French is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French-speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy. French is taught as an obligatory language in all schools. In 2010, there were 10,366,000 French-speakers in Morocco, or about 32% of the population. According to the 2004 census, 2.19 million Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals.

Bordeaux wine

BordeauxclaretBordeaux style
However, since none of Bordeaux's stellar names are situated in Côtes de Bordeaux, prices tend to be moderate. There is no official classification in Côtes de Bordeaux. In 2007, 14.7% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family. Red Libourne, or "Right Bank" wines. Around the city of Libourne, 10 appellations produce wines dominated by Merlot with very little Cabernet Sauvignon, the two most famous being Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. These wines often have great fruit concentration, softer tannins and are long-lived. Saint-Émilion has an official classification. In 2007, 10.5% of the region's vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.


Astérix, the popular series of French comic books following the exploits of a village of "indomitable Gauls", satirizes this view by combining scenes set in classical antiquity with modern ethnic clichés of the French and other nations.


aubainWhite Burgundy
The next-largest concentration is found in the Languedoc, where it was first planted around the town of Limoux and up to 30% can be blended with Mauzac in the sparkling Blanquette de Limoux. Every year since 1991, Chardonnay production is celebrated in Limoux during the Toques et Clochers festival. By 2000, more than 9000 ha were planted, with many being used for wines under the Vin de Pays d'Oc. These wines were unique in that they were some of the first examples of Chardonnay to be varietally labeled as "Chardonnay". Other French wine regions with Chardonnay plantings include Alsace, Ardèche, Jura, Savoie, and the Loire Valley. In Jura, it is used to create vin de paille dessert wines.

List of grape varieties

grape varietygrape varietiesgrape
This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grapes, whether used for wine, or eating as a table grape, fresh or dried (raisin, currant, sultana).

Sauvignon blanc

The grape originated in France, in the regions of Bordeaux and the Loire Valley. Plantings in California, Australia, Chile and South Africa are also extensive, and Sauvignon blanc is steadily increasing in popularity as white wine drinkers seek alternatives to Chardonnay. The grape can also be found in Italy and Central Europe. In France, Sauvignon blanc is grown in the maritime climate of Bordeaux (especially in Entre-Deux-Mers, Graves and Pessac-Léognan as a dry wine, and in Sauternes as a sweet wine) as well as the continental climate of the Loire Valley (as Pouilly Fumé, Sancerre, and Sauvignon de Touraine).


CharlesCharles the GreatEmperor Charlemagne
In addition, he had a grandson (Bernard of Italy, the only son of his third son, Pippin of Italy), who was illegitimate but included in the line of inheritance. Among his descendants are several royal dynasties, including the Habsburg, Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties. By consequence, most if not all established European noble families ever since can genealogically trace their background to Charlemagne. He was named Charles in French and English, Carolus in Latin, after his grandfather, Charles Martel. Later Old French historians dubbed him Charles le Magne (Charles the Great), becoming Charlemagne in English after the Norman conquest of England.

United States

During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.

Italian wine

Sangiovese is also the backbone in many of the acclaimed, modern-styled "Super-Tuscans", where it is blended with three of the Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in French oak barrels, resulting in a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical California cabernet: oaky, high-alcohol, and a ripe, fruit-forward profile. History of Chianti. List of Italian DOC wines. List of Italian DOCG wines. List of Italian IGT wines. Old World wine. La Sicilia del Vino, di S. Barresi, E. Iachello, E. Magnano di San Lio, A. Gabbrielli, S. Foti, P. Sessa. Fotografia Giò Martorana, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2003.

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
This characteristic often carries through to an Occitan speaker's French, leading to a distinctive méridional accent. Unlike French, it is a pro-drop language, allowing the omission of the subject (canti: I sing; cantas you sing). Among these 19 discriminating criteria, 7 are different from Spanish, 8 from Italian, 12 from Franco-Provençal, and 16 from French. Most features of Occitan are shared with either French or Catalan, or both.


Italian Academies Database (IAD): Website of the Italian Academies 1525–1700 Project.


MassiliaMassaliaMarseille, France
The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51), Toulon (A50) and the French Riviera (A8) to the east. Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc.


English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identifies 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, as well as Italian and German, each by 7%. Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Greek Catholicism (0.8%).

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
On 3 September 1943, the Western Allies invaded the Italian mainland, following Italy's armistice with the Allies. Germany with the help of fascists responded by disarming Italian forces that were in many places without superior orders, seizing military control of Italian areas, and creating a series of defensive lines. German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon established a new client state in German-occupied Italy named the Italian Social Republic, causing an Italian civil war. The Western Allies fought through several lines until reaching the main German defensive line in mid-November. German operations in the Atlantic also suffered.

World Heritage Site

World HeritageUNESCO World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage List
UNESCO World Heritage portal – Official website (in English and French). Travel guide to UNESCO Sites. The World Heritage List – Official searchable list of all Inscribed Properties. KML file of the World Heritage List – Official KML version of the list for Google Earth and NASA Worldwind. UNESCO Information System on the State of Conservation of World Heritage properties - Searchable online tool with over 3.400 reports on World Heritage sites. Official overview of the World Heritage Forest Program. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage – Official 1972 Convention Text in 7 languages.

The Chainsmokers

Paris, FranceParisCity of Paris
The Chainsmokers are an American DJ and production duo consisting of Alex Pall and Andrew Taggart. The EDM-pop duo achieved a breakthrough with their 2014 song "#Selfie", which was a top twenty single in several countries. Their debut EP, Bouquet was released in October 2015 and featured the single "Roses", which reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100. "Don't Let Me Down" became their first top 5 single there and won the Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording at the 59th awards ceremony, while "Closer" became their first number-one single on the chart. They have also won two American Music Awards, seven Billboard Music Awards and eight iHeartRadio Music Awards.


Limestone is a sedimentary rock which is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ).

List of wine-producing regions

wine regionwine regionswine-producing region
BordeauxBordeaux wine. Barsac. Entre-Deux-Mers. Fronsac. Graves. Haut-Médoc. Margaux. Médoc. Pauillac. Pessac-Léognan. Pomerol. Saint-Émilion. Saint-Estèphe. Saint-Julien. Sauternes – Sauternes. Burgundy (Bourgogne) – Burgundy wine. Beaujolais. Bugey. Chablis. Côte Chalonnaise. Côte d'Or. Côte de Beaune. Aloxe-Corton. Auxey-Duresses. Beaune. Chassagne-Montrachet. Meursault. Santenay. Côte de Nuits. Chambolle-Musigny. Gevrey-Chambertin. Nuits-Saint-Georges. Vosne-Romanée. Mâconnais. Pouilly-Fuissé. Champagne – Champagne. Jura – Jura wine. Languedoc-Roussillon. Banyuls. Blanquette de Limoux. Cabardès. Collioure. Corbières. Côtes du Roussillon. Fitou. Maury. Minervois. Rivesaltes.

Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855

1855 Classification1855 Bordeaux classificationclassified
Classification of Saint-Émilion wine. Regional wine classification. History of Bordeaux wine. Bordeaux wine regions. Judgment of Paris. Echikson, Tom (2004). Noble rot. NY: Norton. ISBN: 0-8168-6825-5. Taber, George M. (2005). Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the historic 1976 Tasting that Revolutionized Wine. NY: Scribner. ISBN: 0-7432-9732-6.

Gaulish language

The Latin author Aulus Gellius (c. 180) mentions Gaulish alongside the Etruscan language in one anecdote, indicating that (North Italian?) Gaulish is alive at the time of writing.