Gene therapy

human genetic engineeringgene therapiesgene
Genetic engineering. MAGESTIC. Synthetic lethality. Synthetic rescue. Therapeutic gene modulation.


deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The genetically modified organisms produced can be used to produce products such as recombinant proteins, used in medical research, or be grown in agriculture. Forensic scientists can use DNA in blood, semen, skin, saliva or hair found at a crime scene to identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator. This process is formally termed DNA profiling, also called DNA fingerprinting. In DNA profiling, the lengths of variable sections of repetitive DNA, such as short tandem repeats and minisatellites, are compared between people. This method is usually an extremely reliable technique for identifying a matching DNA.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Genetic engineering. Genomics of domestication. Inbreeding. Marker-assisted selection. Mutation breeding. Natural selection. Plant breeding. Quantitative genetics. Selection methods in plant breeding based on mode of reproduction. Smart breeding. FAO. 2007. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Rome. FAO. 2015. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome.

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencesequencesequencing
This is a form of genetic testing, though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. Also, DNA sequencing may be useful for determining a specific bacteria, to allow for more precise antibiotics treatments, hereby reducing the risk of creating antimicrobial resistance in bacteria populations. DNA sequencing may be used along with DNA profiling methods for forensic identification and paternity testing. DNA testing has evolved tremendously in the last few decades to ultimately link a DNA print to what is under investigation. The DNA patterns in fingerprint, saliva, hair follicles, etc. uniquely separate each living organism from another.

Gene expression

. • AlloMap molecular expression testing • Bookmarking • Expressed sequence tag • Expression Atlas • Expression profiling • Gene structure • Genetic engineeringGenetically modified organism • List of biological databases • List of human genes • Oscillating gene • Paramutation • Protein production • Protein purification • Ribonomics • Ridge • Sequence profiling tool • Transcriptional bursting • Transcriptional noise • Transcript of unknown function * Plant Transcription Factor Database and Plant Transcriptional Regulation Data and Analysis Platform A constitutive gene is a gene that is transcribed continually as opposed to a facultative gene, which is only transcribed when needed.


pharmacogeneticspharmacogenomicpoor metabolizer
Genetic engineering. Toxicogenomics. Metabolomics. Pharmacovigilance. Population groups in biomedicine. Toxgnostics. Medical terminology. LOINC. SNOMED CT. HPO. HGVS. HL7. FHIR.

Molecular genetics

molecular geneticmolecularmolecular geneticist
The isolation of a restriction endonuclease in ''E. coli'' by Arber and Linn in 1969 opened the field of genetic engineering. Restriction enzymes were used to linearize DNA for separation by electrophoresis and Southern blotting allowed for the identification of specific DNA segments via hybridization probes. In 1971, Berg utilized restriction enzymes to create the first recombinant DNA molecule and first recombinant DNA plasmid. In 1972, Cohen and Boyer created the first recombinant DNA organism by inserting recombinant DNA plasmids into ''E. coli'', now known as bacterial transformation, and paved the way for molecular cloning.

Next (novel)

NextNext'' (novel)
An avant garde artist uses genetic modification to change the appearance of animals, while another self-named "artist/biologist" is falsely accused of modifying turtles so that females laying eggs are less vulnerable to predators because the turtles' genetically engineered bioluminescence attracts tourists. An advertising agency proposes to make genetically engineered animals and plants carry advertisements, and claims that this would be a very effective conservation strategy.

Science fiction film

science fictionsci-fiscience-fiction
Man supplanted by technology — typically in the form of an all-powerful computer, advanced robots or cyborgs, or else genetically modified humans or animals. Among the films in this category are the Terminator series, The Matrix trilogy, I, Robot (2004), and the Transformers series. Nuclear war — usually in the form of a dystopic, post-holocaust tale of grim survival. Examples of such a storyline can be found in the movies Dr. Strangelove (1964), Planet of the Apes (1968), A Boy and His Dog (1975), Mad Max (1979), City of Ember (2008), The Book of Eli (2010), Oblivion (2013), and Mad Max: Fury Road (2015).

Index of genetics articles

List of genetics-related topicsIndex of genetic engineering articlesGenetic engineering topics
Genetic engineering. Genetic genealogy. Genetic history of Europe. Genetic illness. Genetic informatics. Genetic linkage map. Genetic load. Genetic map. Genetic marker. Genetic material. Genetic mosaic. Genetic polymorphism. Genetic screen. Genetic screening. Genetic testing. Genetic variance. Genetic variation. Geneticist. Genetics. Genetics and Archaeogenetics of South Asia. Genetics experiments. Genic balance theory. Genome. Genome map. Genome project. Genome screen. Genomic library. Genomic sequence. Genomics. Genophore. Genotype. Germ cell. Germ line. Germ-line theory. Germinal mutation. Germline mutation. Giemsa stain. Gln. Glutamic acid. Gly. God gene. Gradient. Gray crescent. gRNA.

Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Sarajevo

Institute for Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyINGEB
Institute for genetic engineering and biotechnology, also known as INGEB, is public Bosnian-Herzegovinian scientific institution, member Sarajevo University (UNSA), Affiliate center of International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology – ICGEB. ICGEB was established as a special project of the United Nations organization for industrial development (UNIDO – United Nations industrial development organization). INGEB was founded under the name "Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology", in 1988.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
These concerns are discussed in the articles on genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food controversies. Furthermore, there are concerns about the by-products in biopharmaceutical production, where recombinant DNA result in specific protein products. The major by-product, termed host cell protein, comes from the host expression system and poses a threat to the patient's health and the overall environment. Recombinant chymosin Found in rennet, chymosin is an enzyme required to manufacture cheese. It was the first genetically engineered food additive used commercially.


Monsanto CompanyMonsanto Chemical CompanyCalgene
The Monsanto Company was an American agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation founded in 1901. In 2018, it was acquired by Bayer as part of its crop science division. It was headquartered in Creve Coeur, Missouri. Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, in the 1970s, and became a major producer of genetically engineered crops. Monsanto was one of four groups to introduce genes into plants in 1983, and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops in 1987.

Biological engineering

Genetic engineering. Neural engineering. Pharmaceutical engineering. Clinical engineering. Bioinformatics. Biomechanics. Biochemical engineering: fermentation engineering, application of engineering principles to microscopic biological systems that are used to create new products by synthesis, including the production of protein from suitable raw materials. Biological systems engineering: application of engineering principles and design concepts to agriculture, food sciences, and ecosystems.

Herbert Boyer

Herbert W. BoyerHerb BoyerHerbert W Boyer
Herbert Wayne "Herb" Boyer (born July 10, 1936) is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology. Along with Stanley N. Cohen and Paul Berg he discovered a method to coax bacteria into producing foreign proteins, thereby jump starting the field of genetic engineering. By 1969, he performed studies on a couple of restriction enzymes of the E.coli bacterium with especially useful properties. He is recipient of the 1990 National Medal of Science, co-recipient of the 1996 Lemelson–MIT Prize, and a co-founder of Genentech. He was professor at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and later served as Vice President of Genentech from 1976 until his retirement in 1991.

Genetically modified organism

GMOgenetically modified organismsgenetically modified
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. The exact definition of a genetically modified organism and what constitutes genetic engineering varies, with the most common being an organism altered in a way that "does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination". A wide variety of organisms have been genetically modified (GM), from animals to plants and microorganisms. Genes have been transferred within the same species, across species (creating transgenic organisms) and even across kingdoms. New genes can be introduced, or endogenous genes can be enhanced, altered or knocked out.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to previous methods, such as selective breeding and mutation breeding. Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedgenetically modified cropGM crops
Europe grows relatively few genetically engineered crops with the exception of Spain, where one fifth of maize is genetically engineered, and smaller amounts in five other countries. The EU had a 'de facto' ban on the approval of new GM crops, from 1999 until 2004. GM crops are now regulated by the EU. In 2015, genetically engineered crops are banned in 38 countries worldwide, 19 of them in Europe. Developing countries grew 54 percent of genetically engineered crops in 2013. In recent years GM crops expanded rapidly in developing countries.

Flavr Savr

FlavrSavrFlavr Savr tomato
In the intervening period, Sainsbury's and Safeway both pledged that none of their house brand products would contain genetically modified ingredients. * "The transgenic tomato" "''Purpose: To show a general reading audience (perhaps readers of a popular science magazine) that genetically engineered crops are needed and safe to consume by discussing the development of a successful genetically engineered crop, the FLAVR SAVR tomato.''".

Stanley Norman Cohen

Stanley N. CohenStanley Cohen
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetical engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine. According to microbiologist Hugh McDevitt, "Cohen's DNA cloning technology has helped biologists in virtually every field". Without it, "the face of biomedicine and biotechnology would look totally different." Cohen graduated from Rutgers University with a B.S. in 1956, and received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1960.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
The debate surrounding genetically modified food during the 1990s peaked in 1999 in terms of media coverage and risk perception, and continues today – for example, "Germany has thrown its weight behind a growing European mutiny over genetically modified crops by banning the planting of a widely grown pest-resistant corn variety." The debate encompasses the ecological impact of genetically modified plants, the safety of genetically modified food and concepts used for safety evaluation like substantial equivalence. Such concerns are not new to plant breeding.

Medical test

diagnostic testdiagnostic testsdiagnostic testing
Genetic testing. Blood Glucose testing. Liver function testing. Calcium testing. Testing for electrolytes in the blood, such as Sodium, Potassium, Creatinine, and Urea. Blood tests. Urine tests, including naked eye exam of the urine. Stool tests, including naked eye exam of the feces. Sputum (phlegm), including naked eye exam of the sputum. Accuracy of a laboratory test is its correspondence with the true value. Accuracy is maximized by calibrating laboratory equipment with reference material and by participating in external quality control programs. Precision of a test is its reproducibility when it is repeated on the same sample.


genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
Genomics has provided applications in many fields, including medicine, biotechnology, anthropology and other social sciences. Next-generation genomic technologies allow clinicians and biomedical researchers to drastically increase the amount of genomic data collected on large study populations. When combined with new informatics approaches that integrate many kinds of data with genomic data in disease research, this allows researchers to better understand the genetic bases of drug response and disease. For example, the All of Us research program aims to collect genome sequence data from 1 million participants to become a critical component of the precision medicine research platform.


Genentech, Inc.Genentech,
The product (Humulin) was licensed to and manufactured by Lilly, and was the first-ever approved genetically engineered human therapeutic. 1985: Protropin (somatrem): Supplementary growth hormone for children with growth hormone deficiency (ceased manufacturing 2004). 1987: Activase (alteplase): A recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPa) used to dissolve blood clots in patients with acute myocardial infarction.


plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering. These plasmids serve as important tools in genetics and biotechnology labs, where they are commonly used to clone and amplify (make many copies of) or express particular genes. A wide variety of plasmids are commercially available for such uses. The gene to be replicated is normally inserted into a plasmid that typically contains a number of features for their use.