Ocean acidification

acidificationacidification of the oceansocean acidity
The Pacific water flows into the Arctic Ocean carrying additional amounts of carbon dioxide by being exposed to the atmosphere and absorbing carbon dioxide from decaying organic matter and from sediments. The Arctic Ocean pH levels are rapidly decreasing because not only is the ocean water absorbing more carbon dioxide due to increased surface area exposure as a result of a decrease in sea ice. It also has large amounts of carbon dioxide being transferred to the Arctic from the Pacific ocean. Cold water is able to absorb higher amounts of carbon dioxide compared to warm water. The solubility of gases decreases in relation to increasing temperature.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
Due to their size, HGVs often receive criticism regarding their CO2 emissions; however, rapid development in engine technology and fuel management is having a largely positive effect. Plastic is produced mainly from Fossil fuels. Plastic manufacturing is estimated to use 8 percent of yearly global oil production. The EPA estimates as many as five ounces of carbon dioxide are emitted for each ounce of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) produced—the type of plastic most commonly used for beverage bottles, the transportation produce greenhouse gases also. Plastic waste emits carbon dioxide when it degrades.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation, mainly in tropical areas, could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. But recent calculations suggest that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6% to 17%. Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun. The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming, which is better known as the greenhouse effect.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
The major greenhouse gases are water vapour, which causes about 36–70% of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which causes 9–26%; methane (CH 4 ), which causes 4–9%; and ozone (O 3 ), which causes 3–7%. Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO 2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs, and nitrous oxide. According to work published in 2007, the concentrations of CO 2 and methane had increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750.

Dry-ice blasting

blast cleaningCO 2 dry ice processdry ice blasting
*Carbon dioxide cleaning Blasting with Solid CO 2 Flyer, from the Fraunhofer Institute. Messer Group 2007 article on Dry Ice Blasting (pdf, pp 8–12).

Elizabeth Haldane

E. S. HaldaneElizabethElizabeth Sanderson Haldane
Elizabeth Sanderson Haldane (27 May 1862 – 24 December 1937) was an author, biographer, philosopher, suffragist, nursing administrator, and social welfare worker. She was the sister of Richard Burdon Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane and John Scott Haldane, and became the first female Justice of the Peace in Scotland in 1920. She was made a Companion of Honour in 1918. Elizabeth Haldane was born on 27 May 1862 at 17 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. Her father was Robert Haldane of Cloan House near Auchterarder, Perthshire and her mother was Mary Elizabeth Sanderson. She was educated by a succession of tutors and visiting schoolmasters.

Carbonic acid

volatile acidcarbonicH 2 CO 3
When carbon dioxide dissolves in water it exists in chemical equilibrium with carbonic acid: The hydration equilibrium constant at 25 °C is called K h, which in the case of carbonic acid is [H 2 CO 3 ]/[CO 2 ] ≈ 1.7×10 −3 in pure water and ≈ 1.2×10 −3 in seawater. Hence, the majority of the carbon dioxide is not converted into carbonic acid, remaining as CO 2 molecules. In the absence of a catalyst, the equilibrium is reached quite slowly. The rate constants are 0.039 s −1 for the forward reaction (CO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 ) and 23 s −1 for the reverse reaction (H 2 CO 3 → CO 2 + H 2 O).

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
Through the process of photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars. These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well. Parasitic plants, on the other hand, use the resources of their host to provide the materials needed for metabolism and growth.

Beer

brewing industrybeersbrewing
A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers may be served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls. In traditional pubs, the pull levers for major beer brands may include the beer's logo and trademark. In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a nitrogen-pressurised ball inside a can which creates a dense, tight head, similar to beer served from a nitrogen system.

Fossil fuel

fossil fuelsoil and gasfossil-fuel
The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) per year. It is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. A global movement towards the generation of low-carbon renewable energy is underway to help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

Bituminous coal

black coalbituminouscoal
Within the coal mining industry, this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions. Extraction of bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring, good ventilation and vigilant site management. Bituminous coals are graded according to vitrinite reflectance, moisture content, volatile content, plasticity and ash content. Generally, the highest value bituminous coals have a specific grade of plasticity, volatility and low ash content, especially with low carbonate, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3 calcareouscalcium
Calcium carbonate exists in equilibrium with calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at any temperature. At each temperature there is a partial pressure of carbon dioxide that is in equilibrium with calcium carbonate. At room temperature the equilibrium overwhelmingly favors calcium carbonate, because the equilibrium CO 2 pressure is only a tiny fraction of the partial CO 2 pressure in air, which is about 0.035 kPa. At temperatures above 550 °C the equilibrium CO 2 pressure begins to exceed the CO 2 pressure in air. So above 550 °C, calcium carbonate begins to outgas CO 2 into air. However, in a charcoal fired kiln, the concentration of CO 2 will be much higher than it is in air.

Covalent bond

covalentcovalentlycovalently bonded
Such covalent substances are usually gases, for example, HCl, SO 2, CO 2, and CH 4 . In molecular structures, there are weak forces of attraction. Such covalent substances are low-boiling-temperature liquids (such as ethanol), and low-melting-temperature solids (such as iodine and solid CO 2 ). Macromolecular structures have large numbers of atoms linked by covalent bonds in chains, including synthetic polymers such as polyethylene and nylon, and biopolymers such as proteins and starch. Network covalent structures (or giant covalent structures) contain large numbers of atoms linked in sheets (such as graphite), or 3-dimensional structures (such as diamond and quartz).

Carbonic anhydrase

carboanydrasecarbonate dehydratasecarbonic anhydrase i
The primary function of the enzyme in animals is to interconvert carbon dioxide and bicarbonate to maintain acid-base balance in blood and other tissues, and to help transport carbon dioxide out of tissues. There are at least 14 different isoforms in mammals. Plants contain a different form called β-carbonic anhydrase, which, from an evolutionary standpoint, is a distinct enzyme, but participates in the same reaction and also uses a zinc ion in its active site. In plants, carbonic anhydrase helps raise the concentration of CO 2 within the chloroplast in order to increase the carboxylation rate of the enzyme RuBisCO.

Carbon cycle

carboncarbon cyclingglobal carbon cycle
Carbon in the Earth's atmosphere exists in two main forms: carbon dioxide and methane. Both of these gases absorb and retain heat in the atmosphere and are partially responsible for the greenhouse effect. Methane produces a larger greenhouse effect per volume as compared to carbon dioxide, but it exists in much lower concentrations and is more short-lived than carbon dioxide, making carbon dioxide the more important greenhouse gas of the two. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere primarily through photosynthesis and enters the terrestrial and oceanic biospheres.

Metal carbon dioxide complex

Metal carbon dioxide complexes are coordination complexes that contain carbon dioxide ligands. Aside from the fundamental interest in the coordination chemistry of simple molecules, studies in this field are motivated by the possibility that transition metals might catalyze useful transformations of CO 2 . This research is relevant both to organic synthesis and to the production of "solar fuels" that would avoid the use of petroleum-based fuels. Carbon dioxide binds to metals in only a few ways. The bonding mode depends on the electrophilicity and basicity of the metal centre.

Naomi Mitchison

Naomi (née Haldane)Mitchison, N.Naomi Haldane
Naomi Mary Margaret Mitchison, Baroness Mitchison, CBE (née Haldane; 1 November 1897 – 11 January 1999) was a Scottish novelist and poet. Often called the doyenne of Scottish literature, she wrote over 90 books in several genres, including historical fiction, science fiction, travel writing and autobiography. Her husband Dick Mitchison's life peerage in 1964 entitled her to call herself Lady Mitchison, but she never did. She was appointed CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in 1981. Like her father John Scott Haldane and elder brother J. B. S. Haldane, Naomi Haldane initially pursued a scientific career. From 1908, she and her brother looked into Mendelian genetics.

Carbonate

carbonatescarbonaceousCO 3
In aqueous solution, carbonate, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, and carbonic acid exist together in a dynamic equilibrium. In strongly basic conditions, the carbonate ion predominates, while in weakly basic conditions, the bicarbonate ion is prevalent. In more acid conditions, aqueous carbon dioxide, CO 2 (aq), is the main form, which, with water, H 2 O, is in equilibrium with carbonic acidthe equilibrium lies strongly towards carbon dioxide. Thus sodium carbonate is basic, sodium bicarbonate is weakly basic, while carbon dioxide itself is a weak acid. Carbonated water is formed by dissolving CO 2 in water under pressure.

Light fixture

lampluminairedesk lamp
Safety lamp (for use in coal mines). Searchlight (for military and advertising use). Security lighting. Step light. Strobe light. Task light. Traffic light. Theatrical. Stage lighting instrument. Intelligent lighting. Followspot. Wallwasher. Arc lamps. Xenon arc lamp, Yablochkov candle. Fluorescent. Fluorescent lamp, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), Induction lamp, blacklight. Fuel lamps. Betty lamp, butter lamp, carbide lamp, gas lighting, kerosene lamp, oil lamp, rush light, torch, candle, Limelight, gas mantle. Safety lamps: Davy lamp and Geordie lamp. Gas-discharge lamp and high-intensity discharge lamp (HID).

Trace gas

trace gasesrare
Trace gases – taken at pressure 1 atm A few examples of the major greenhouse gases are water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and CFCs. These gases can absorb infrared radiation from the Earth's surface as it passes through the atmosphere. The most important greenhouse gas is water vapor because it can trap about 80 percent of outgoing IR radiation. The second most important greenhouse gas, and the most important one affected by man-made sources into the atmosphere, is carbon dioxide. The reason for why greenhouse gases can absorb infrared radiation is their molecular structure.

Henry's law

Henry constantHenryHenry's Law of solubility of gas in water
An everyday example is given by one's experience with carbonated soft drinks, which contain dissolved carbon dioxide. Before opening, the gas above the drink in its container is almost pure carbon dioxide, at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure. After the bottle is opened, this gas escapes, moving the partial pressure of carbon dioxide above the liquid to be much lower, resulting in degassing as the dissolved carbon dioxide comes out of solution.