Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized digital currency and central banking systems. The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database. Bitcoin, first released as open-source software in 2009, is generally considered the first decentralized cryptocurrency. Since the release of bitcoin, over 4,000 altcoins (alternative variants of bitcoin, or other cryptocurrencies) have been created. In 1983, the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash.

Coinbase

Brian Armstrong
Coinbase is a digital currency exchange headquartered in San Francisco, California. They broker exchanges of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin with fiat currencies in approximately 32 countries, and bitcoin transactions and storage in 190 countries worldwide. Coinbase was founded in June 2012 by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam. Blockchain.info co-founder Ben Reeves was part of the original founding team but later parted ways with Armstrong due to a difference in how the Coinbase wallet should operate. The remaining founding team enrolled in the Summer 2012 Y Combinator startup incubator program.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Ether, Nxt and Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital cryptocurrencies. Dalesa, a peer-to-peer web cache for LANs (based on IP multicasting). FAROO, a peer-to-peer web search engine. Filecoin is an open source, public, cryptocurrency and digital payment system intended to be a blockchain-based cooperative digital storage and data retrieval method. I2P, an overlay network used to browse the Internet anonymously. Infinit is an unlimited and encrypted peer to peer file sharing application for digital artists written in C++.

Mining pool

miners pool resourcesmining operationpool
Digital currency exchanger. Electronic money. Pooled mining in Bitcoin Wiki. An estimation of hashrate distribution amongst the largest mining pools.

Financial transaction

transactiontransactionsfinancial transactions
As fixed currencies were gradually replaced by floating currencies during the 20th century, and as the recent development of computer networks made electronic money possible, financial transactions have rapidly increased in speed and complexity. In 1997, 1.3 billion US dollars were exchanged per day on the foreign exchange market, roughly 475 billion US dollars annually. The world financial transactions have jumped from 1.1 quadrillion US dollars in 2002 to 2.2 quadrillion US dollars in 2008. 95% of this is speculation. A financial transaction always involves one or more financial asset.

Blockchain.info

In February 2014, Apple Inc. removed the Blockchain app from the iOS App Store, prompting a harsh response from Blockchain and public outcry in the bitcoin community, most notably within the Reddit community. In July 2014, Apple reinstated the app. In October 2014, Blockchain.info closed a $30.5 million fundraising round from Lightspeed Venture Partners and Mosaic Ventures, which was the biggest round of financing in the digital currency sector at that time.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsblack market passwords
Later that month, the long-lived Outlaw market closed down citing a major bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet theft; however, speculation remained that it was an exit scam. In July 2017 the markets experienced their largest disruptions since Operations Onymous, when Operation Bayonet culminated in coordinated multinational seizures of both the Hansa and leading AlphaBay markets, sparking worldwide law enforcement investigations. The seizures brought in lots of traffic to other markets making TradeRoute and Dream Market the most popular markets at the time. In January 2018, Dream Market added Bitcoin Cash as a payment option.

Stellar (payment network)

StellarStellar LumenStellar Network
Stellar is an open-source, decentralized protocol for digital currency to fiat currency transfers which allows cross-border transactions between any pair of currencies. The Stellar protocol is supported by a nonprofit, the Stellar Development Foundation. In 2014, Jed McCaleb, founder of Mt. Gox and co-founder of Ripple, launched the network system Stellar with former lawyer Joyce Kim. Before the official launch, McCaleb formed a website called "Secret Bitcoin Project" seeking alpha testers. The nonprofit Stellar Development Foundation was created in collaboration with Stripe CEO Patrick Collison and the project officially launched that July.

History of money

monetary historyabandonmentan international currency of the early ages
By the 2000s most money existed as digital currency in banks databases. In 2012, by number of transaction, 20 to 58 percent of transactions were electronic (dependant on country). In 2008, Bitcoin was proposed by an unknown author/s under the pseudonym of Satoshi Nakamoto, it was implemented the same year. Its use of cryptography allowed the currency to have a trustless, fungible and tamper resistant distributed ledger called a blockchain. It became the first widely used decentralized, peer-to-peer, cryptocurrency. Other comparable systems had been proposed since the 1980s.

Money

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By the 2000s most money existed as digital currency in bank databases. In 2012, by number of transaction, 20 to 58 percent of transactions were electronic (dependant on country). Non-national digital currencies were developed in the early 2000s. In particular, Flooz and Beenz had gained momentum before the Dot-com bubble. Not much innovation occurred until the conception of Bitcoin in 2009, which introduced the concept of a cryptocurrency – a decentralised trustless currency. When gold and silver are used as money, the money supply can grow only if the supply of these metals is increased by mining.

Cryptocurrency exchange

bitcoin exchangeexchangedigital currency exchange
Bitcoin. Digital currency. Digital gold currency. List of Bitcoin companies.

Roger Ver

Roger Keith Ver (born January 27, 1979 ) is an early investor in bitcoin-related startups. He has been a prominent supporter of bitcoin adoption and saw bitcoin as a means to promote economic freedom. He now promotes Bitcoin Cash, a hard fork of the cryptocurrency created with the intent to fix issues such as high fees and long transaction confirmation times. Born and raised in Silicon Valley, he sold explosives on eBay and later pleaded guilty to three related felony charges. He served 10 months in prison, then moved to Japan in 2005. He renounced his United States citizenship in 2014 after obtaining a Saint Kitts and Nevis passport.

Peter Thiel

Peter Thiel’sPeter TiehlThiel, Peter
Thiel wanted to create a type of digital wallet in the hopes of ensuring more consumer convenience and security by encrypting data on digital devices, and in 1999 Confinity launched PayPal. PayPal promised to open up new possibilities for handling money, and according to Eric M. Jackson's account in his book The PayPal Wars, Thiel viewed PayPal's mission as liberating people throughout the world from the erosion of the value of their currencies due to inflation. Jackson recalls an inspirational speech by Thiel in 1999: "We're definitely onto something big. The need PayPal answers is monumental. Everyone in the world needs money – to get paid, to trade, to live.

Double-spending

double spending51% attack51% attacks
Decentralized currencies that rely on blockchain are vulnerable to the 51% attack, in which a malicious actor can rewrite the ledger if they control enough of the computational work being done.

Cryptocurrency wallet

Blockchain Asset Walletone hot and one coldstorage
Bitcoin#Wallets. Cryptocurrency and security.

Proof-of-stake

proof of stakeDPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake Algorithm)generates
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e., the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work-based cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin uses mining; that is, the solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. Proof of stake must have a way of defining the next valid block in any blockchain.

Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchain
Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability. In March 2017, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members. By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University's research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P.

BitPay

Bitcoin
Blockchain. Circle (company). List of bitcoin companies.