Cabernet Sauvignon

CabernetboucheBryant Family Vineyard Cabernet Sauvignon
With vineyards severely ravaged or lost, many Bordeaux wine growers turned to Merlot, increasing its plantings to where it soon became the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux. As the region's winemakers started to better understand the area's terroir and how the different grape varieties performed in different region, Cabernet Sauvignon increased in plantings all along the Left Bank region of the Gironde river in the Médoc as well as Graves region, where it became the dominant variety in the wine blends. In the Right bank regions of Saint-Émilion and Pomerol, Cabernet is a distant third in plantings behind Merlot & Cabernet franc.


The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet, the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino, who both worked in France. Two of the most famous French artists of the time of Baroque era, Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, lived in Italy. The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism.

Departments of France

List of French departments by population, area and population density.

Appellation d'origine contrôlée

Denominazione di origine controllata, a similar certification regulated by Italian law. Appellations of Origin from the TTB website. INAO website.

Communes of France

The largest commune of the French Republic is Maripasoula (with 3,710 inhabitants) in the département of French Guiana: 18360 km2. The smallest commune of the French Republic is Castelmoron-d'Albret (55 inhabitants) near Bordeaux: 3.54 ha. In metropolitan France the largest commune is the commune of Arles (50,513 inhabitants) near Marseille, the territory of which encompasses most of the Camargue (the delta of the Rhône River): 8.7 times the area of the city of Paris (excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes) at 759 km2.


Occitania is also home of a great variety of cheeses (like Roquefort, Bleu d'Auvergne, Cabécou, Cantal, Fourme d'Ambert, Laguiole, Pélardon, Saint-Nectaire, Salers) and a great diversity of wines such as Bordeaux, Rhône wine, Gaillac wine, Saint-Émilion wine, Blanquette de Limoux, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Provence wine, Cahors wine, Jurançon. Alcohols such as Pastis and Marie Brizard or brandies such as, Armagnac, and Cognac are produced in the area. Based on a geolinguistic definition, Occitania coincides with the current area of Occitan language.


AquitaineNouvelle-Aquitaine RegionAquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes
The region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne (288,000 inhabitants), Limoges (283,000), Poitiers (255,000), Pau (241,000), and La Rochelle (206,000), as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population, particularly marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France: the new region outperforms the Île-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in terms of demographic dynamism. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities (Bordeaux, La Rochelle, Limoges, Poitiers and Pau) and several Grandes Ecoles.

French wine

FranceFrenchFrench vintages
Provence, in the south-east and close to the Mediterranean. It is perhaps the warmest wine region of France and produces mainly rosé and red wine. It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol. Some Provence wine can be compared with the Southern Rhône wines as they share both grapes and, to some degree, style and climate. Provence also has a classification of its most prestigious estates, much like Bordeaux. Rhône Valley, primarily a red-wine region in south-eastern France, along the Rhône River. The styles and varietal composition of northern and southern Rhône differ, but both parts compete with Bordeaux as traditional producers of red wines.

Ancient Rome

Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies. The best way found to defeat Hannibal's purpose of causing the Italians to abandon Rome was to delay the Carthaginians with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by Quintus Fabius Maximus, who would be nicknamed Cunctator ("delayer" in Latin), and whose strategy would be forever after known as Fabian. Due to this, Hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome and replenish his diminishing army, and he thus lacked the machines and manpower to besiege Rome.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionaryrevolutionary France
The allies scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, retaking Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands and ending the flow of payments from the conquered areas to France. The treasury was empty. Despite his publicity claiming many glorious victories, Napoleon's army was trapped in Egypt after the British sank the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile. Napoleon escaped by himself, returned to Paris and overthrew the Directory in November 1799. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. He consolidated old units and split up Austria's holdings.

Cabernet Franc

CabernetCabernet Franc (10%)Franc
In the Loire Valley, Cabernet is widely planted in the Anjou, Bourgueil, Chinon, and Saumur-Champigny regions. By the year 2000 there were over 17,300 acre of Cabernet Franc in Italy. However, the grape variety is commonly confused with both Cabernet Sauvignon and the ancient Bordeaux grape Carmenere, so the true acreage may not be known until more vineyards have been surveyed by ampelographers. It is mostly planted in the far northeast of Italy, particularly in Friuli, but it is also found in the vineyards of the Veneto (where it is known as Bordo), and is found as part of some Chianti blends, even as far south as Apulia.

Roman Empire

He even went so far as to launch an invasion of Italy with the purpose of re-uniting the Empire and invited European artists to his capital, including Gentile Bellini. In the medieval West, "Roman" came to mean the church and the Pope of Rome. The Greek form Romaioi remained attached to the Greek-speaking Christian population of the Eastern Roman Empire, and is still used by Greeks in addition to their common appellation. The Roman Empire's territorial legacy of controlling the Italian peninsula would influence Italian nationalism and the unification of Italy (Risorgimento) in 1861.


vineyardsvinerieswine estate
The terroir philosophy is predominately French in origin, the flavour and character of the place defining the individuality and the special attributes of wines and combined with hundreds of years of the finest wine making traditions, terroir gives wines their distinctive taste and signature. A vignette is a 500-square-metre vineyard which is part of a larger consolidated vineyard. Investors purchase a piece of land within a vineyard, and outsource the grape maintenance and production operations to an outside grape grower or wine producers.


appellationsAustralian Geographical Indicationcontrolled appellation
Historically, the world's first exclusive (protected) vineyard zone was introduced in Chianti, Italy in 1716 and the first wine classification system in Tokaj-Hegyalja, Hungary, in 1730. In 1935, the Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO), a branch of the French Ministry of Agriculture, was created to manage wine-processing in France. In the Rhone wine region Baron Pierre Le Roy Boiseaumarié, a lawyer and winegrower from Châteauneuf-du-Pape, obtained legal recognition of the Côtes du Rhône appellation of origin in 1937. The AOC seal, or Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, was created and mandated by French laws in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.


Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleonic
He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789. He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents.

Communes of the Gironde department

(BM) Bordeaux Métropole, created in 1966. (CAA) Agglomeration community of the Bay of South Arcachon, created in 2002.


Tours, FranceTourangeauCaesarodunum
Before the French Revolution, the inhabitants of Tours (Les Tourangeaux) were renowned for speaking the "purest" form of French in the entire country. As their accent was that of the court, the pronunciation of Touraine was traditionally regarded as the most standard pronunciation of the French language, until the 19th century when the standard pronunciation of French shifted to that of Parisian bourgeoisie. This is explained by the fact that the court of France was living in Touraine between 1430 and 1530 and concomitantly French, the language of the court, has become the official language of the entire kingdom.

European Union

However, only three of them – English, French and German – have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions. }}''' Bulgarian Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hungarian Irish Italian Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Polish Portuguese Romanian Slovak Slovene Spanish Swedish 71.6% Christianity {{unbulleted list |style=font-size:90%;margin-left:1em | 45.3% Roman Catholic | 11.1% Protestant | 9.6% Eastern Orthodox | 5.6% other Christian 24% No religion 1.8% Muslim 2.6% other faiths 28 states {{flaglist|Austria}} {{flaglist|Belgium|state}} {{flaglist|Bulgaria}} {{flaglist|Croatia}} {{flaglist|Cyprus

Köppen climate classification

Bordeaux, France (Cfb). Dunkirk, France (Cfb). Skagen, Denmark (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Copenhagen, Denmark (Cfb). Bergen, Hordaland, Norway (Cfb). Berlin, Germany (Cfb). Cologne, Germany (Cfb). Munich, Bavaria, Germany (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Vienna, Austria (Cfb). Zürich, Switzerland (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Vaduz, Liechtenstein (Cfb). London, United Kingdom (Cfb). Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom (Cfb). Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom (Cfb). Dublin, Ireland (Cfb). Brussels, Belgium (Cfb). Amsterdam, Netherlands (Cfb). Luxembourg City, Luxembourg (Cfb). Bilbao, Spain (Cfb). Santiago de Compostela, Spain (Cfb). Andorra la Vella, Andorra (Cfb).


The grapes tend to have an inky dark color and robust tannins, and are known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine. The French plantations of Malbec are now found primarily in Cahors in South West France. It is increasingly celebrated as an Argentine varietal wine and is being grown around the world. Called Malbec in Bordeaux, Auxerrois or Côt Noir in Cahors, and Pressac in other places, the grape became less popular in Bordeaux after 1956 when frost killed off 75% of the crop.


Lat.Latin languagelat
Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek, and French have contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in English descriptions of theology, biology, science, medicine, and law. By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin.


Gironde estuary33Bordeaux
If overseas departments are included, however, Gironde's land area is dwarfed by the 83,846 km² of French Guiana. Gironde is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach which is Europe's longest, attracting many surfers to Lacanau each year. It is also the birthplace of Jacques-Yves Cousteau who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. The Great Dune of Pyla in Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux is the tallest sand dune in Europe. The President of the General Council is Jean-Luc Gleyze of the Socialist Party. * Tourism Office website Cantons of the Gironde department. Communes of the Gironde department. Arrondissements of the Gironde department. Bordeaux wine regions. General Council website.