Credit card

credit cardscreditcredit-card
Electronic money. Fair Credit Reporting Act. Identity theft. Interchange fee. International Card Manufacturers Association. Merchant account. Payment card. Point of sale. Reimbursement. Revolving account. Stored-value card. Klein, Lloyd. It's in the cards: consumer credit and the American experience (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999); s the first comprehensive account of the development of consumer credit. Lee, Jinkook, and Kyoung‐Nan Kwon. "Consumers’ use of credit cards: Store credit card usage as an alternative payment and financing medium." Journal of Consumer Affairs 36.2 (2002): 239-262. Mandell, Lewis. The credit card industry: a history (Twayne Publishers, 1990). Manning, Robert D.

Electronic funds transfer

money transferEFTelectronic check
Digital currency. E-commerce payment system. Electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS). Interbank network. Payment system. Real time gross settlement. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT). Virtual currency. Instant payment.

Complementary currency

alternative currencycomplementary currenciesalternative currencies
NuBits – the world's first stable value digital currency. Rábaközi Tallér. Sardex, alternative currency used in Sardinia. Stroud Pound. Tumin – alternative currency in El Espinal, Veracruz, Mexico. Toronto Dollar is another example of a backed local currency. Ven – a digital currency used in Hub Culture, a private social network. WIR Bank – founded in 1934, oriented towards small and mid-sized corporations. ANCAP. Barter. Bearer instrument. Bernard Lietaer. Chiemgauer. Collaborative finance. Commodity money. Community Exchange System. Conder token. Credit money. Cryptocurrency. Cyclos. Digital currencies. Digital gold currency. E.C.

Virtual currency

virtual currenciesdigital tokensvirtual
Ecuador is the first country attempting a government run digital currency -no cryptocurrency; during the introductory phase from Christmas Eve 2014 until mid February 2015 people can open accounts and change passwords. At the end of February 2015 transactions of electronic money will be possible. Virtual currencies pose challenges for central banks, financial regulators, departments or ministries of finance, as well as fiscal authorities and statistical authorities.

Mt. Gox

lost by Mt. GoxMtGox
In March 2018, the trustee Kobayashi said that enough BTC has been sold to cover the claims of creditors. * MtGox Co., Ltd. bankruptcy docket from the United States Courts Archive, Court Listener from Free Law Project Digital currency exchange. Bitfinex, which replaced Mt. Gox as the world's largest bitcoin exchange, lost $72 million in bitcoin in 2016.

Nick Szabo

bit gold
Most digital currencies solve the problem by relinquishing some control to a central authority, which keeps track of each account’s balance. This was an unacceptable solution for Szabo. "I was trying to mimic as closely as possible in cyberspace the security and trust characteristics of gold, and chief among those is that it doesn’t depend on a trusted central authority," he said. In 2008, a mysterious figure who wrote under the name Satoshi Nakamoto released a proposal for bitcoin. Nakamoto’s true identity remained a secret, which led to speculation about a long list of people suspected to be Nakamoto. Although Szabo has repeatedly denied it, people have speculated that he is Nakamoto.


Unspent transaction output

unspent outputs of transactionsunspent transaction outputs
In cryptocurrencies, an unspent transaction output (UTXO) is an output of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent, i.e. used as an input in a new transaction. Bitcoin is the most famous example of a cryptocurrency that uses the UTXO model. Outputs are a superset of UTXOs. Accordingly, UTXOs are a subset of the outputs superset. Bitcoin UTXO lifespans have been studied. In the case of a valid blockchain transaction, unspent outputs (and only unspent outputs) may be used to effect further transactions. The requirement that only unspent outputs may be used in further transactions is necessary to prevent double spending and fraud.


cypherpunksCypherpunks mailing list
Satoshi Nakamoto: anonymous creator(s) of the decentralized Bitcoin cryptocurrency, and inventor(s) of the blockchain technology. Julian Oliver: artist, privacy advocate, critical engineer; co-founder of Critical Engineering. Sameer Parekh: former CEO of C2Net and co-founder of the CryptoRights Foundation human rights non-profit. Vipul Ved Prakash: co-founder of Sense/Net; author of Vipul's Razor; founder of Cloudmark. Runa Sandvik: Tor developer, political advocate. Len Sassaman (deceased): maintainer of the Mixmaster Remailer software; researcher at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven; biopunk.

Merkle tree

hash treeMerkle hash treeTiger Tree Hash
Hash trees are also used in the IPFS, Btrfs and ZFS file systems (to counter data degradation ); Dat protocol; Apache Wave protocol ; Git and Mercurial distributed revision control systems; the Tahoe-LAFS backup system; Zeronet; the Bitcoin and Ethereum peer-to-peer networks ; the Certificate Transparency framework; and a number of NoSQL systems such as Apache Cassandra, Riak, and Dynamo. Suggestions have been made to use hash trees in trusted computing systems. The initial Bitcoin implementation of Merkle trees by Satoshi Nakamoto applies the compression step of the hash function to an excessive degree, which is mitigated by using Fast Merkle Trees.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsICOs
Ethereum is (as of February 2018) the leading blockchain platform for ICOs with more than 80% market share. Tokens are generally based on the Ethereum ERC-20 standard. According to Cointelegraph the Ethereum network ICOs have resulted in considerable phishing, Ponzi schemes, and other scams, accounting for about 10% of ICOs. On January 30, 2018, Facebook banned advertisements for ICOs as well as for cryptocurrencies and binary options. By April 9, 2018, ICO advertising has been banned not only by Facebook, but by Twitter, Google, and MailChimp.

Smart contract

smart contractsDigital contractscontracts
., UBS was experimenting with "smart bonds" that use the bitcoin blockchain in which payment streams could hypothetically be fully automated, creating a self-paying instrument. A smart contract is "a computerized transaction protocol that executes the terms of a contract". A blockchain-based smart contract is visible to all users of said blockchain. However, this leads to a situation where bugs, including security holes, are visible to all yet may not be quickly fixed. Such an attack, difficult to fix quickly, was successfully executed on The DAO in June 2016, draining in Ether while developers attempted to come to a solution that would gain consensus.

Calvin Ayre

In October, Ayre's Media Group and's Roger Ver issued a joint press statement stating that Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is the only Blockchain that can do it all. In January 2018, Ayre has revealed he has dedicated significant amounts of his investment funds towards creating a Bitcoin Cash mining operation. The entrepreneur explains he's purchased both hardware and software in order to help build the BCH hashrate. The mining facility will dedicate its hashpower to the Bitcoin Cash blockchain only. In July 2018, Ayre's mining operations Coingeek became the world's largest Bitcoin Cash miner surpassing as verified by community-driven Bitcoin statistics leader Coin Dance.

Proof of Existence

In her 2015 book Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy from O'Reilly Media, author Melanie Swan wrote it was "One of the first services to offer blockchain attestation". Since 2014, O'Reilly author Andreas Antonopoulos uses Proof of Existence as an example in his book, Mastering Bitcoin. Previously, Antonopoulos also interviewed Manuel Araoz about Proof of Existence. Chris Dixon said, "Bitcoin is a platform upon which new technologies can be developed" and went on to list Proof of Existence as one of the first Bitcoin Blockchain applications.


In it, $72 million in bitcoin was stolen from the company's customer's accounts. Immediately thereafter, bitcoin's trading price plunged by 20%. After learning of the breach, Bitfinex halted all bitcoin withdrawals and trading. In that hack, the second-biggest breach of a Bitcoin exchange platform, 119,756 units of bitcoin, which was about $72 million at the time, were stolen. The bitcoin was taken from users' segregated wallets and Bitfinex said it was tracking down the hack. Exchange customers, even those whose accounts had not been broken into, had their account balance reduced by 36% and received BFX tokens in proportion to their losses.


🇯🇪Bailiwick of JerseyIsle of Jersey
In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses. Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island's only town. Approximately half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.

Gemini (company)

In October 2017, Gemini announced that it was allowing registered users to withdraw Bitcoin Cash from the exchange provided they had a balance available on the exchange prior to the Bitcoin hard fork in August 2017. Fortune Magazine reported that Cboe uses Gemini to settle its Bitcoin futures contracts, "XBT", in December 2017. Cboe partnered with Gemini so as to use Gemini's dollar denominated auction price for these contracts. According to Bloomberg News, Gemini began offering "Block Trading" in April 2018.

The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin

The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin did not make an appearance into the box office. It is available on major distribution channels including Showtime, Amazon Prime and iTunes. Daniel is the one who leads the audience on this exciting journey around the world. He first got interested in Bitcoin in 2011 and from there he has been in love with it. When Daniel first got interested in Bitcoin, he started mining Bitcoin. Mining is a transaction record keeping system completed by the consumers. These transactions are then placed on the blockchain, which is a public ledger. Mining rewards the miners with a small percentage of Bitcoin when they complete a transaction.