U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

SECSecurities and Exchange CommissionSecurities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government. The SEC holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws, proposing securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other activities and organizations, including the electronic securities markets in the United States.

Risk management

risk analysisriskrisk communication
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

Security hacker

hackerhackinghackers
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering, challenge, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground.

Volatility (finance)

volatilityvolatileprice volatility
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

FBIF.B.I.FBI Special Agent
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.

Financial services

financial sectorfinance and insurancefinancial industry
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises. Financial services companies are present in all economically developed geographic locations and tend to cluster in local, national, regional and international financial centers such as London, New York City, and Tokyo.

Hash function

hashhashinghashes
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, digests, or simply hashes. Hash functions are often used in combination with a hash table, a common data structure used in computer software for rapid data lookup. Hash functions accelerate table or database lookup by detecting duplicated records in a large file. One such application is finding similar stretches in DNA sequences. They are also useful in cryptography.

Payment system

payment networkpayment systemspayments system
A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value, and includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make such an exchange possible. A common type of payment system is the operational network that links bank accounts and provides for monetary exchange using bank deposits.

Email spam

spame-mail spamspam email
Spam is also a medium for fraudsters to scam users into entering personal information on fake Web sites using emails forged to look like they are from banks or other organizations, such as PayPal. This is known as phishing. Targeted phishing, where known information about the recipient is used to create forged emails, is known as spear-phishing. If a marketer has one database containing names, addresses, and telephone numbers of customers, they can pay to have their database matched against an external database containing email addresses.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
Cyber-extortionists typically begin with a low-level attack and a warning that a larger attack will be carried out if a ransom is not paid in Bitcoin. Security experts recommend targeted websites to not pay the ransom. The attackers tend to get into an extended extortion scheme once they recognize that the target is ready to pay. First discovered in 2009, the HTTP POST attack sends a complete, legitimate HTTP POST header, which includes a 'Content-Length' field to specify the size of the message body to follow. However, the attacker then proceeds to send the actual message body at an extremely slow rate (e.g. 1 byte/110 seconds).

YouTube

youtube.comYouTube channelYouTuber
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco.

Qt (software)

QtQt frameworkQt toolkit
Bitcoin Core, a bitcoin client. Bitcoin ABC, a bitcoin cash client. CryEngine V editor. Dolphin (emulator), an emulator for the Nintendo Wii and Nintendo GameCube systems. Dorico notation software. Dragonframe stop motion animation software. EAGLE by CadSoft Computer / Autodesk, an EDA application with schematic capture, PCB layout, auto-router and CAM features. FreeMat free open source numerical computing environment. Google Earth. Krita graphics editing and digital painting software. Mathematica, a mathematical symbolic computation program, sometimes termed a computer algebra system or program, used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical, and computing fields.

Medium of exchange

mediums of exchangeexchange mediumfreely exchangeable for goods
In the age of electronic money it was, and remains, common to use very long strings of difficult-to-reproduce numbers, generated by encryption methods, to authenticate transactions and commitments as having come from trusted parties. Thus the medium of exchange function has become wholly a part of the marketplace and its signals, and is utterly integrated with the unit of account function, so that, given the integrity of the public key system on which these are based, they become to that degree inseparable. This has clear advantages – counterfeiting is difficult or impossible unless the whole system is compromised, say by a new factoring algorithm.

Online Banking ePayments

e-payment
Electronic money. PCI DSS. NACHA - The Electronic Payments Association. International Council of Payment Network Operators.

BitLicense

licensed
At least ten bitcoin companies announced they were stopping all business in New York State because of the new regulations. The New York Business Journal called this the "Great Bitcoin Exodus". In September 2015, Boston-based Circle was granted the first BitLicense, although in December 2016 the company had pivoted away from its bitcoin exchange to focus more on payments. Two virtual currency limited purpose trust company charters were approved by the NYDFS in 2015, the first in May 2015 to itBit, now Paxos Trust Company, and the second charter in October 2015 to Gemini.

Google Pay Send

Wallet
Google states that it will only share personal information with other companies or individuals outside of Google in the following circumstances: Shortly after the launch of Google Wallet's first iteration in 2011, PayPal filed a lawsuit against Google and two former employees of PayPal – Osama Bedier and Stephanie Tilenius. The complaint alleges "misappropriation of trade secrets" and "breach of fiduciary duty". The lawsuit revealed that Google had been negotiating with PayPal for two years to power payments on mobile devices. But just as the deal was about to be signed, Google backed off and instead hired the PayPal executive negotiating the deal, Bedier.

Cynthia Dwork

DworkC. Dwork
With Naor she also first presented the idea of, and a technique for, combating e-mail spam by requiring a proof of computational effort, also known as proof-of-work - a key technology underlying hashcash and bitcoin. Her publications include: * She was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) in 2008, as a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2008, as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2014, as a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) in 2015, and as a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2016.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Bureau of Consumer Financial ProtectionCFPBConsumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
The CFPB has also attempted to help consumers understand virtual currencies such as Bitcoin. ; Status Two lawsuits were filed in the early years of the CFPB; they were both dismissed by federal courts, but one was appealed and is still ongoing. The first one, filed in June 21, 2012, by a Texas bank along with the Competitive Enterprise Institute, challenged the constitutionality of provisions of the CFPB. One year later, in August 2013, a federal judge dismissed the lawsuit because the plaintiffs had failed to show that they had suffered harm.

Crowdfunding

crowdfundedcrowd fundingcrowdfund
Although funds may be raised simply for the value token itself, funds raised on blockchain-based crowdfunding can also represent equity, bonds, or even "market-maker seats of governance" for the entity being funded. Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised from more than 3500 participants; Ethereum blockchain; Digix/DigixDAO; and "The DAO." Some of the largest crowdsales using tokens in 2017 were Tezos which raised, Bancor which raised and Status which raised.