Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering, challenge, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground.

Cashless society

cashlessabolishing cash
Digital currency. Legal tender. Mass surveillance.

Proof of Existence

In November 2013, Proof of Existence also received attention in Spanish-language Genbeta in "Proof of Existence, certificando documentos con Bitcoin". On April 22, 2014 reporter Rob Wile from Business Insider wrote that it is "Perhaps the most straightforward example of a post-Bitcoin service using Satoshi's blockchain". On May 8, 2014 reporter Daniel Cawrey from CoinDesk wrote that the service "is an example of how the power of this new technology can have applications far beyond the world of finance, in this case, giving a glimpse of how bitcoin could one day have a substantial impact in the fields of intellectual property and law."

Calvin Ayre

In October, Ayre's Media Group and's Roger Ver issued a joint press statement stating that Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is the only Blockchain that can do it all. In January 2018, Ayre has revealed he has dedicated significant amounts of his investment funds towards creating a Bitcoin Cash mining operation. The entrepreneur explains he's purchased both hardware and software in order to help build the BCH hashrate. The mining facility will dedicate its hashpower to the Bitcoin Cash blockchain only. In July 2018, Ayre's mining operations Coingeek became the world's largest Bitcoin Cash miner surpassing as verified by community-driven Bitcoin statistics leader Coin Dance.

Privacy and blockchain

Firstly, private keys are used to access funds and personal wallets on the blockchain. Private keys also add a layer of identity authentication. When an individual wishes to send money to another user, they must provide a digital signature (which is produced only when provided with the particular private key). This process protects against potential hackers that aim to pose as certain individuals and use the said-individuals funds. As previously stated, blockchain technology arose from the creation of Bitcoin. In 2008, a pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto released a paper describing the technology behind the technology.

Payment system

payment networkpayment systemspayments system
A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value, and includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make such an exchange possible. A common type of payment system is the operational network that links bank accounts and provides for monetary exchange using bank deposits.


Titcoin (Ticker Symbol: TIT) is a type of digital currency called a cryptocurrency that uses pornography on a decentralized peer-to-peer network to manage the issuance of new currency units while simultaneously processing transactions. Titcoin is a derivative of the Bitcoin source code with key modifications to the software which greatly improve transaction speeds and network difficulty readjustments. Titcoin is exclusively designed for and marketed towards the adult entertainment industry to allow owners of the currency to pay for adult products and services without the fear of incriminating payment histories appearing on their credit cards.

Monero (cryptocurrency)

Unlike many cryptocurrencies that are derivatives of Bitcoin, Monero is based on the CryptoNight proof-of-work hash algorithm, which comes from the CryptoNote protocol. The CryptoNote protocol possesses significant algorithmic differences relating to blockchain obfuscation. In particular, the ring signatures mix the spender's input with a group of others, making it exponentially more difficult to establish a link between each subsequent transaction. Additionally, "stealth addresses" generated for each transaction make it impossible to discover the actual destination address of a transaction by anyone else other than the sender and the receiver.

Dash (cryptocurrency)

DashX11Dark Gravity Wave
The Dash DAO later funded a blockchain research lab at ASU., Dash's market capitalization was around $4.3 billion and it was one of the top 12 cryptocurrencies. Dash was designed to allow transactions quickly and to have a swift governance structure in order to overcome shortfalls in Bitcoin. Governance is handled through a form of decentralized autonomous organization in which decisions are made on a blockchain by "masternodes". Masternodes perform standard node functions like hosting a copy of the blockchain, relaying messages, and validating transactions on the network, and in addition act as shareholders, voting on proposals for improving Dash's ecosystem.

EOS.IO blockchain
On December 6, 2017, Everipedia, a for-profit, wiki-based online encyclopedia, announced plans using EOS blockchain technology and work on an airdrop of a cryptocurrency called IQ to encourage generating information. The IQ tokens are intended to be exchangeable for Bitcoin. One of the goals of the company is to stop certain countries from blocking the content, by the integration of the blockchain model. Once Everipedia is decentralized and hosted on the EOSIO platform, countries such as Turkey and Iran that block Wikipedia will no longer be able to block it, via Everipedia's fork.


Earlier cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, were mined using algorithms that solved arbitrary mathematical problems, the results of which had no value or use outside of mining the cryptocurrency itself. Primecoin's algorithm, however, computed chains of prime numbers (Cunningham and bi-twin chains), the results of which were published on its blockchain's public ledger, available for use by scientists, mathematicians, and anyone else.


NBC News's Ben Popken noted in 2018 that Vertcoin has received significant attention on reddit and that its "soaring popularity over the last year" is owing to its being impervious to the mining pools used to have heavy influence over Bitcoin. Though a December 2018 paper published in The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers said that "because [Vertcoin] is not a very popular blockchain, the difficulty adjustment algorithm is very sensitive to hashrate change, making it an easy target to timestamp spoofing and cherry picking attack." From October through December 2018, Vertcoin suffered from 51% attacks.


A week after launch, PotCoin had enough interest to merit multiple mining pools and on January 30, was added to a newly launched cryptocurrency exchange named Cryptorush allowing trading between Bitcoin and PotCoin. During February and March 2014, PotCoin gained mainstream media attention due to the large community and expanding development team. On February 17, Chronic Star Medical, a supplier of cannabis foods, was the first merchant to announce they would be accepting PotCoin as a form of payment.

Digital wallet

mobile walletdigital walletswallet
Bitcoin#Wallets. Cellum. Google Pay. Lemon Wallet. LeoPay. MasterPass. Microsoft Pay. Mondex. nTrust. Osaifu-Keitai. Paypal. RecargaPay. Samsung Pay. Skrill. Square (application). Universal card. Visa Checkout. paytm. Cubber.


On April 11, 2018 the company announced its expansion to Malta, given the country's efforts to provide a sound regulatory framework for blockchain businesses and digital asset exchanges. In May 2018, the exchange became the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange by reported turnover. On July 30, 2018 a trader reportedly bought bitcoin futures with a $416 million notional value on margin, before being forced by the exchange to liquidate his position at a large loss. The exchange injected 2,500 Bitcoins - worth about $18 million at current prices - into an insurance fund to help minimize the impact on clients.


Additional funding totaling had been provided by September 2015, from investors in a second funding round including Digital Currency Group, Bitfinex, Bitcoin Capital and Mardal Investments. In March 2017, ShapeShift has raised $10.4 mln in a series A round led by European venture capital firm Earlybird. ShapeShift released initially on the iOS platform in June 2015, initially allowing users to swap 25 digital currencies and value tokens. As of September 2015, there were over 40 different digital currencies available for trade, providing "940 trading pairs, ... greater than any single exchange on the market."

Apple Pay

The banks were willing to work with Apple in the face of efforts like Bitcoin and the Merchant Customer Exchange, which seeks to work around the card networks. Early reviews of the service regarded it as easy to use, but were not sure whether the service would become widely adopted. The Verge Nilay Patel wrote that the product demo was "remarkably smooth" and "a cohesive user experience". Patel said the process took five to ten seconds at a retail card reader, and added that it may be less smooth at stores such as Walgreens, where cashiers prompt customers for loyalty cards and charity donations. The New York Times Neil Irwin wrote that Apple exaggerated the inconvenience of credit cards.

Vitalik Buterin

Bitcoin Magazine in 2012 later began publishing a print edition and has been referred to as the first serious publication dedicated to cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin Magazine was then purchased by BTC Media, where Buterin continued to write until mid-2014. In addition, he held a position on the editorial board of Ledger, a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that publishes full-length original research articles on the subjects of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.

Petro (cryptocurrency)

Petropetro cryptocurrencythe Petro
After a couple of weeks, a new version of the white paper was released which announced a different blockchain platform on which petro would be built. The Washington Post economic reporter Matt O'Brien said that "The petro might be the most obviously horrible investment ever... The petro is about creating something useless that's why only foreigners can buy them, but only Venezuelans can spend them". * Official website Petrocurrency. Venezuelan bolívar.

2009 in science

. *2009 Abel Prize: Mikhail Gromov 1 January – In DNA nanotechnology, Arizona State University researchers Hao Yan and Yan Liu use nanoparticles to make 3D DNA nanotubes. 3 January – The Bitcoin cryptocurrency network is created when the developer known as Satoshi Nakamoto mines the genesis block of its blockchain. 6 January – NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovers 12 new gamma-ray-only pulsars, and has detected gamma-ray pulses from 18 others. 26 January – An annular solar eclipse takes place.


Other events of 2009last year
January 3 – The first ("Genesis") block of the blockchain of the cryptocurrency and decentralized payment system Bitcoin is established by the creator of the system, known as Satoshi Nakamoto. January 15 – US Airways Flight 1549 ditches in the Hudson River in an accident that becomes known as the "Miracle on the Hudson" as all 155 people on board are rescued. January 18 – Gaza War: Hamas announces they will accept Israel Defense Forces offer of a ceasefire, ending the conflict. January 20. A protest movement in Iceland culminates as the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests start.

Economics of bitcoin

Bitcoin is a digital asset designed by its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, to work as a currency. Bitcoin is a digital asset designed by its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, to work as a currency. It is commonly referred to with terms like: digital currency, digital cash, virtual currency, electronic currency, digital gold, or cryptocurrency. The question whether bitcoin is a currency or not is disputed. Bitcoins have three useful qualities in a currency, according to The Economist in January 2015: they are "hard to earn, limited in supply and easy to verify".

Bitcoin Classic

On November 10, 2017, in the wake of the failure of plans for the hard fork to double the bitcoin block size, Bitcoin Classic ceased operation, declaring that Bitcoin Cash is now the only hope for bitcoin to become scalable. * List of bitcoin forks * Bitcoin Classic

Skin gambling

Counter-Strike'' skin gambling controversyGambling on esports using ''Counter-Strike: Global Offense'' "skinsskins bettor
As the value of skins grew beyond these limits, new websites opened up that used the Steamworks application programming interface (API) to link players' inventory to these sites as to manage the trading of Global Offensive skins while enabling these users to spend more and receive money through other online banking/payment sites like PayPal or using digital currency like Bitcoin, and bypassing Valve's transaction fee. The player community for Global Offensive grew quickly following the addition of skins, further enabled by the growth of streaming services like

Billon (company)

Billon claims to reach the speed of transactions orders of magnitude faster than other blockchains. According to the company, throughput tests proved the number of 160 million transactions per day, i.e. couple of thousands per second. The resulting speed of transactions is comparable with contactless payment cards, achieving much lower fraud levels. There is no mining process in Billon architecture. Instead, genesis blocks in Billon's blockchain are created by authorised issuers, primarily licensed banks that exchange paper or electronic money into their digital equivalents. Money has a form of a file with Billon specified crypto-protocol standard.