Scalpelling is a body art procedure similar to body piercing for the creation of decorative perforations through the skin and other body tissue, and is most commonly used as a replacement for or enhancement of ear piercing. Whereas piercing is typically performed with a hollow piercing needle or an ear piercing instrument, scalpelling is performed by using a scalpel to cut a slit into the skin. Unlike dermal punching, no flesh is removed. The technique can immediately produce holes with a larger diameter than can be achieved by piercing.

Body painting

body paintface paintwar paint
Body painting festivals that take place in North America include the North American Body Painting Championship, Face and Body Art International Convention in Orlando, Florida, Bodygras Body Painting Competition in Nanaimo, BC and the Face Painting and Body Art Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada. Australia also has a number of body painting festivals, most notably the annual Australian Body Art Festival in Eumundi, Queensland and the Australian Body Art Awards.

Performance art

performance artistperformancelive art
As genres of performance art appear body art, fluxus-performance, happening, action poetry, and intermedia. Performance art activity is not confined to European or American art traditions; notable practitioners can be found in Asia and Latin America. Performance artists and theorists point to different traditions and histories, ranging from tribal to sporting and ritual or religious events.

Viennese Actionism

Viennese ActionistsVienna ActionistsViennese Actionist
It can be regarded as part of the many independent efforts of the 1960s to develop "performance art" (Fluxus, happening, action painting, body art, etc.). Its main participants were Günter Brus, Otto Mühl, Hermann Nitsch, and Rudolf Schwarzkogler. As "actionists", they were active between 1960 and 1971. Most have continued their artistic work independently from the early 1970s onwards. Documentation of the work of these four artists suggests that there was no consciously developed sense of a movement or any cultivation of membership status in an "actionist" group. Rather, this name was one applied to various collaborative configurations among these four artists.

Marina Abramović

Marina AbramovicMarina Abramović InstituteMarina Abramovich
Her work explores body art, endurance art and feminist art, the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, and the possibilities of the mind. Being active for over four decades, Abramović refers to herself as the "grandmother of performance art". She pioneered a new notion of identity by bringing in the participation of observers, focusing on "confronting pain, blood, and physical limits of the body". Abramović was born in Belgrade, Serbia, former Yugoslavia on November 30, 1946. In an interview, Abramović described her family as having been "Red bourgeoisie." Her great-uncle was Varnava, Serbian Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church.

Gina Pane

She studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1960 to 1965 and was a member of the 1970s Body Art movement in France, called "Art corporel". Parallel to her art, Pane taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Mans from 1975 to 1990 and ran an atelier dedicated to performance art at the Centre Pompidou from 1978 to 1979 at the request of Pontus Hulten. Pane is possibly best known for her performance piece The Conditioning (1973), in which she is laid on a metal bedframe over an area of burning candles. The Conditioning was recreated by Marina Abramović as part of her Seven Easy Pieces (2005) at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York in 2005.


printing inkinksindelible ink
Some types of indelible ink have a very short shelf life because of the quickly evaporating solvents used. India, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia and other developing countries have used indelible ink in the form of electoral stain to prevent electoral fraud. The Indian Scientist Dr. M.L. Goel is the founding father of indelible ink in India and gave the secret formula to NPL (National Physical Laboratory) of India. The Election Commission in India has used indelible ink for many elections. Indonesia used it in its last election in Aceh. In Mali, the ink is applied to the fingernail.

Michel Journiac

Michel Journiac (1935–1995) was one of the founders of the 1960s and 1970s body art movement in France, called "Art corporel". During these years, many artists started to use the human body as their material. Accordingly, this artist used his own body to perform rituals which he documented through photography or video. His work can be compared to those of Vito Acconci, French artist Gina Pane or Austrian artists of the Viennese Actionism. It was through his photographic works, his actions and installations, that he made his fame and became known.

Marker pen

markersmarkerMagic Marker
Marker pens with election ink (an indelible dye and often a photosensitive agent such as silver nitrate) used to mark the finger, and especially the cuticle, of voters in elections in order to prevent electoral fraud such as double voting. The stain stays visible for a week or two and may also be used to assist in vaccinations in developing world communities and refugee camps. A porous point pen contains a point that is made of some porous material such as felt or ceramic. Draftsman's pens usually have a ceramic tip since this wears well and does not broaden when pressure is applied while writing.


humanshuman beinghuman beings
Body modification is the deliberate altering of the human body for any non-medical reason, such as aesthetics, sexual enhancement, a rite of passage, religious reasons, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, shock value, or self-expression. In its most broad definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g. common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g. circumcision in a number of cultures). Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level.

Ketty La Rocca

Her initial steps during this phase included her book "In principio erat" (1971), which Lea Vergine cited as one of the fundamental experiences of Italian body art; and La Rocca's video “Appendice per una supplica”, shown for the first time at the 1972 Biennale di Venezia. She then began using words written in rapid cursive on the images of hand (see for example "Le mie parole e tu?", 1971). This was the common trait of two main series produced by Ketty La Rocca in the last years of her life: the "riduzioni" and the "craniologie".

Rebecca Horn

She practices body art, but works in different media, including performance art, installation art, sculpture, and film. She also writes poetry. Sometimes her poetry is influenced by her work, and on many occasions it has inspired her work. When Horn returned to the Hamburg academy she continued to make cocoon-like things. She worked with padded body extensions and prosthetic bandages. In the late sixties she began creating performance art and continued to use bodily extensions. In 1968 Horn produced her first body sculptures, in which she attached objects and instruments to the human body, taking as her theme the contact between a person and his or her environment.

Body modification

dermal punchmodifiedbody modifications
It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, in remembrance of lived experience, traditional symbolism such as axis mundi and mythology, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons. In its broadest definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.


Body art. Artist's book. Feminist art. Installation art. Land Art. Lowbrow (art movement). Photorealism. Postminimalism. Process Art. Video art. Funk art. Pattern and Decoration. style="vertical-align:top; width:16%;"|. Appropriation art. Culture jamming. Demoscene. Electronic art. Figuration Libre. Graffiti Art. Live art. Mail art. Postmodern art. Neo-conceptual art. Neo-expressionism. Neo-pop. Sound art. Transgressive art. Video installation. Institutional Critique. NeoGeo. style="vertical-align:top; width:16%;"|. Bio art. Cyberarts. Cynical Realism. Digital Art. Information art. Internet art. Massurrealism. Maximalism. New media art. Software art. New European Painting.

Female cosmetic coalitions

Body art. Body painting. Cosmetics. Human evolution. The Human Revolution (human origins). Origins of society. Sex strike. Symbolic culture. Prehistoric art. Ochre. Reproductive synchrony. Menstrual synchrony. Knight, C. 1991. 'The Sex Strike'. Chapter 4 in Blood Relations. Menstruation and the origins of culture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 122–153. ISBN: 0-300-04911-0. Knight, C. 1991. 'The Sex Strike'. Chapter 4 in Blood Relations. Menstruation and the origins of culture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 122–153. ISBN: 0-300-04911-0.


tattoostattooingtemporary tattoo
Body art. Body painting. Mehndi (also called henna). Foreign body granuloma. Fusen gum. Legal status of tattooing in the United States. List of tattoo artists. Lucky Diamond Rich, world's most tattooed person. Religious perspectives on tattooing. Tattoo convention. Tattooed Lady. Anthropological. Buckland, A. W. (1887) "On Tattooing", in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1887/12, p. 318–328. Caplan, Jane (ed.) (2000): Written on the Body: the Tattoo in European and American History, Princeton University Press. DeMello, Margo (2000) Bodies of Inscription: a Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community, California.


artisticart formart design
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Other activities related to the production of works of art include the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.


dyesdyestuffsynthetic dyes
A dye is a coloured substance that chemically bonds to the substrate to which it is being applied. This distinguishes dyes from pigments which do not chemically bind to the material they colour. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.

Index finger

indexforefingerfirst finger
The index finger (also referred to as forefinger, first finger, pointer finger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, digitus II, and many other terms), is the second finger of a human hand. It is located between the first and third digits, between the thumb and the middle finger. It is usually the most dextrous and sensitive finger of the hand, though not the longest – it is shorter than the middle finger, and may be shorter or longer than the ring finger – see digit ratio.

Body piercing

piercingpiercingsear piercing
In 2004, controversy erupted in Crothersville, Indiana, when a local high school featured a spread on "Body Decorations" in its yearbook that featured tattoos and body piercings of teachers and students. That same year, in Henry County, Georgia, a 15-year-old boy remained in in-school suspension for a full month for violating school policy by wearing eyebrow, nose, labret and tongue piercings to school. His mother subsequently decided to homeschool him. According to 2006's Tattoos and Body Piercing, corporate dress codes can also strictly limit piercing displays. At that time, Starbucks limited piercings to two per ear and jewellery to small, matched earrings.


Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", and those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes.


Historically it was used to claim ownership of slaves or to punish criminals, but as a form of body art, strike branding is less preferable to other types because it is not precise and tends to spread greatly on healing, and is not advisable for curved areas of the body. More successful is the multi-strike brand; it is done piece-by-piece rather than all at once. For example, to get a V-shaped brand, two lines would be burned separately by a straight piece of metal, rather than by a V-shaped piece of metal. Cautery branding: This is a less common form of branding. It uses a thermal cautery tool with a heated wire tip to cause the burns.


An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

Subdermal implant

subdermal implantsSubcutaneous pellet implantsubdermal
A subdermal implant refers to a body modification that is placed underneath the skin, therefore allowing the body to heal over the implant and creating a raised design. Such implants fall under the broad category of body modification. Many subdermal implants are made out of silicone, either carved or mold injected. Many people who have subdermal implants use them in conjunction with other types of body modification to create a desired, dramatic effect. This process is also known as a 3-D implant, or pocketing.

Electoral fraud

ballot stuffingelection fraudvoter fraud
Electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election fraud, election manipulation or vote rigging, is illegal interference with the process of an election, either by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What exactly constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country.