Shock site

shock sitesshock imageshock video
Liveleak.com received media attention for deviating from its predecessor for choosing not to host videos of ISIS beheadings, claiming they were tedious and "added nothing new to the conversation". It did, however, host gore content from Syria and hosted the controversial Dutch short film, Fitna, which criticized the Quran. BestGore, established in 2008 by Mark Marek, was notorious for its extremely graphic content, such as photos and videos of murders, suicides and violent accidents with an estimated 15–20 million monthly visits during its operation. He pleaded guilty and was given a six-month conditional sentence for his role.

Ogrish.com

Bestgore.com. Liveleak. Rotten.com. Stile Project.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Mental disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse—including alcoholism and the use of benzodiazepines—are risk factors. Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress, such as from financial difficulties, relationship problems such as breakups, or bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts.

Fitna (film)

Fitnabelow
Wilders released the film on 27 March 2008 on the video website LiveLeak. The following day, LiveLeak removed the film from their servers after receiving threats that they described as being "of a very serious nature". The film soon appeared on various BitTorrent and video sharing websites. LiveLeak reinstated Fitna on 30 March, after security upgrades offering increased protection to its staff had been implemented. Soon after, Wilders withdrew the film to make some minor edits, such as removing the copyrighted Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons Kurt Westergaard, the cartoonist, was pleased with the news and believed the lawsuit would be dropped.

Goregrish.com

Controversy arose when the autopsy images of Ngatikaura Ngati appeared on goregrish.com and bestgore.com, which some have characterized as pornographic. Current New Zealand Children’s Commissioner Dr. Russell Wills said he was "appalled" at their use. Even though shock sites did not create the photos, the images nevertheless fueled a squabble between bestgore.com and goregrish.com in 2011, wherein one lodged an unsuccessful DMCA (copyright) complaint with Google against the other. Ogrish.com. Bestgore.com. Rotten.com. Stile Project.

Murder

first-degree murderfirst degree murdersecond-degree murder
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness.

Terrorism

terroristterroriststerrorist attack
(Decapitation). 2) Entry of the group into a legitimate political process. (Negotiation). 3) Achievement of group aims. (Success). 4) Group implosion or loss of public support. (Failure). 5) Defeat and elimination through brute force. (Repression). 6) Transition from terrorism into other forms of violence. (Reorientation). Global Terrorism Database, an open-source database by the University of Maryland, College Park on terrorist events around the world from 1970 through 2017 with more than 150,000 cases. MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Worldwide Incidents Tracking System. Tocsearch (dynamic database). Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment. Terrorist Screening Database.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISISISILIslamic State
Two days after the beheading of Hervé Gourdel, hundreds of Muslims gathered in the Grand Mosque of Paris to show solidarity against the beheading. The protest was led by the leader of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, Dalil Boubakeur, and was joined by thousands of other Muslims around the country under the slogan "Not in my name". French president François Hollande said Gourdel's beheading was "cowardly" and "cruel", and confirmed that airstrikes would continue against ISIL in Iraq. Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris.

Torture

torturedtorturingtorture device
The Council of Geneva had him beheaded with Calvin's approval. Suspected witches were also tortured and burnt by Protestant leaders, though more often they were banished from the city, as well as suspected spreaders of the plague, which was considered a more serious crime. In England the trial by jury developed considerable freedom in evaluating evidence and condemning on circumstantial evidence, making torture to extort confessions unnecessary. For this reason in England a regularized system of judicial torture never existed and its use was limited to political cases.

Mutilation

mutilatedmaimmaiming
Decapitation. Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals. Cattle mutilation.

James Foley (journalist)

James FoleyJames Foley (photojournalist)James Wright Foley
The actual beheading takes place in less than ten seconds, although the entire recording uses over four-and-a-half minutes. It does not show the actual moment of Foley's decapitation, unlike previous beheading videos, which typically show the entire act. After Foley's beheaded corpse is shown, his executioner reveals that ISIL is holding another American journalist, Time magazine contributor Steven Joel Sotloff, and that he will be killed if President Obama failed to halt air strikes against ISIL. A video showing the beheading of Sotloff was released on September 2, 2014.

Stile Project

Rotten.com. Ogrish.com. Stile Project. stileNET.

Guillotine

guillotinedguillotiningbeheaded
Does the head remain briefly conscious after decapitation (revisited)? (from The Straight Dope).

Capital punishment

death penaltyexecutionexecuted
The two most common forms of execution in the Tang dynasty were strangulation and decapitation, which were the prescribed methods of execution for 144 and 89 offences respectively. Strangulation was the prescribed sentence for lodging an accusation against one's parents or grandparents with a magistrate, scheming to kidnap a person and sell them into slavery and opening a coffin while desecrating a tomb. Decapitation was the method of execution prescribed for more serious crimes such as treason and sedition.

Gibbeting

gibbetgibbetedgibbets
A gibbet is any instrument of public execution (including guillotine, executioner's block, impalement stake, hanging gallows, or related scaffold), but gibbeting refers to the use of a gallows-type structure from which the dead or dying bodies of criminals were hung on public display to deter other existing or potential criminals. Occasionally the gibbet was also used as a method of execution, with the criminal being left to die of exposure, thirst and/or starvation. The term gibbet may also be used to refer to the practice of placing a criminal on display within a gibbet. This practice is also called "hanging in chains".

Hanging

hangedhangdeath by hanging
This force resulted in some decapitations, such as the infamous case of Black Jack Ketchum in New Mexico Territory in 1901, owing to a significant weight gain while in custody not having been factored into the drop calculations. Between 1892 and 1913, the length of the drop was shortened to avoid decapitation. After 1913, other factors were also taken into account, and the force delivered was reduced to about 1,000 lbf (4,400 N or 450 kgf). The decapitation of Eva Dugan during a botched hanging in 1930 led the state of Arizona to switch to the gas chamber as its primary execution method, on the grounds that it was believed more humane.

Executioner

hangmanheadsmancommon hangman
Common terms for executioners derived from forms of capital punishment—though they often also performed other physical punishments—include hangman (hanging) and headsman (beheading). In the military, the role of executioner was performed by a soldier, such as the provost. A common stereotype of an executioner is a hooded medieval or absolutist executioner. Symbolic or real, executioners were rarely hooded, and not robed in all black; hoods were only used if an executioner's identity and anonymity were to be preserved from the public. As Hilary Mantel noted in her 2018 Reith Lectures, "Why would an executioner wear a mask? Everybody knew who he was".

Executioner's sword

swordchoppersword of execution
An executioner's sword is a sword designed specifically for decapitation of condemned criminals (as opposed to combat). These swords were intended for two-handed use, but were lacking a point, so that their overall length was typically that of a single-handed sword (ca. 80 –). The quillions were quite short, and mainly straight, and the pommel was often pear-shaped or faceted. In the Middle Ages, decapitations were executed with regular swords, and the earliest known specifically designed executioner's sword dates to ca. 1540. They were in wide use in 17th-century Europe, but fell out of use quite suddenly in the early 18th century.

Halifax, West Yorkshire

HalifaxHalifax, YorkshireHalifax, England
Halifax was notorious for its gibbet, an early form of guillotine used to execute criminals by decapitation, that was last used in 1650. A replica has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street. Its original blade is on display at Bankfield Museum. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor (1580–1654), a prayer whose text included "From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.".

Saudi Arabia

SaudiKingdom of Saudi ArabiaKSA
Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading, stoning (to death), amputation, crucifixion and lashing, as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized. The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder, rape, armed robbery, repeated drug use, apostasy, adultery, witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword, stoning or firing squad, followed by crucifixion. The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September 2014.

Treason

high treasontraitortraitors
In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered (men) or burnt at the stake (women), although beheading could be substituted by royal command (usually for royalty and nobility). Those penalties were abolished in 1814, 1790 and 1973 respectively. The penalty was used by later monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors. Many of them would now just be considered dissidents. Christian theology and political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God. Kings were considered chosen by God, and to betray one's country was to do the work of Satan.

Tahvo Putkonen

On 8 July 1825 Putkonen was beheaded, and his execution is believed to be the last example of capital punishment in Finland during peacetime. According to preserved court and church documents from the National Archives, the manslaughter took place on Boxing Day, 1822 when Putkonen was celebrating his name day in the village of Jauhomäki, Pieksämäki at his landlord's house. He had invited neighbors over, and was serving food and hard liquor to the guests. Putkonen was drunk, and had apparently been so earlier over the Christmas holidays as well. Mr. Lasse Hirvonen, a father of five, had joined Putkonen's party.

Disembowelment

disemboweldisemboweledevisceration
The act of decapitation by a second (kaishaku-nin) was added to this ritual suicide in later times in order to shorten the suffering of the samurai or leader, an attempt at rendering the ritual more humane. Even later the knife was just a simple formality and the swordsman would decapitate before the subject could reach for it. The commission of a crime or dishonorable act was only one of many reasons for the performance of seppuku; others included the atonement of cowardice, as a means of apology, or following the loss of a battle or the surrender of a castle.

2010 Sikh beheadings by the Taliban

beheadedThree Sikhs were beheaded
The men resisted the conversion and were then beheaded. Indian government sources stated that their heads were thrown in a common area to create fear in the community. India condemned the incident with its External Affairs Minister S. M. Krishna stating that it would figure in the talks.

Oda Nobunaga

Nobunaga OdaNobunagaGenma Lord
Oda Nobunaga was a Japanese daimyō in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period, and successfully gained control over most of Honshu through conquest. Nobunaga is regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. During his later life, Nobunaga was widely known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who by principle refused to cooperate or yield to his demands. His reign was noted for innovative military tactics, fostering free trade, and encouraging the start of the Momoyama historical art period.