Raman spectroscopy

RamanRaman spectrumRaman spectra
It was largely ignored following investigations in the late 1960s (Schrader and Bergmann, 1967) but was rediscovered in 2006 as a means of rapid assay of pharmaceutical dosage forms. There are medical diagnostic applications particularly in the detection of cancer. Micro-cavity substrates – A method that improves the detection limit of conventional Raman spectra using micro-Raman in a micro-cavity coated with reflective Au or Ag. The micro-cavity has a radius of several micrometers and enhances the entire Raman signal by providing multiple excitations of the sample and couples the forward-scattered Raman photons toward the collection optics in the back-scattered Raman geometry.


AnhaltSachsen-AnhaltSaxony Anhalt
Births from January–October 2016 = 15,159. Births from January–October 2017 = 15,020. Deaths from January–October 2016 = 26,028. Deaths from January–October 2017 = 27,343. Natural growth from January–October 2016 = -10,869.


GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, German armed forces surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. After World War II, high-ranking officials of the Nazi regime were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. In what later became known as The Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.


spectroscopiclaser spectroscopyspectroscopist
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation (via electron spectroscopy, atomic spectroscopy, etc). Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
Under the rule, effective January 1, 2014, members and designated staff are no longer able to purchase FEHBP plans as active employees. However, if members enroll in a health plan offered through a Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) exchange, they remain eligible for an employer contribution toward coverage, and members and designated staff who are eligible for retirement may enroll in a FEHBP plan upon retirement. The ACA and the final rule do not affect members' or staffers' eligibility for Medicare benefits.

Technical University of Berlin

Technische Universität BerlinBerlin Institute of TechnologyTU Berlin
The Technical University of Berlin (official name Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin, which has no official English translation ) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. It is Germany’s first university to adopt the name “Technische Universität” (Technical University).

Adolf Miethe

Adolf Miethe (25 April 1862, Potsdam – 5 May 1927, Berlin) was a German scientist, lens designer, photochemist, photographer, author and educator. He co-invented the first practical photographic flash and made important contributions to the progress of practical color photography.


TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
The economy was estimated to have returned to 8 percent growth in 2010. According to Eurostat data, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing power standard stood at 52 percent of the EU average in 2011. In the early years of the 21st century, the chronically high inflation was brought under control; this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) in 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.

Dave Alexander (blues musician)

Dave AlexanderDavid AlexanderOmar Shariff
On January 8, 2012, Alexander was found dead of an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound at his home in Marshall, Texas. He was 73 years old. Piano Poet Unbound: Omar Shariff. Illustrated Dave Alexander / Omar Sharriff discography.

Gerhard Schrader

Dr. Gerhard SchraderS'''chrader
Gerhard Schrader (25 February 1903 – 10 April 1990) was a German chemist specializing in the discovery of new insecticides, hoping to make progress in the fight against hunger in the world. Schrader is best known for his accidental discovery of nerve agents such as sarin and tabun, and for this he is sometimes called the "father of the nerve agents". Schrader was born in Bortfeld, near Wendeburg, Germany. He attended gymnasium in Braunschweig and later studied chemistry at Braunschweig University of Technology. He was later employed at the Bayer AG division of IG Farben.

Infrared spectroscopy

infraredIR spectroscopyinfrared spectrometer
The reduced masses for 16 O– 16 O and 18 O– 18 O can be approximated as 8 and 9 respectively. Thus Where \nu is the wavenumber; [wavenumber = frequency/(speed of light)] The effect of isotopes, both on the vibration and the decay dynamics, has been found to be stronger than previously thought. In some systems, such as silicon and germanium, the decay of the anti-symmetric stretch mode of interstitial oxygen involves the symmetric stretch mode with a strong isotope dependence. For example, it was shown that for a natural silicon sample, the lifetime of the anti-symmetric vibration is 11.4 ps. When the isotope of one of the silicon atoms is increased to 29 Si, the lifetime increases to 19 ps.


EastfaliaEast SaxonyEastern Saxons
They left several Romanesque abbeys and castles, a cultural landscape that today encompasses three World Heritage Sites with the medieval town of Goslar and Quedlinburg, as well as St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim. As the Eastphalian territory bordered on the lands of the Polabian Slavs beyond the Elbe and Saale rivers, it became the starting point of the German Ostsiedlung, started by the invasions of King Henry and continued by the Saxon margraves.

Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Martin KlaprothKlaprothH. Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798). Klaproth was born in Wernigerode. During a large portion of his life he followed the profession of an apothecary. After acting as assistant in pharmacies at Quedlinburg, Hanover, Berlin and Danzig successively he came to Berlin on the death of Valentin Rose the Elder in 1771 as manager of his business, and in 1780 he started an establishment on his own account in the same city, where from 1782 he was pharmaceutical assessor of the Ober-Collegium Medicum.

Johann Christian Wiegleb

Johann Christian Wiegleb (December 21, 1732 – January 16, 1800) was a notable German apothecary and early innovator of chemistry as a science. Wiegleb, the son of a lawyer, was schooled in Langensalza. From 1748 to 1754 he served as an apprentice-apothecary in Dresden. Subsequently, from 1754 to 1755 he worked as an assistant in an apothecary in Quedlinburg. In 1759 he established his own apothecary in his hometown of Langensalza. He directed that apothecary until 1796. Furthermore, he was a senator and later treasurer of Langensalza. Wiegleb was an influential scientist in the Age of Enlightenment. He possessed a wide knowledge of history, philosophy and different languages.


* January 8 – United States President George Washington gives the first State of the Union address, in New York City. January 11 – The 11 minor states of the Austrian Netherlands, which took part in the Brabant Revolution at the end of 1789, sign a Treaty of Union, creating the United States of Belgium. British Prime Minister William Pitt refuses to recognize the new confederation's independence. January 14 – U.S.


other events of 1918
. * January – 1918 flu pandemic: The "Spanish flu" (influenza) is first observed in Haskell County, Kansas. January 4 – The Finnish Declaration of Independence is recognized by Russia, Sweden, Germany and France. January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech. January 9 – Battle of Bear Valley: U.S. troops engage Yaqui Indian warriors in a minor skirmish in Arizona, and one of the last battles of the American Indian Wars between the United States and Native Americans. January 12 – Finland enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights. January 15. The keel of is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down.


The World Over in 1940 (1941) detailed coverage of world events online free; 914pp January 4 – WWII: Axis powers: Luftwaffe Colonel Hermann Göring assumes control of most war industries in Germany. January 6 – WWII: Winter War: General Semyon Timoshenko takes command of all Soviet forces. January 8. WWII: Winter War – Battle of Suomussalmi: The Soviet 44th Rifle Division is destroyed by Finnish forces. WWII: Food rationing begins in Great Britain. January 9 – WWII: British submarine is sunk.


other events of 1926
* Lillie Eginton Warren, American speech educator (b. 1859) January 1. The Rhine River floods; 50,000 are forced to evacuate their homes in Cologne. Ireland's first regular radio service, 2RN (later Radio Éireann), begins broadcasting. January 3 – Theodoros Pangalos declares himself dictator in Greece. January 6 – Airline Deutsche Luft Hansa is founded in Berlin. January 8. Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud is crowned King of Hejaz. Crown Prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thuy ascends the throne, the last monarch of Vietnam.


January 4 – Battle of Reading: A West Saxon force, under the command of King Æthelred I and his brother Alfred, is defeated by the Danes at Reading. Among the many dead on both sides is Æthelwulf. The Saxon troops are forced to retreat, allowing the Vikings to continue their advance into Wessex. January 8 – Battle of Ashdown: The West Saxons, led by Æthelred I and Alfred, gather at the Berkshire Downs. The Danes under the command of Halfdan and Bagsecg occupy the high ground, but are successfully attacked by Alfred's men. During the battle Alfred breaches the shield wall formation.


January 4 – The New Apostolic Church, a Christian and chiliastic church, is established in Hamburg, Germany. January 7 – In the Swiss canton of Ticino, the village of Bedretto is partly destroyed and 29 killed, by an avalanche. January 8. Ground is broken in Sacramento, California, on the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States. The Yorkshire County Cricket Club is founded at the Adelphi Hotel, in Sheffield, England. Battle of Fort Hindman.png: Battle of Arkansas Post.]]. Second Battle of Springfield. January 10 – The first section of the London Underground Railway (Paddington to Farringdon Street) opens officially. January 11.


January 8 – The Young Pretender Charles Edward Stuart occupies Stirling. January 17 – Battle of Falkirk Muir: British Government forces are defeated by Jacobite forces. February 1 – Jagat Singh II, the ruler of the Mewar Kingdom, inaugurates his Lake Palace on the island of Jag Niwar in Lake Pichola, in what is now the state of Rajasthan in northwest India. February 19 – Brussels, at the time part of the Austrian Netherlands, surrenders to France's Marshal Maurice de Saxe.


. * January 6 – Charles Sumner, American senator, civil rights activist (d. 1874) * Mohammad Afzal Khan, Emir of Kabul, Emir of Kandahar (d. 1867) January 8 – An unsuccessful slave revolt is led by Charles Deslondes, in St. Charles and St. James Parishes, Louisiana. January 17 – Mexican War of Independence: In the Battle of Calderón Bridge, a heavily outnumbered Spanish force of 6,000 troops defeats nearly 100,000 Mexican revolutionaries. January 22 – The Casas Revolt begins in San Antonio, Spanish Texas.


Other events of 1956
January 20 – Bill Maher, American actor, comedian and political analyst. January 21. Robby Benson, American actor, voice actor, director, singer and educator. Geena Davis, American actress. January 24 – Lounès Matoub, Algerian Berber Kabyle singer (d. 1998). January 25 – Bronwyn Pike, Australian politician. January 26 – Pat Musick, American voice actress. January 27. Susanne Blakeslee, American actress. Mimi Rogers, American actress. January 28 – Peter Schilling, German singer. January 29. Jan Jakub Kolski, Polish film director. Irlene Mandrell, American musician, actress. January 30 – Keiichi Tsuchiya, Japanese race car driver. January 31.


January 7 – anchors off the Chonos Archipelago on her second voyage, with Charles Darwin on board as naturalist. January 8 – The United States public debt contracts to zero, for the only time in history. January 24 – Malê Revolt: African slaves of Yoruba Muslim origin revolt in Salvador, Bahia. January 26 – Queen Maria II of Portugal marries Auguste de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, in Lisbon; he dies only two months later. January 30 – An assassination is attempted against United States President Andrew Jackson in the United States Capitol (the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States).


other events of 1963
January 1. Filippo Del Giudice, Italian film producer (b. 1892). Robert S. Kerr, American businessman and politician (b. 1896). January 2. Jack Carson, Canadian actor (b. 1910). Al Mamaux, American baseball player and manager (b. 1894). Dick Powell, American actor (b. 1904). January 5. Rogers Hornsby, American baseball player, (St. Louis Cardinals) and a member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1896). Erik Strandmark, Swedish film actor (b. 1919). January 6. Frank Tuttle, American film director (b. 1892). Stark Young, American teacher, playwright, novelist, painter, literary critic and essayist (b. 1881). January 7 – Erik Lundqvist, Swedish athlete (b. 1908). January 8.