Andreas Antonopoulos

Gox trading platform as early as April 2013, calling it "a systemic risk to bitcoin, a death trap for traders and a business run by the clueless". In February 2014, following the closing of Mt. Gox, Antonopoulos published a further analysis of the collapse and its effect on the greater bitcoin ecosystem. In April 2014, Antonopoulos organised a fundraising campaign for Dorian Nakamoto, who was identified in a Newsweek article as the creator of bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto. The reporting techniques used in the article were controversial among journalists and Bitcoin community members.

Charlie Shrem

The startup's fund, Mainstreet Investment LP, planned to offer cryptocurrency tokens issued on the ethereum blockchain representing shares in a portfolio of companies involved in manufacturing, real estate and sanitary waste. Owners of the tokens would own a piece of the companies in the portfolio. The fund would be 30% owned by token holders, with the remaining 70% owned by Intellisys Capital. Mainstreet acquisitions was to be directed by Shrem and Granger, with dividends paid to investors over the ethereum blockchain, and invested in blockchain technology companies. The proposed fund was dissolved in March 2017.


Bitmain was involved in the 2018 Bitcoin Cash split, siding on the side of Bitcoin Cash ABC alongside Roger Ver. In December 2018 the company laid off about half of its 3000 staff. The company has since closed its offices in Israel and the Netherlands, while significantly downsizing its Texas mining operation. In January 2019, Hong Kong media reported that Bitmain co-founders Wu and Zhan would step down from their co-CEO roles while remaining co-chairs of the company.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsICOs
Ethereum is (as of February 2018) the leading blockchain platform for ICOs with more than 80% market share. Tokens are generally based on the Ethereum ERC-20 standard. According to Cointelegraph the Ethereum network ICOs have resulted in considerable phishing, Ponzi schemes, and other scams, accounting for about 10% of ICOs. On January 30, 2018, Facebook banned advertisements for ICOs as well as for cryptocurrencies and binary options. By April 9, 2018, ICO advertising has been banned not only by Facebook, but by Twitter, Google, and MailChimp.


UBS AGUBS Investment BankUBS Group AG
In late 2016, the bank created the digital currency "Utility Settlement Coin" (USC) to accelerate inter-bank settlements and established a blockchain technology research laboratory in London. From 2012 to 2018, the investment bank, led by Andrea Orcel, initiated a major restructuring, firing over 10,000 employees and focusing on European underwriting business instead of traditional dealmaking. UBS announced in January 2018 that it does not trade or expose clients to cryptocurrencies as it believes they have little to no elasticity, and are speculatively valued. It partnered with technology company IBM to launch a blockchain trade finance platform called "Batavia" in early 2018.

Bitcoin scalability problem

hard forkcapable of scalingsoft fork
Protocols such as the Lightning Network and Tumblebit have been proposed which operate on top of the bitcoin network as a cache to allow payments to be effected that are not immediately put on the blockchain. * The Lightning Network is a protocol that aims to improve bitcoin's scalability and speed. The Lightning Network requires putting a funding transaction on the blockchain to open a channel. Payment provider Bitrefill tweeted in December 2017 claiming it was the first lightning transaction operating on the bitcoin network.

Dave Kleiman

In 2011 Kleiman founded the company W&K Info Defense Research LLC (“W&K”) in Florida, allegedly to mine bitcoins. On December 2015 Gizmodo reported that Dave Kleiman may have been involved in the invention of bitcoin based on information uncovered in several leaked documents. In May 2016, The Economist article had Craig Steven Wright claiming he (under the pseudonym of Satoshi Nakamoto) and Dave Kleiman were behind the invention of bitcoin. In February 2018, a brother of Dave initiated a lawsuit in the U.S.


In it, $72 million in bitcoin was stolen from the company's customer's accounts. Immediately thereafter, bitcoin's trading price plunged by 20%. After learning of the breach, Bitfinex halted all bitcoin withdrawals and trading. In that hack, the second-biggest breach of a Bitcoin exchange platform, 119,756 units of bitcoin, which was about $72 million at the time, were stolen. The bitcoin was taken from users' segregated wallets and Bitfinex said it was tracking down the hack. Exchange customers, even those whose accounts had not been broken into, had their account balance reduced by 36% and received BFX tokens in proportion to their losses.


🇯🇪Bailiwick of JerseyIsle of Jersey
In July 2014, the Jersey Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses. Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island's only town. Approximately half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.

Gemini (company)

In October 2017, Gemini announced that it was allowing registered users to withdraw Bitcoin Cash from the exchange provided they had a balance available on the exchange prior to the Bitcoin hard fork in August 2017. Fortune Magazine reported that Cboe uses Gemini to settle its Bitcoin futures contracts, "XBT", in December 2017. Cboe partnered with Gemini so as to use Gemini's dollar denominated auction price for these contracts. According to Bloomberg News, Gemini began offering "Block Trading" in April 2018.

The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin

The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin did not make an appearance into the box office. It is available on major distribution channels including Showtime, Amazon Prime and iTunes. Daniel is the one who leads the audience on this exciting journey around the world. He first got interested in Bitcoin in 2011 and from there he has been in love with it. When Daniel first got interested in Bitcoin, he started mining Bitcoin. Mining is a transaction record keeping system completed by the consumers. These transactions are then placed on the blockchain, which is a public ledger. Mining rewards the miners with a small percentage of Bitcoin when they complete a transaction.


Newsweek came under fire when writer Leah McGrath Goodman claimed to have revealed the identity of the anonymous creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto. Though the source of her sleuthing was primarily the public record, she was heavily criticized for her doxing by users on Reddit. The Satoshi Nakamoto case brought doxing to greater attention, particularly on platforms such as Twitter, where users questioned the ethics of doxing in journalism. Many Twitter users condemned doxing in journalism, wherein they argued that the practice was seemingly acceptable for professional journalists but wrong for anyone else.

Cryptographic nonce

noncenoncesauthentication nonce
Similarly, the bitcoin blockchain hashing algorithm can be tuned to an arbitrary difficulty by changing the required minimum/maximum value of the hash so that the number of bitcoins awarded for new blocks does not increase linearly with increased network computation power as new users join. This is likewise achieved by forcing bitcoin miners to add nonce values to the value being hashed to change the hash algorithm output.


Base58 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes used to represent large integers as alphanumeric text, introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto for use with Bitcoin. It has since been applied to other cryptocurrencies and applications. It is similar to Base64 but has been modified to avoid both non-alphanumeric characters and letters which might look ambiguous when printed. It is therefore designed for human users who manually enter the data, copying from some visual source, but also allows easy copy and paste because a double-click will usually select the whole string.


Zug, SwitzerlandSchöneggcity of Zug
In July 2016, the city of Zug began to accept digital currency in payment of city fees. In order to advance Zug as a region that is innovating with future technologies, the city council added bitcoin as a means of paying small amounts, up to. In order to reduce risk, Zug immediately converts any bitcoin received into the Swiss currency. Zug is a popular location for incorporation of companies, such as Siemens Building Technologies, V-ZUG, and Nord Stream AG. Zug has also been referred to as the Crypto Valley by Ethereum co-founder Mihai Alisie, due to the large number of companies engaged in cryptocurrency in the city.

Private currency

private currencieslimited means of paymentprivate
In terms of total market value, Bitcoin is the largest cryptocurrency, but there are over 700 digital currencies in existence. On 6 August 2013, Federal Judge Amos Mazzant of the Eastern District of Texas of the Fifth Circuit ruled that bitcoins are "a currency or a form of money" (specifically securities as defined by Federal Securities Laws), and as such were subject to the court's jurisdiction. In August 2013, the German Finance Ministry characterized Bitcoin as a unit of account, usable in multilateral clearing circles and subject to capital gains tax if held less than one year. In Thailand, lack of existing law leads many to believe Bitcoin is banned.

Ledger (journal)

LedgerLedger'' (journal)
Ledger is the first peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to cryptocurrency and blockchain technology research. The journal covers aspects of mathematics, computer science, engineering, law, economics and philosophy that relates to cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. Ledger is an open access journal published by the University Library System (ULS) of the University of Pittsburgh and is cosponsored by the University of Pittsburgh Press. The journal expects to release full-publications twice a year and additional articles throughout.


spear phishingspear-phishinganti-phishing
Some companies, for example PayPal, always address their customers by their username in emails, so if an email addresses the recipient in a generic fashion ("Dear PayPal customer") it is likely to be an attempt at phishing. Furthermore, PayPal offers various methods to determine spoof emails and advises users to forward suspicious emails to their domain to investigate and warn other customers.

Dominic Frisby

His second, Bitcoin: The Future of Money, details the online currency Bitcoin and includes research on its creator Satoshi Nakamoto. Critical reception has been mixed: The Spectator s Michael Bywater called it "a magnificent job", further commenting that "since reading Bitcoin I have been thinking about money ... with the same sort of intensity that atheists reserve for their relationship with God", however The Economist mused that "for any book on bitcoin to be worth reading, though, it has to delve further". In March 2017, Dominic said: "Brexit is one of the best things to have happened in Britain".

List of online payment service providers

The following is a list of notable online payment service providers and payment gateway providing companies, their platform base and the countries they offer services in:

List of bitcoin forks

Hard forks splitting bitcoin (aka "split coins") are created via changes of the blockchain rules and sharing a transaction history with bitcoin up to a certain time and date. The first hard fork splitting bitcoin happened on 1 August 2017, resulting in the creation of Bitcoin Cash. The following is a list of hard forks splitting bitcoin by date and/or block: * The fork fixing the value overflow incident was controversial because it was announced after the exploit was mined. Two hard forks were created by "protocol change" definition: Bitcoin XT. Bitcoin Classic. Bitcoin Unlimited. Bitcoin Cash: Forked at block 478558, 2017-08-01, for each bitcoin (BTC), an owner got 1 Bitcoin Cash (BCH).

Leah McGrath Goodman

In a March 2014 Newsweek magazine cover story, McGrath Goodman published what she asserted to be the identity and location of Satoshi Nakamoto, the inventor of bitcoin. The article has generated controversy for its methodology and conclusions. Writing in Forbes magazine, Andy Greenberg stated that "Criticism of Newsweek’s article, which describes a silent standoff" as reporter Leah McGrath Goodman stood at the end of Nakamoto’s driveway and interviewed him in the presence of police, focused in particular on Goodman's decision to name Nakamoto’s family members who agreed to be interviewed, and Newsweek magazine's decision to publish a picture of his house.


Untraceable, privately issued electronic money and anonymous Internet banking exists in these networks. In the past, this was handled only by centralized organizations. Digital Monetary Trust and Yodelbank were examples of two such anonymous banks that were later put offline by their creators. Ukash is an e-money network. Cash in amounts up to £500/€750 can be swapped for a 19-digit Ukash voucher in payment terminals and retail outlets. Bitcoin is a currency generated and secured by peer-to-peer networked devices that maintain a communal record of all transactions within the system that can be used in a crypto-anarchic context.

Andrew O'Hagan

Andrew O’HaganBe Near MeO'Hagan, Andrew
In June 2016, the London Review of Books published a 35,612 word essay by O'Hagan, titled 'The Satoshi Affair: Andrew O'Hagan on the many lives of Satoshi Nakamoto', which followed the events surrounding programmer Craig Wright's claim to be bitcoin founder, Satoshi Nakomoto. In the article, O'Hagan, describes how he was approached by Wright and nTrust, a group that he was associated with, in order to cover the exposure of Craig Wright's identity as Satoshi. Though the article is inconclusive as to the true identity of Satoshi, some have taken it as evidence that Wright is a fraud.

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

SWIFTSociety for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)SWIFT network
Electronic money. International sanctions. Internationalization of the renminbi. ISO 9362, the SWIFT/BIC code standard. ISO 15022. ISO 20022. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Sibos conference. Terrorist Finance Tracking Program. TIPANET. Value transfer system.