of shipwrecked boats. A noted textbook example is the 18 mi long Chesil Beach in Dorset, one of three major shingle structures in Britain. It is also connects the Isle of Portland to the mainland at Abbotsbury, west of the resort of Weymouth.

Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes

Oceano DunesNipomo DunesPismo-Oceano Dunes
This allowed for the other areas of the Dunes to undergo restoration efforts by conservation groups. the process of dune restoration continues. The Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes were formed by a combination of factors including beach sand which was blown inland by the wind and the Santa Maria River which brought sediment to the coast. Dune-building began 18,000 years ago with the Nipomo and Orcutt Mesas. This Dune System has the highest dunes on the entire western coastline of the United States. Among these, Mussel Rock Dune is the highest, measuring approximately 500 ft. Another rare geographic treasure is Oso Flaco Lake, a freshwater lake located amid the Dunes.

Curonian Spit

Kurische Nehrung
The northern shoreline of Curonian Spit is the site of beaches for tourists. Parnidis sand dune drifted by harsh winds is rising up to 52 meters above sea level. The interpretation of the name of Parnidis dune – local residents believe that the name comes from the phrase meaning “passed across Nida”, because this wind-blown dune has several times passed through the village of Nida. Scientists estimated that each person climbing or descending on the steep dune slopes moves several tons of sand, so hikers are only allowed to climb in designated paths. There is a granite sundial, built on Parnidis dune accurately showing the time. The sundial is a 13.8 m high stone pillar weighing 36 tons.

Desert sand (color)

Sanddesert sandearth yellow
As its name suggests, sandy brown is a shade of brown which is similar to the color of some sands. The color earth yellow is displayed at right. Earth yellow is one of the twelve official camouflage colors of the United States Army. Sand is a color that resembles the color of beach sand. In fact, another name for this color is beach, an alternate color name in use for this color since 1923. The first recorded use of sand as a color name in English was in 1627. The San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball currently use Sand as one of their team colors. The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Sand (color sample #90).