Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
List of cryptocurrencies. Virtual currency law in the United States.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Ether, Nxt and Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital cryptocurrencies. Dalesa, a peer-to-peer web cache for LANs (based on IP multicasting). FAROO, a peer-to-peer web search engine. Filecoin is an open source, public, cryptocurrency and digital payment system intended to be a blockchain-based cooperative digital storage and data retrieval method. I2P, an overlay network used to browse the Internet anonymously. Infinit is an unlimited and encrypted peer to peer file sharing application for digital artists written in C++.

Proof-of-work system

proof-of-workproof of workreusable proof of work
Bitcoin. Cryptocurrency. Bitmessage. Proof-of-stake.

Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchain
Bitcoin transactions usually have fees specified in satoshis per byte. Transaction fees are generally considerably lower for ether than for Bitcoin. In December 2017, the median transaction fee for ether corresponded to $0.33, while for bitcoin it corresponded to $23. Ethereum uses an account system where values in Wei are debited from accounts and credited to another, as opposed to Bitcoin's UTXO system, which is more analogous to spending cash and receiving change in return. J. P. Morgan Chase is developing a permissioned-variant of Ethereum blockchain dubbed "Quorum". It's designed to toe the line between private and public in the realm of shuffling derivatives and payments.

Coinbase

Brian Armstrong
Coinbase is a digital currency exchange headquartered in San Francisco, California. They broker exchanges of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin with fiat currencies in approximately 32 countries, and bitcoin transactions and storage in 190 countries worldwide. Coinbase was founded in June 2012 by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam. Blockchain.info co-founder Ben Reeves was part of the original founding team but later parted ways with Armstrong due to a difference in how the Coinbase wallet should operate. The remaining founding team enrolled in the Summer 2012 Y Combinator startup incubator program.

Decentralization

decentralizeddecentralisationdecentralised
Blockchain based networks are designed to support decentralization by way of a cryptographic distributed triple-entry accounting ledger, typically with “layers” where each layer is defined by an interoperable open protocol on top of which network participants can transact and build products or services without requiring permission from central authorities. Bitcoin is the original implementation of a blockchain where proof-of-work is used as a means of establishing decentralized consensus (aka. Nakamoto consensus), thus enabling the uniqueness of its intrinsic digital asset and utility as a scarce cryptocurrency.

Daniel Larimer

His interest in blockchains began in 2009, in the early days of Bitcoin. Larimer developed the blockchain technology Graphene, which powers BitShares and the Steem token cryptocurrency. In 2013, Larimer started BitShares. BitShares were originally named ProtoShares and intended to function as shares of virtual companies. BitShares has since been described as a cryptocurrency platform, a digital currency, or a digital exchange. It is organized as a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO). In 2016 Larimer left BitShares to found Steemit, a social network which uses blockchain technology to reward users. After founding Steemit, Larimer was CTO of the platform until March 2017.

Double-spending

double spending51% attack51% attacks
The cryptocurrency bitcoin implemented a solution in early 2009. It uses a cryptographic protocol called a proof-of-work system to avoid the need for a trusted third party to validate transactions. Instead, transactions are recorded in a public ledger called a blockchain. A transaction is considered valid when it is included in the blockchain that contains the greatest amount of computational work. This makes double-spending more difficult as the size of the overall network grows. Other cryptocurrencies also have similar features.

Cryptography

cryptographiccryptographercryptology
Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shares the decoding technique only with intended recipients to preclude access from adversaries. The cryptography literature often uses the names Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary.

Bitcoin Core

Bitcoin Core is free and open-source software that serves as a bitcoin node (the set of which form the bitcoin network) and provides a bitcoin wallet which fully verifies payments. It is considered to be bitcoin's reference implementation and is the most used implementation by a large margin. Initially, the software was published by Satoshi Nakamoto under the name "Bitcoin", and later renamed to "Bitcoin Core" to distinguish it from the network. For this reason, it is also known as the Satoshi client., Bitcoin Core repositories are maintained by a team of maintainers, with Wladimir J. van der Laan leading the release process.

Proof-of-stake

proof of stakeDPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake Algorithm)generates
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e., the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work-based cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin uses mining; that is, the solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. Proof of stake must have a way of defining the next valid block in any blockchain.

E-gold

eGoldDouglas Jackson
While PayPal has done a better job of addressing abuse than e-gold did, they now contend with the same kind of Internet fraud that took down e-gold. Financial cryptographers have observed that Bitcoin has repeated the same fundamental errors that e-gold made, and that despite its decentralized nature the cyber crime-wave might bring Bitcoin to a similar ending. According to GoldMoney's website, BitGold announced the acquisition of GoldMoney on May 22, 2015. Bitcoin. Digital currency. Digital currency exchanger. Gold as an investment. Liberty Reserve. PayPal. Private currency. WebMoney.

Mining pool

miners pool resourcesmining operationpool
Digital currency exchanger. Electronic money. Pooled mining in Bitcoin Wiki. An estimation of hashrate distribution amongst the largest mining pools.

Financial transaction

transactiontransactionsfinancial transactions
As fixed currencies were gradually replaced by floating currencies during the 20th century, and as the recent development of computer networks made electronic money possible, financial transactions have rapidly increased in speed and complexity. In 1997, 1.3 billion US dollars were exchanged per day on the foreign exchange market, roughly 475 billion US dollars annually. The world financial transactions have jumped from 1.1 quadrillion US dollars in 2002 to 2.2 quadrillion US dollars in 2008. 95% of this is speculation. A financial transaction always involves one or more financial asset.

Jed McCaleb

After moving on from his original idea, McCaleb repurposed the site in late 2010 as a bitcoin exchange that could process bitcoin-to-dollar trades. The website grew in popularity within months. McCaleb sold the company to Mark Karpelès in February 2011 and remained a minority owner in the company until its collapse in 2014. In 2011, McCaleb began developing a digital currency in which transactions were verified by consensus among network members which became known as the Ripple protocol, which differs from the mining technique used in bitcoin. He recruited David Schwartz and secured an investment from Jesse Powell before adding Arthur Britto as the chief strategist.

Stellar (payment network)

StellarStellar LumenStellar Network
Stellar is an open-source protocol for exchanging money or tokens using blockchain technology. The platform's source code is hosted on Github. Servers run a software implementation of the protocol, and use the Internet to connect to and communicate with other Stellar servers. Each server stores a ledger of all the accounts in the network. Transactions among accounts occur not through mining but rather through a consensus process among trusted accounts. * Official Website

List of highest funded crowdfunding projects

highest funded film campaign on Indiegogohighest-funded crowdfunding projects106th most crowdfunded project of all time
This is an incomplete list of the highest-funded crowdfunding projects (including projects which failed to achieve funding).

List of people in blockchain technology

A few of these people pre-date the invention of this technology; they are now regarded as people in blockchain technology because their work can be seen as leading to the invention of this technology. * Wences Casares, CEO of Xapo * Wei Dai, creator of b-money; inspired the creation of Bitcoin by Satoshi Nakamoto * Hal Finney, the recipient of the first Bitcoin transaction * Tony Gallippi, founder of BitPay, a global bitcoin payment service provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia * Blythe Masters, CEO of Digital Asset Holdings * Satoshi Nakamoto, the name used by the unknown person or people who designed bitcoin and created its original reference implementation * Changpeng Zhao, founder of

Blockchain.info

In February 2014, Apple Inc. removed the Blockchain app from the iOS App Store, prompting a harsh response from Blockchain and public outcry in the bitcoin community, most notably within the Reddit community. In July 2014, Apple reinstated the app. In October 2014, Blockchain.info closed a $30.5 million fundraising round from Lightspeed Venture Partners and Mosaic Ventures, which was the biggest round of financing in the digital currency sector at that time.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsblack market passwords
Later that month, the long-lived Outlaw market closed down citing a major bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet theft; however, speculation remained that it was an exit scam. In July 2017 the markets experienced their largest disruptions since Operations Onymous, when Operation Bayonet culminated in coordinated multinational seizures of both the Hansa and leading AlphaBay markets, sparking worldwide law enforcement investigations. The seizures brought in lots of traffic to other markets making TradeRoute and Dream Market the most popular markets at the time. In January 2018, Dream Market added Bitcoin Cash as a payment option.

History of money

monetary historyabandonmentan international currency of the early ages
By 1990, in the United States all money transferred between its central bank and commercial banks was in electronic form. By the 2000s most money existed as digital currency in banks databases. In 2012, by number of transaction, 20 to 58 percent of transactions were electronic (dependant on country). In 2008, Bitcoin was proposed by an unknown author/s under the pseudonym of Satoshi Nakamoto, it was implemented the same year. Its use of cryptography allowed the currency to have a trustless, fungible and tamper resistant distributed ledger called a blockchain. It became the first widely used decentralized, peer-to-peer, cryptocurrency.

Litecoin

LTC
Litecoin was an early bitcoin spinoff or altcoin, starting in October 2011. In technical details, litecoin is nearly identical to Bitcoin. Litecoin was released via an open-source client on GitHub on October 7, 2011 by Charlie Lee, a Google employee and former Engineering Director at Coinbase. The Litecoin network went live on October 13, 2011. It was a fork of the Bitcoin Core client, differing primarily by having a decreased block generation time (2.5 minutes), increased maximum number of coins, different hashing algorithm (scrypt, instead of SHA-256), and a slightly modified GUI.

Currency

currenciesforeign currencycoinage
Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet. Originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and later in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities. This formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place that was safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
By 1990, in the United States all money transferred between its central bank and commercial banks was in electronic form. By the 2000s most money existed as digital currency in bank databases. In 2012, by number of transaction, 20 to 58 percent of transactions were electronic (dependant on country). Non-national digital currencies were developed in the early 2000s. In particular, Flooz and Beenz had gained momentum before the Dot-com bubble. Not much innovation occurred until the conception of Bitcoin in 2009, which introduced the concept of a cryptocurrency – a decentralised trustless currency.