Communes of the Gironde department

Communes of the Gironde département
(BM) Bordeaux Métropole, created in 1966. (CAA) Agglomeration community of the Bay of South Arcachon, created in 2002.


Tours, FranceCaesarodunumTourangeau
Before the French Revolution, the inhabitants of Tours (Les Tourangeaux) were renowned for speaking the "purest" form of French in the entire country. As their accent was that of the court, the pronunciation of Touraine was traditionally regarded as the most standard pronunciation of the French language, until the 19th century when the standard pronunciation of French shifted to that of Parisian bourgeoisie. This is explained by the fact that the court of France was living in Touraine between 1430 and 1530 and concomitantly French, the language of the court, has become the official language of the entire kingdom.

List of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wines

300 French winesFrench winesList of ''Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée'' wines
Bellet || Provence || 1941 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bergerac || South West France || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bergerac sec || South West France || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bergerac rosé || South West France || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bienvenues-Bâtard-Montrachet || Burgundy || 1937 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Blagny || Burgundy || 1970 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Blanquette de Limoux || Languedoc-Roussillon || 1981 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Blanquette méthode ancestrale || Languedoc || 1981 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Blaye || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bonnes-Mares || Burgundy || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Bonnezeaux || Loire || 1951 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF".

White wine

whitewhite wineschardys
Sémillon : a grape originally from Bordeaux vineyards, it is the main variety used for sweet wines from Bordeaux and Bergerac due to its ability to take the noble rot It possesses a fig-like characteristic and is often paired with Sauvignon blanc to mellow its strong berry-like flavours. Trebbiano bianco or Ugni Blanc : an Italian grape variety giving a fairly neutral wine. In France this wine is usually distilled to yield cognac or armagnac. Viognier : a French grape from the Rhône Valley, it has been planted in California since the 2000s. It yields a very fruity and complex wine. Grenache blanc : this is the white form of Grenache black N.


Nouvelle AquitaineNew AquitaineAquitaine
Taking its name from the river of the same name, which flows Bergerac but not its prefecture, Périgueux (the edge of the Isle), the area with varied landscapes has a large afforestation rate (45%) making it the third most wooded department France. The great forests of oak and chestnut trees of green Périgord, organised around Nontron, meet the great grain fields of the White Périgord, nicknamed "the breadbasket of the Périgord", the oak, walnut and black Périgord truffle, around Sarlat-la-Caneda and vineyards of Bergerac or purple Périgord, which produces Bergerac, monbazillac or pécharmant.

European Union

The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish. Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions. Due to the high number of official idioms, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. The European Commission conducts its internal business in three procedural languages: English, French, and German.

Köppen climate classification

ClimateKöppenKöppen-Geiger climate classification system
Milan, Italy (Cfa). Bologna, Italy (Cfa). Venice, Italy (Cfa). Lyon, France (Cfa, bordering on Cfb). Toulouse, France (Cfa). Srinagar, India (Cfa). Shanghai, China (Cfa). Chongqing, China (Cfa, bordering on Cwa). Guangzhou, China (Cfa). Taipei, Taiwan (Cfa). Tokyo, Japan (Cfa). Osaka, Japan (Cfa). Rasht, Iran (Cfa, bordering on Csa). Durban, South Africa (Cfa). Paris, France (Cfb). Lille, France (Cfb). Bordeaux, France (Cfb). Skagen, Denmark (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Copenhagen, Denmark (Cfb). Bergen, Hordaland, Norway (Cfb). Berlin, Germany (Cfb). Cologne, Germany (Cfb). Munich, Bavaria, Germany (Cfb, bordering on Dfb). Vienna, Austria (Cfb). Zürich, Switzerland (Cfb, bordering on Dfb).

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
On 3 September 1943, the Western Allies invaded the Italian mainland, following Italy's armistice with the Allies. Germany with the help of fascists responded by disarming Italian forces that were in many places without superior orders, seizing military control of Italian areas, and creating a series of defensive lines. German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon established a new client state in German-occupied Italy named the Italian Social Republic, causing an Italian civil war. The Western Allies fought through several lines until reaching the main German defensive line in mid-November. German operations in the Atlantic also suffered.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
. the Gulf of Venice, northeastern Italy. the Gulf of Trieste, northeastern Italy. the Gulf of Taranto, southern ItalySouostroví Pakleni otoci.jpg]]. the Gulf of Saint Euphemia, southern Italy, with the international airport nearby. the Gulf of Salerno, southwestern Italy. the Gulf of Gaeta, southwestern Italy. the Gulf of Squillace, southern Italy. the Strait of Otranto, between Italy and Albania. the Gulf of Haifa, northern Israel. the Gulf of Sidra, between Tripolitania (western Libya) and Cyrenaica (eastern Libya). the Strait of Sicily, between Sicily and Tunisia. the Corsica Channel, between Corsica and Italy. the Strait of Bonifacio, between Sardinia and Corsica. the Gulf of İskenderun,


MoroccanSultanate of MoroccoKingdom of Morocco
French is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French-speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language in all schools. In 2010, there were 10,366,000 French-speakers in Morocco, or about 32% of the population. According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals.


Late Latin is the written language from the 3rd century and the colloquial form Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan and Spanish in the 6th to 9th centuries. Medieval Latin was used as a literary language from the 9th century to the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and New Latin evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars (including the Romance languages).


TUNTunisianRepublic of Tunisia
This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in 1881. In 1869, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945.


BelgianBELKingdom of Belgium
This coalition of the Flemish and Francophone Christian Democrats, the Flemish and Francophone Liberals together with the Francophone Social Democrats was an interim government until 20 March 2008. On that day a new government, led by Flemish Christian Democrat Yves Leterme, the actual winner of the federal elections of June 2007, was sworn in by the king. On 15 July 2008 Leterme announced the resignation of the cabinet to the king, as no progress in constitutional reforms had been made. In December 2008 he once more offered his resignation to the king after a crisis surrounding the sale of Fortis to BNP Paribas.


The Gauls in Provence: the Oppidum of Entremont.


The next-largest concentration is found in the Languedoc, where it was first planted around the town of Limoux and up to 30% can be blended with Mauzac in the sparkling Blanquette de Limoux. Every year since 1991, Chardonnay production is celebrated in Limoux during the Toques et Clochers festival. By 2000, more than 9000 ha were planted, with many being used for wines under the Vin de Pays d'Oc. These wines were unique in that they were some of the first examples of Chardonnay to be varietally labeled as "Chardonnay". Other French wine regions with Chardonnay plantings include Alsace, Ardèche, Jura, Savoie, and the Loire Valley. In Jura, it is used to create vin de paille dessert wines.

List of grape varieties

grape varietygrape varietiesgrape
This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).


Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharles
In addition, he had a grandson (Bernard of Italy, the only son of his third son, Pippin of Italy), who was illegitimate but included in the line of inheritance. Among his descendants are several royal dynasties, including the Habsburg, Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties. By consequence, most if not all established European noble families ever since can genealogically trace their background to Charlemagne. He was named Charles in French and English, Carolus in Latin, after his grandfather, Charles Martel. Later Old French historians dubbed him Charles le Magne (Charles the Great), becoming Charlemagne in English after the Norman conquest of England.

Kingdom of Sardinia

SardiniaPiedmont-SardiniaKingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
On 17 March 1861, law no. 4671 of the Sardinian Parliament proclaimed the Kingdom of Italy, so ratifying the annexations of all other Apennine states, plus Sicily, to the Kingdom of Sardinia. The institutions and laws of the Kingdom were quickly extended to all of Italy, abolishing the administrations of the other regions. Piedmont became the most dominant and wealthiest region in Italy and the capital of Piedmont, Turin, remained the Italian capital until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence.

Italian wine

ItalyItalianItalian wines
Sangiovese is also a major constituent of dozens of other denominations such as Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Rosso di Montalcino and Montefalco Rosso, as well as the basis of many of the acclaimed, modern-styled "Super-Tuscans", where it is blended with three of the Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in French oak barrels, resulting in a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical California cabernet: oaky, high-alcohol, and a ripe, fruit-forward profile. History of Chianti. List of Italian DOC wines. List of Italian DOCG wines. List of Italian IGT wines. Old World wine. La Sicilia del Vino, di S. Barresi, E.

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
This characteristic often carries through to an Occitan speaker's French, leading to a distinctive méridional accent. Unlike French, it is a pro-drop language, allowing the omission of the subject (canti: I sing; cantas you sing). Among these 19 discriminating criteria, 7 are different from Spanish, 8 from Italian, 12 from Franco-Provençal, and 16 from French. Most features of Occitan are shared with either French or Catalan, or both.


MarseillesMarseille, FranceMassilia
The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51), Toulon (A50) and the French Riviera (A8) to the east. Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc.


English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identifies 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, as well as Italian and German, each by 7%. Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%).


ItalianItalian peopleItalian descent
The French Revolution and Napoleon influenced Italy more deeply than they affected any other outside country of Europe. The French Revolution began in 1789 and immediately found supporters among the Italian people. The local Italian rulers, sensing danger in their own country, drew closer to the European kings who opposed France. After the French king was overthrown and France became a republic, secret clubs favouring an Italian republic were formed throughout Italy. The armies of the French Republic began to move across Europe. In 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte led a French army into northern Italy and drove out the Austrian rulers.

World Heritage Site

UNESCO World Heritage SiteWorld HeritageWorld Heritage List
The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, and the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia. UNESCO then initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect cultural heritage. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation. The White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry".


claysblue clayammonia-rich clays
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO 2 ), metal oxides (Al 2 O 3, MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.