combined heat and powerCHPco-generation
As both MiniCHP and CHP have been shown to reduce emissions they could play a large role in the field of CO 2 reduction from buildings, where more than 14% of emissions can be saved using CHP in buildings. The University of Cambridge reported a cost effective steam engine MicroCHP prototype in 2017 which has the potential to be commercially competitive in the following decades. A plant producing electricity, heat and cold is called a trigeneration or polygeneration plant. Cogeneration systems linked to absorption chillers use waste heat for refrigeration.


Tildsley BanksTyldesley Town HallTyldesley, Lancashire
The worst mining disaster in the town occurred at Yew Tree Colliery on 11 December 1858 when an explosion of firedamp caused by a safety lamp cost 25 lives, the youngest victim was 11, and the oldest, 35 years of age. Some of the victims are buried in the churchyard at St George's Church. Another explosion on 6 March 1877 at Great Boys Colliery cost eight lives and on 2 October 1883, six men died when the cage rope broke at Nelson Colliery in Shakerley. On 1 October 1895 five men including the colliery manager and undermanager died at Shakerley Colliery after an explosion of firedamp. Grundy's Foundry was another important employer.

Oaks explosion

Oaks CollieryOaks Colliery explosionBarnsley Oaks Disaster
Part way up they encountered a strong blower of chokedamp (mainly carbon dioxide and nitrogen) which accounted for much of the foul air. Just after 5 am Minto ascended to select and organise a party of about a hundred men to recover the bodies. Jeffcock remained below trying to re-establish effective ventilation. The rescuers were led by Smith, David Tewert the underground steward, William Sugden, deputy steward, Charles Siddon, under deputy, and two firemen Thomas Madin and William Stevenson. Hague was underground at 8.30 am the following morning working with Sugden in charge of a party of men about 650 yards from the pit bottom.

Brunner Mine disaster

Brunner coal mine disastermine disaster
It is most likely that the explosion was caused by firedamp, a common hazard in coal mines when a pocket of methane gas is accidentally ignited and explodes. Firedamp is all the more hazardous because of the after effects of the explosion. Gases known as "afterdamp" – carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced by the explosion – often prove to be just as deadly and can kill miners unhurt by the explosion itself. “Joseph Scott, the Blackball Mine Manager.., believed that the majority (of miners) were killed by the explosion and “not more than half a dozen by the afterdamp”.


On 20 May 1852 was an explosion of firedamp, found to be caused by a lighted candle, 90 men suffering from chokedamp or burns escaped but 36 men and boys died. The colliery was renamed Hic Bibi Colliery in the 1860s. It had several owners and after it closed in the 1880s, fireclay was used at a brickworks started and operated by the Ellerbeck Collieries Company until it closed in 1959. Chisnall Hall Colliery on Coppull Moor was owned by Pearson and Knowles Coal and Iron Company in 1896 when it employed 135 underground and 48 surface workers. After 1850 Coppull grew rapidly, many rows of houses were built to house coal miners and factory workers.

William Brownrigg

His medical interest led him to investigate the gases the miners breathed – fire damp (methane) and choke damp (oxygen depleted air). Carlisle Spedding helped to build a laboratory for Brownrigg and fed it with gases from a nearby coal mine through lead pipes. Brownrigg developed methods of collecting and transferring the gases and supplied James Lowther with gas filled bladders to show to The Royal Society which then elected Brownrigg as a Fellow. His experiments on gases continued and after visiting a spa resort in Germany he became interested in gases to be found in mineral waters.

Decompression theory

bubble modelsdecompression modelGoldman decompression model
Air in the alveoli of the lungs is diluted by saturated water vapour (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a metabolic product given off by the blood, and contains less oxygen (O 2 ) than atmospheric air as some of it is taken up by the blood for metabolic use. The resulting partial pressure of nitrogen is about 0,758 bar. At atmospheric pressure the body tissues are therefore normally saturated with nitrogen at 0.758 bar (569 mmHg). At increased ambient pressures due to depth or habitat pressurisation, a diver's lungs are filled with breathing gas at the increased pressure, and the partial pressures of the constituent gases will be increased proportionately.

West Stanley Pit disaster

Burns PitBurns Pit Disaster
The report concluded that this fall released a large quantity of firedamp which had been under pressure within the cavity. The inspector was unable to decide which of two things then happened: either that the outrush of gas was sufficient to blow the flame through the gauze of one of their safety lamps, or that as the men started to move away from the fall they snatched up their lamps causing a sufficient air current to pass the flame. There had been indications of a large quantity of gas in the area; not only had it already been detected but also hissing and bubbling sounds had been heard. There had also been a heaving of the floor and fissures had been seen.

Self-contained self-rescue device

closed circuit escape respiratormine safetyself rescue respirator
A SCSR is usually a closed-circuit breathing apparatus with a chemical oxygen generator or a compressed oxygen cylinder and a carbon dioxide absorber. SCSRs are most commonly used in some coal mines, are intended for one person, and usually supply at least one hour of oxygen. SCSRs are intended to facilitate escape from mines after a fire or explosion. They are also used by people working with machinery on the surface of a mine or pit, in case they become covered by such materials as coal or sand. Usage of SCSRs for other purposes is discouraged. Oxygen sources have shorter working lifetimes than respirators.

Marsh gas

swamp gasdecay of the organic matter
Firedamp, produced naturally in coal mines. Will-o'-the-wisp, mysterious lights that may be ignited methane. Wetland methane emissions.

Armero tragedy

Armero19851985 eruption
Mud moved into open wounds and other open body parts — the eyes, ears, and mouth — and placed pressure capable of inducing traumatic asphyxia in one or two minutes upon people buried in it. Martí and Ernst state in their work Volcanoes and the Environment that they believe that many who survived the lahars succumbed to their injuries as they were trapped, or contracted hypothermia, though the latter is unlikely, given that survivors described the water as warm. Another lahar, which descended through the valley of the Chinchiná River, killed about 1,800 people and destroyed 400 homes in Chinchiná.

Gas venting

Today, it is generally considered unacceptable in normal operations due to its environmental impact: natural gas has far greater global warming potential before than after combustion to CO 2 and often contains harmful contaminants prior to processing. Natural gas was sometimes considered troublesome, dangerous, low value: a "free" by-product associated with financially more lucrative coal or liquid hydrocarbon recovery that has to be dealt with. The growth of international gas markets, infrastructure and supply chains have done much to change this.

Peckfield Colliery disaster

enormous explosion on 30 April 1896
The cause of the explosion was fire-damp coming into contact with a naked light and exploding, thus igniting coal dust, with the coal dust carrying the explosion forward from its initial point. The Colliery Owners followed the recommendations of the inquest and issued miners with Routledge Newcastle safety lamps. Of the 63 victims, 3 were widowers, 22 were single, and 38 were married. Of the 38 married men, only 4 had no children, and there were 107 dependent children upon 34 widows, plus 14 elderly dependent people, and 3 survivors unable to work due to injuries sustained. A collection in aid of the widows and dependents was started by J.

Henry Dewar (physician)

Henry Dewar
Dewar engaged in an embittered controversy with Thomas Trotter on the chemistry of choke damp and fire damp. Trotter had proposed "oxygenated muriatic gas" (i.e. hydrochloric acid) as a fumigant. As far as chemistry went, both their theories were inaccurate. Dewar was a friend of the Newcastle physician John Clark, and Trotter's criticism of Clark has been given as one possible reason for the personal attacks included with the scientific and practical arguments Dewar gave. A scale or chemical slide rule mentioned by Thomas Charles Hope as "Dr. Dewar's" has been considered to be unpublished work of Henry Dewar.

Dust explosion

dust explosionsexplosiondispersed airborne clouds
Typically this uses nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or argon, which are incombustible gases which can displace oxygen. The same method is also used in large storage tanks where flammable vapors can accumulate. However, use of oxygen-free gases brings a risk of asphyxiation of the workers. Workers who need illumination in enclosed spaces where a dust explosion is a high risk often use lamps designed for underwater divers, as they have no risk of producing an open spark due to their sealed waterproof design. Good housekeeping practices, such as eliminating build-up of combustible dust deposits that could be disturbed and lead to a secondary explosion, also help mitigate the problem.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxidecarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
And since my head was filled with the fumes I was almost choked. Then I was carried outside." This misunderstanding of the causes of carbon monoxide poisoning may have caused the death of Julian's successor, Jovian. John Scott Haldane identified carbon monoxide as the lethal constituent of afterdamp, the gas created by combustion, after examining many bodies of miners killed in pit explosions. Their skin was coloured cherry-pink from carboxyhaemoglobin, the stable compound formed in the blood by reaction with the gas. As a result of his research, he was able to design respirators for rescue workers.