Coinbase

Brian Armstrong
Coinbase is a digital currency exchange headquartered in San Francisco, California. They broker exchanges of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin with fiat currencies in approximately 32 countries, and bitcoin transactions and storage in 190 countries worldwide. Coinbase was founded in June 2012 by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam. Blockchain.info co-founder Ben Reeves was part of the original founding team but later parted ways with Armstrong due to a difference in how the Coinbase wallet should operate. The remaining founding team enrolled in the Summer 2012 Y Combinator startup incubator program.

Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
List of cryptocurrencies. Virtual currency law in the United States.

Decentralization

decentralizeddecentralisationdecentralised
Blockchain based networks are designed to support decentralization by way of a cryptographic distributed triple-entry accounting ledger, typically with “layers” where each layer is defined by an interoperable open protocol on top of which network participants can transact and build products or services without requiring permission from central authorities. Bitcoin is the original implementation of a blockchain where proof-of-work is used as a means of establishing decentralized consensus (aka. Nakamoto consensus), thus enabling the uniqueness of its intrinsic digital asset and utility as a scarce cryptocurrency.

Mining pool

miners pool resourcesmining operationpool
Digital currency exchanger. Electronic money. Pooled mining in Bitcoin Wiki. An estimation of hashrate distribution amongst the largest mining pools.

Financial transaction

transactiontransactionsfinancial transactions
As fixed currencies were gradually replaced by floating currencies during the 20th century, and as the recent development of computer networks made electronic money possible, financial transactions have rapidly increased in speed and complexity. In 1997, 1.3 billion US dollars were exchanged per day on the foreign exchange market, roughly 475 billion US dollars annually. The world financial transactions have jumped from 1.1 quadrillion US dollars in 2002 to 2.2 quadrillion US dollars in 2008. 95% of this is speculation. A financial transaction always involves one or more financial asset.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
Bitcoin and alternatives such as Ether, Nxt and Peercoin are peer-to-peer-based digital cryptocurrencies. Dalesa, a peer-to-peer web cache for LANs (based on IP multicasting). FAROO, a peer-to-peer web search engine. Filecoin is an open source, public, cryptocurrency and digital payment system intended to be a blockchain-based cooperative digital storage and data retrieval method. I2P, an overlay network used to browse the Internet anonymously. Infinit is an unlimited and encrypted peer to peer file sharing application for digital artists written in C++.

Blockchain.info

In February 2014, Apple Inc. removed the Blockchain app from the iOS App Store, prompting a harsh response from Blockchain and public outcry in the bitcoin community, most notably within the Reddit community. In July 2014, Apple reinstated the app. In October 2014, Blockchain.info closed a $30.5 million fundraising round from Lightspeed Venture Partners and Mosaic Ventures, which was the biggest round of financing in the digital currency sector at that time.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsblack market passwords
Later that month, the long-lived Outlaw market closed down citing a major bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet theft; however, speculation remained that it was an exit scam. In July 2017 the markets experienced their largest disruptions since Operations Onymous, when Operation Bayonet culminated in coordinated multinational seizures of both the Hansa and leading AlphaBay markets, sparking worldwide law enforcement investigations. The seizures brought in lots of traffic to other markets making TradeRoute and Dream Market the most popular markets at the time. In January 2018, Dream Market added Bitcoin Cash as a payment option.

Cryptocurrency exchange

bitcoin exchangeexchangedigital currency exchange
Bitcoin. Digital currency. Digital gold currency. List of Bitcoin companies.

Roger Ver

Roger Keith Ver (born January 27, 1979 ) is an early investor in bitcoin-related startups. He has been a prominent supporter of bitcoin adoption and saw bitcoin as a means to promote economic freedom. He now promotes Bitcoin Cash, a hard fork of the cryptocurrency created with the intent to fix issues such as high fees and long transaction confirmation times. Born and raised in Silicon Valley, he sold explosives on eBay and later pleaded guilty to three related felony charges. He served 10 months in prison, then moved to Japan in 2005. He renounced his United States citizenship in 2014 after obtaining a Saint Kitts and Nevis passport.

Peter Thiel

Peter Thiel’sPeter TiehlThiel, Peter
Thiel wanted to create a type of digital wallet in the hopes of ensuring more consumer convenience and security by encrypting data on digital devices, and in 1999 Confinity launched PayPal. PayPal promised to open up new possibilities for handling money, and according to Eric M. Jackson's account in his book The PayPal Wars, Thiel viewed PayPal's mission as liberating people throughout the world from the erosion of the value of their currencies due to inflation. Jackson recalls an inspirational speech by Thiel in 1999: "We're definitely onto something big. The need PayPal answers is monumental. Everyone in the world needs money – to get paid, to trade, to live.

Double-spending

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The cryptocurrency bitcoin implemented a solution in early 2009. It uses a cryptographic protocol called a proof-of-work system to avoid the need for a trusted third party to validate transactions. Instead, transactions are recorded in a public ledger called a blockchain. A transaction is considered valid when it is included in the blockchain that contains the greatest amount of computational work. This makes double-spending more difficult as the size of the overall network grows. Other cryptocurrencies also have similar features.

Cryptocurrency wallet

Blockchain Asset Walletone hot and one coldstorage
Bitcoin#Wallets. Cryptocurrency and security.

Proof-of-stake

proof of stakeDPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake Algorithm)generates
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In PoS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e., the stake). In contrast, the algorithm of proof-of-work-based cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin uses mining; that is, the solving of computationally intensive puzzles to validate transactions and create new blocks. Proof of stake must have a way of defining the next valid block in any blockchain.

Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchain
Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin. While there was early praise for the technical innovations of Ethereum, questions were also raised about its security and scalability. In March 2017, various blockchain start-ups, research groups, and Fortune 500 companies announced the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) with 30 founding members. By May, the nonprofit organization had 116 enterprise members—including ConsenSys, CME Group, Cornell University's research group, Toyota Research Institute, Samsung SDS, Microsoft, Intel, J. P.

BitPay

Bitcoin
Blockchain. Circle (company). List of bitcoin companies.

E-commerce payment system

electronic paymentonline paymentOnline payments
PayPal's Commerce feature, that was launched recently, means that dealers can integrate Purchase buttons into such apps like Pinterest or Facebook Messenger. Stripe's Relay feature may look similar to it. Braintree also has a phone support that is available for all customers. PayPal purchased Braintree in 2013. One of the main problems with PayPal was in a redirection of the user from the seller's website to the PayPal server, and it required the user to be a registered service user. It was a reason for discontent from both parties, so the purchase of Braintree solved the problem. Stripe supports more than one hundred currencies and it offers a few methods of online payment.

Chamber of Digital Commerce

The Chamber of Digital Commerce is an American advocacy group that promotes the emerging industry behind blockchain technology, bitcoin, digital currency and digital assets. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the organization was founded in July 2014 by Perianne Boring. In October 2014, the chamber received 501(c)(6) non-profit status from the Internal Revenue Service. In 2015, economist and former JPMorgan Chase executive Blythe Masters was appointed to the advisory board. In 2017, internet pioneer and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) inventor Bob Kahn keynoted the DC Blockchain Summit at Georgetown University.

Dark web

deep webdarknetdark
Bitcoin services such as tumblers are often available on Tor, and some – such as Grams – offer darknet market integration. A research study undertaken by Jean-Loup Richet, a research fellow at ESSEC, and carried out with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, highlighted new trends in the use of Bitcoin tumblers for money laundering purposes. A common approach was to use a digital currency exchanger service which converted Bitcoin into an online game currency (such as gold coins in World of Warcraft) that will later be converted back into money.