Scottish inventions and discoveries

Inventions and discoveries of Scottish originproud traditionScottish invention
The Haldane effect a property of hemoglobin first described by John Scott Haldane (1907). Oxygen Therapy John Scott Haldane (1922): with the publication of ‘The Theraputic Administration of Oxygen Therapy’ beginning the modern era of Oxygen therapy. Ambulight PDT: light-emitting sticking plaster used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating non-melanoma skin cancer. Developed by Ambicare Dundee's Ninewells Hospital and St Andrews University. (2010). Discovering an effective tuberculosis treatment: Sir John Crofton in the 1950s. Primary creator of the artificial kidney (Professor Kenneth Lowe - Later Queen's physician in Scotland). Developing the first beta-blocker drugs: Sir James W.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxideCarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
And since my head was filled with the fumes I was almost choked. Then I was carried outside." This misunderstanding of the causes of carbon monoxide poisoning may have caused the death of Julian's successor, Jovian. John Scott Haldane identified carbon monoxide as the lethal constituent of afterdamp, the gas created by combustion, after examining many bodies of miners killed in pit explosions. Their skin was coloured cherry-pink from carboxyhaemoglobin, the stable compound formed in the blood by reaction with the gas. As a result of his research, he was able to design respirators for rescue workers.

Shakerley Collieries

Messhing TreesWilliam Ramsden
Then on 1 October 1895 five men including the colliery manager and undermanager died at the Wellington Pit after an explosion of firedamp possibly caused by a safety lamp. After the London and North Western Railway built the Tyldesley Loopline in 1864, Ramsden built a colliery railway to join the mainline railway at Ramsden's Sidings east of Tyldesley Station and Tyldesley Coal Company's Green's Sidings. In 1874 a 0-4-0 saddle tank locomotive Shakerley was bought from Manning Wardle and in 1887 Edith a 0-6-0 tank engine was bought from Hunslets. Shakerley was sold in 1901 and replaced by a new locomotive from Hunslets, identical to Edith which was also named Shakerley.

Total enclosure fetishism

Total enclosuretotally encloses
Maintaining an airway, preventing positional asphyxia, and ensuring that the enclosed person has a means of escape at all times are of paramount importance, if these activities are not to result in death. See the articles on bondage, and erotic asphyxiation for some discussion of the risks involved. In rubber fetishism, rubber suits, gas masks and similar garments and accessories are used for total enclosure. Vacuum beds rigidly enclose the entire body under a rubber sheet with a small breathing tube. Sleepsacks and body bags are also used as less rigid enclosure alternative to the vacuum beds, although some are made in inflatable form to increase pressure on the occupant's body.

History of underwater diving

classic diving methods
John Scott Haldane designed a decompression chamber in 1907 to help make deep-sea divers safer and he produced the first decompression tables for the Royal Navy in 1908 after extensive experiments with animals and human subjects. These tables established a method of decompression in stages - it remains the basis for decompression methods to this day. Following Haldane's recommendation, the maximum safe operating depth for divers was extended to 200 ft. Research on decompression was continued by the US Navy. The C&R tables were published in 1915, and a large number of experimental dives done in the 1930s, which led to the 1937 tables.

Federal Mines Safety Act of 1910

Federal Mines Safety Act of 1910 was an United States statute passed for the purposes of establishing the United States Bureau of Mines as a federal agency of the United States Department of the Interior. The Act of Congress authorized investigations of mining methods with an emphasis for the safety of miners while recovering combustible fossil fuels. The United States public law lateraled mining investigations conducted by the United States Geological Survey to the United States Bureau of Mines.

Bristol Type 138

Bristol 138Bristol Type 138A
Once exhaled, the gas would travel via an external tube to a canister containing carbon dioxide-absorbing chemicals to restore it to a pure oxygen state prior to being re-circulated. The 138 had an internal fuel capacity of 82 gallons, spread across 70 gallons in the lower tank and 12 gallons in the upper tank. A specially-developed fuel, known as S.A.F.4, was used for the altitude record flight, derived from standard grade Shell Ethyl aviation gasoline.

List of unusual deaths

drownedLinda Goldbloombecame inflamed and infected, and as a result Sigurd died
This is a list of unusual deaths. This list includes only unique or extremely rare circumstances of death recorded throughout history, noted as being unusual by multiple sources. Oxford Dictionaries defines the word unusual as "not habitually or commonly occurring or done" and "remarkable or interesting because different from or better than others".

Tyldesley Coal Company

Yew Tree Colliery
An explosion of firedamp caused by a safety lamp cost 25 lives, the youngest 11 and the oldest 35 years of age. Some of the victims are buried in the churchyard at St George's Church. The locomotives owned by the Tyldesley Coal Company had to pass under the Manchester Road bridge which had restricted headroom and were built to a reduced loading gauge. Its first locomotive was a 4-coupled saddle tank locomotive from the Haigh Foundry in Wigan. It was delivered in 1867 and named Tyldesley. Beatrice, another 4-coupled saddle tank, was bought from Vulcan Foundry in Newton le Willows in 1877, the same year that Jessie was delivered from Walker Brothers in Wigan.

Yew Tree Colliery

Yew Tree
An explosion of firedamp, ignited by a safety lamp, in 1858 cost the lives of 25 men and boys. This was the worst mining disaster to occur in Tyldesley. * List of Collieries in Astley and Tyldesley. Glossary of coal mining terminology. List of mining disasters in Lancashire.

Chatterley Whitfield

Chatterley Whitfield Colliery
In 1920 an ex-army hut provided the colliery with its first canteen facilities and work began on a new lamp room to house the heavy electric lamps which were gradually being introduced and used in addition to the conventional oil safety lamps. The late 1920s and early 1930s were difficult times for colliery owners and miners alike. During the general strike of 1926, convoys of motor lorries travelled to Whitfield from all over the country to buy the small coal that was stocked at the colliery. In 1929 only 193 days were worked and during the 1930s Depression 300 Whitfield miners were made redundant.

List of judo techniques

Judo techniqueAshi-wazaTe-waza
Do-jime is a prohibited technique in Judo, and is considered a 'slight infringement' according to IJF rules, Section 27: Prohibited acts and penalties, article 21. 2) Gyaku Jūji-jime : Reverse cross strangle. 3) Hadaka-jime : Naked strangle. 4) Kata-ha-jime : Single wing strangle. 5) Kata-juji-jime : Half cross strangle. 6) Kata-te-jime : One-hand strangle. 7) Nami-juji-jime : Normal cross strangle. 8) Okuri-eri-jime : Sliding lapel strangle. 9) Ryo-te-jime : Two-hand strangle. 10) Sankaku-jime : Triangular strangle, triangle choke. 11) Sode-guruma-jime : Sleeve wheel strangle (Eziquiel/Ezekiel choke). 12) Tsukkomi-jime : Thrust choke.

West Stanley Pit disaster

Burns PitBurns Pit Disaster
The report concluded that this fall released a large quantity of firedamp which had been under pressure within the cavity. The inspector was unable to decide which of two things then happened: either that the outrush of gas was sufficient to blow the flame through the gauze of one of their safety lamps, or that as the men started to move away from the fall they snatched up their lamps causing a sufficient air current to pass the flame. There had been indications of a large quantity of gas in the area; not only had it already been detected but also hissing and bubbling sounds had been heard. There had also been a heaving of the floor and fissures had been seen.

Mine exploration

mine explorersmine
Bad Air: Old mine workings may be hazardous due to pockets of blackdamp (still air with low oxygen levels), or high concentrations of methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide which can displace oxygen, poison someone outright, or create an explosion. Coal mines are especially prone to containing these gases. The mines of the Comstock Lode Nevada are also very prone to this. Explosives such as dynamite, black powder or blasting caps may have been abandoned in old mines. Many explosives become increasingly unstable with age and could be detonated by the slightest movement or even the vibrations from a footfall.

List of United States Supreme Court cases involving standing

Legal standing
A number of United States Supreme Court opinions have been important for their development of the doctrine of legal standing in the context of federal law in the United States. Some of those opinions include:

Nestor Gréhant

Les poisons de l'air, l'acide carbonique et l'oxyde de carbone, 1890 – Poisons of the air, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Les gaz du sang, 1894 – Blood gases. Sur l'emploi du grisoumètre dans les recherches physiologiques, 1894 – On the use of a methanometer in physiological research. Oxyde de carbone, alcool éthylique et grisou, 1903 – Carbon monoxide, ethyl alcohol and firedamp. Hygiène expérimentale: l'oxyde de carbone, 1903 – Experimental hygiene; carbon monoxide.

Avondale Mine disaster

a mining disasterAvondale coal mine fireAvondale Colliery
This demonstrated the rapid accumulation of blackdamp (carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen incapable of supporting life). The presence of toxic levels of blackdamp made rescue efforts much more complicated, as nobody could stand the increasingly foul air for long periods of time. The overwhelming presence of lethal levels of blackdamp augured little hope for the 108 trapped miners; rescue attempts yielded to recovery operations. The first priority was to ventilate the workings. A fan powered by a steam donkey engine arrived on site Tuesday morning. A 2 ft canvas hose was dropped to the bottom of the shaft.

Gresford Colliery

The miners' appointed Assessor also surmised that a large quantity of gas had accumulated at the top of the face in 14's district, which was then ignited by an accident with a safety lamp or by a spark from a coalcutter. The legal representatives of the pit's management, however, suggested that firedamp had accumulated in the main Dennis haulage road beyond the Clutch (a junction on the main drift where the underground haulage machinery was located) and which was ignited at the Clutch when a telephone was used to warn miners of the influx of gas. This interpretation sought to deny that poor working practices were the ultimate cause of the disaster.

Natural gas

gasgas-firednatural-gas
Because burning natural gas produces both water and carbon dioxide, it produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released than coal, which produces mostly carbon dioxide. Burning natural gas produces only about half the carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour (kWh) that coal does. For transportation, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
For example, photosynthetic plants draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (or seawater) and build it into biomass, as in the Calvin cycle, a process of carbon fixation. Some of this biomass is eaten by animals, while some carbon is exhaled by animals as carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle is considerably more complicated than this short loop; for example, some carbon dioxide is dissolved in the oceans; if bacteria do not consume it, dead plant or animal matter may become petroleum or coal, which releases carbon when burned. Carbon can form very long chains of interconnecting carbon–carbon bonds, a property that is called catenation. Carbon-carbon bonds are strong and stable.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
As carbon dioxide concentrations rise, the rate at which sugars are made by the light-independent reactions increases until limited by other factors. RuBisCO, the enzyme that captures carbon dioxide in the light-independent reactions, has a binding affinity for both carbon dioxide and oxygen. When the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, RuBisCO will fix carbon dioxide. However, if the carbon dioxide concentration is low, RuBisCO will bind oxygen instead of carbon dioxide. This process, called photorespiration, uses energy, but does not produce sugars.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
For example, he found that water absorbs carbon dioxide far better than it absorbs nitrogen. Dalton hypothesized this was due to the differences between the masses and configurations of the gases' respective particles, and carbon dioxide molecules (CO 2 ) are heavier and larger than nitrogen molecules (N 2 ). In 1827, botanist Robert Brown used a microscope to look at dust grains floating in water and discovered that they moved about erratically, a phenomenon that became known as "Brownian motion". This was thought to be caused by water molecules knocking the grains about.

Wine

winesfine winewhite wine
Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production.

Sparkling wine

sparklingfrizzantesparkling wines
The sparkling quality of these wines comes from its carbon dioxide content and may be the result of natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the traditional method, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved (as in the Charmat process), or as a result of simple carbon dioxide injection in some cheaper sparkling wines. In EU countries, the word "champagne" is reserved by law only for sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France. The French terms Mousseux and Crémant refer to sparkling wine not made in the Champagne region, such as Blanquette de Limoux produced in Southern France.

Fish gill

gillsGillGill openings
Most fish exchange gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide using gills that are protected under gill covers on both sides of the pharynx (throat). Gills are tissues that are like short threads, protein structures called filaments. These filaments have many functions including the transfer of ions and water, as well as the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, acids and ammonia. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills.