Vin de pays

Country winevins de pays
The others are: Vin de Pays du Comté Tolosan (south-west), Vin de Pays de Méditerranée (south-east, Provence and Corsica) and Vin de Pays des Comtés Rhodaniens (Rhone valley). Two further regional Vin de Pays designations, Vin de Pays de l'Atlantique (Bordeaux and Charentes (Cognac)) and Vin de Pays Vignobles de France (all of wine-making France) were approved by French authorities in 2007, but (together with Vin de Pays de Gaules for the Beaujolais region) remain disputed and as of July 2009, they remained unpublished in the Official Journal of the European Union due to actions taken by other French wine producers.

Merovingian dynasty

MerovingianMerovingiansMerovingian period
After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks also conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy (ruled by the Lombards since 568) and Visigothic Septimania remained fairly stable. Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis's sons and later among his grandsons and frequently saw war between the different kings, who quickly allied among themselves and against one another. The death of one king created conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Later, conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda.


semillongreen grape
The Sémillon grape is native to the Bordeaux region. It was known as Sémillon de Saint-Émilion in 1736, while Sémillon also resembles the local pronunciation of the town’s name ([semi'ʎuŋ]). It first arrived in Australia in the early 19th century and by the 1820s the grape covered over 90 percent of South Africa's vineyards, where it was known as Wyndruif, meaning "wine grape". It was once considered to be the most planted grape in the world, although this is no longer the case. In the 1950s, Chile's vineyards were made up of over 75% Sémillon. Today, it accounts for just 1% of South African Cape vines.

Apéritif and digestif

The apéritif was introduced in France in 1846 when a French chemist, Joseph Dubonnet, created his eponymous wine-based drink as a means of delivering malaria-fighting quinine. The medicine was a bitter brew, so he developed a formula of herbs and spices to mask quinine's sharp flavor, and it worked so well that the recipe has remained well-guarded ever since. French Foreign Legion soldiers made use of it in mosquito-infested Northern Africa. Dubonnet's wife was so fond of the drink that she had all her friends try it, and its popularity spread.

Pinot noir

PinotPinot NeroSpätburgunder
The name is derived from the French words for pine and black. The word pine alludes to the grape variety having tightly clustered, pine cone-shaped bunches of fruit. Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler climates, and the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France. Pinot Noir is now used to make red wines around the World, as well as Champagne, and such sparkling white wines as the Italian Franciacorta, and English sparkling wines.

Oak (wine)

oakoak barrelswine barrel
The most common barrels are the Bordeaux barriques style which hold 225 L followed by the Burgundy style barrel which hold 228 L. Some New World wine makers are now also using the larger hogshead 300 L barrel. Larger barrels are also traditionally used in parts of Italy such as Barolo, as well as the south of France. New barrels impart more flavors than do previously used barrels. Over time many of the oak properties get "leached" out of the barrel with layers of natural deposits left from the wine building up on the wood to where after 3 to 5 vintages there may be little or no oak flavors imparted on the wine.


gariguephryganabatha and phrygana
First cited in the French language in 1546, the singular word garigue is borrowed from the Provençal dialect of Occitan garriga, equivalent to old French jarrie. Etymologist Oscar Bloch states that it is most likely related to the Gascon carroc, meaning rock and to the Germanic Swiss Karren, a kind of sedimentary rock. These related words could stem from a supposed carra, or rock, which could be a remnant of a pre-Latin language, to judge from its geographic distribution even before Celtic times, and possibly akin to Basque *karr-, harri, 'rock'. It is thought that Gallic and Latin incorporated these words and then transmitted them in various forms to the Romance languages.

List of vineyard soil types

vineyard soilsvolcanic soilvineyard soil
The Right Bank of Bordeaux is dominated by clay based soils. Dolomite - Calcium-magnesium carbonate soil. Flint - Siliceous stone that reflects and retains heat well. The Pouilly-Fumé wine of the Loire Valley is generally produced from flint-based soil and is said to have "gun-flint" smell in the wine. Galestro - Schist based soil found in the Tuscany region of Italy. Granite - Composed of 40-60% quartz, 30-40% Orthoclase and various amounts of hornblende, mica, and other minerals. This soil warms quickly and retains heat well. The soil's high level of acidity works to minimize the acid levels in the grapes which works well with acidic grapes like Gamay.


CatalanCatalan cultureCatalan person
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are the citizens of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain and the inhabitants of the Roussillon historical region in southeast France, today the Pyrénées Orientales departments, also called Catalonia Nord and Pays Catalan in French. Some authors also extend the word "Catalans" to encompass the inhabitants of all the regions where Catalan language is spoken, namely those from Andorra, Valencia, the Balearic islands, eastern Aragon, Roussillon, and the city of Alghero in Sardinia. These territories are also known as the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

Gallo-Roman culture

The Vulgar Latin in the North of Gaul evolved into the langues d'oïl and Franco-Provencal, while the dialects in the South evolved into the modern Occitan and Catalan tongues. Other languages held to be "Gallo-Romance" include the Gallo-Italic languages and the Rhaeto-Romance languages.


wine makingwine productionvinification
In the French Baumé (Be° or Bé° for short) one Be° corresponds approximately to one percent alcohol. One Be° is equal to 1.8 °Bx, that is 1.8 grams of sugar per one hundred grams. Therefore, to achieve one percent alcohol the winemaker adds sugar at a rate of 1.8 grams per 100 ml (18 grams per liter) — a practice known as chaptalization, which is illegal in some countries and in California. Volatile acidity test verifies if there is any steam distillable acids in the wine. Mainly present is acetic acid (the dominant component of vinegar), but lactic, butyric, propionic, and formic acid can also be found.

Globalization of wine

globalizationglobal wine industryglobal wine market
Subsequent immigrants have brought their native wines and grapes wherever they have gone – the Italian influence on Argentine and Californian winemaking is particularly noteworthy. Wines from Portugal and Madeira were fortified to survive journeys across the world, and left their mark on wines in the colonies that aped their style and were named after them. The phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th century also had a big influence, destroying traditional field blends of indigenous grapes in vineyards, which were often replaced by monocultures of fashionable grapes such as the Bordeaux varieties – grafted, of course, onto rootstocks from North America.


fleur-de-lysfleurs-de-lisfleur de lys
It remains unclear where the fleur-de-lis originated, though it has retained an association with French nobility. It is widely used in French city emblems as in the coat of arms of the city of Lille, Saint-Denis, Brest, Clermont-Ferrand, Boulogne-Billancourt and Calais. Some cities that had been particularly faithful to the French Crown were awarded a heraldic augmentation of two or three fleurs-de-lis on the chief of their coat of arms; such cities include Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Reims, Le Havre, Angers, Le Mans, Aix-en-Provence, Tours, Limoges, Amiens, Orléans, Rouen, Argenteuil, Poitiers, Chartres and Laon among others.

History of the Jews in Thessaloniki

SalonikaJewish Community of ThessalonikiJewish
The haskala taught by the French Jews has, in turn, encouraged teaching the French language in Alliance Israélite Universelle schools. Italian is also taught to a lesser extent. After the Greeks took Salonika in 1912, Greek was taught at school and has been spoken by several generations of Jewish Salonicans. Today it is the language that predominates among Thessalonian Jews. Modern Salonican djudezmo now include phrases from various other immigrant groups including Italian. French phrases have also become popular to the point that Prof. Haïm-Vidal Séphiha speaks of "judéo-fragnol."

List of World Heritage Sites by year of inscription

The first World Heritage Site in the list is Galápagos Islands, while the country with the largest number of sites (including sites shared with other countries) is Italy, with 54 entries. The country with the largest number of sites by itself alone (excluding sites shared with other countries) is China, with 52 entries.

List of pastries

The introduction of sugar into European cookery resulted in a large variety of new pastry recipes in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The greatest innovator was Marie-Antoine Carême who perfected puff pastry and developed elaborate designs of pâtisserie. Apfelküchle. Carolina. Chebakia. Coventry Godcakes. Gukhwappang. Osmanthus cake. Chinese bakery products. Cuisine. Global cuisine. List of baked goods. List of bread rolls. List of breads. List of buns. List of cakes. List of choux pastry dishes. List of desserts. List of doughnut varieties. List of hors d'oeuvre. List of pies, tarts and flans. Lists of prepared foods. List of sweet breads. Pastry – entry at Encyclopædia Britannica.

List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

Western EuropeListWorld Heritage Sites
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated 132 World Heritage Sites in Western Europe. These sites are located in 9 countries (also called "state parties"); France and Germany are home to the most with 37 and 43, while Liechtenstein and Monaco have no sites. There are ten sites which are shared between state parties both in and out of Western Europe. The first site from the region to be included on the list was the Aachen Cathedral in Germany in 1978, the year of the list's conception.

South West France (wine region)

South West FranceSouthwest FranceSouth West
South West France, or in French Sud-Ouest, is a wine region in France covering several wine-producing areas situated respectively inland from, and south of, the wine region of Bordeaux. These areas, which have a total of 16,000 hectares (40,000 acres) of vineyards, consist of several discontinuous wine "islands" throughout the Aquitaine region (where Bordeaux region itself is situated), and more or less to the west of the Midi-Pyrénées region.

Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark

Prince HenrikPrince Henrik of DenmarkHenri de Laborde de Monpezat
Henrik was born in the French commune of Talence near Bordeaux to the old French family the Laborde de Monpezats. He spent his early years in Vietnam where his family had lived for many years. The family spent the Second World War at the family home in Cahors, France. They returned to Vietnam after the war, however were forced to flee following the defeat of the French in the First Indochina War. After completing his education in France and Vietnam, Henrik served in the French Army during the Algerian War. Prior to his marriage to Margrethe, he worked in the diplomatic service.

List of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wines

300 French winesFrench winesList of ''Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée'' wines
Saint-Émilion || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Émilion Grand Cru || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Estephe || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Georges Saint-Émilion || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Joseph || Rhône || 1956 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Julien || Bordeaux || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Mont || South West France || 2011 || upgraded to AOC (AOP) from AOVDQS as disappear as label in 2011. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil || Loire || 1937 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Péray || Rhône || 1936 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF". Saint-Pourçain || Loire || 2009 ||. - bgcolor="#DDEEFF".

White wine

whitewhite wines
Sémillon : a grape originally from Bordeaux vineyards, it is the main variety used for sweet wines from Bordeaux and Bergerac due to its ability to take the noble rot It possesses a fig-like characteristic and is often paired with Sauvignon blanc to mellow its strong berry-like flavours. Trebbiano bianco or Ugni Blanc : an Italian grape variety giving a fairly neutral wine. In France this wine is usually distilled to yield cognac or armagnac. Viognier : a French grape from the Rhône Valley, it has been planted in California since the 2000s. It yields a very fruity and complex wine. Grenache blanc : this is the white form of Grenache black N.


The following table shows the 20 main 15th century printing locations; as with all data in this section, exact figures are given, but should be treated as close estimates (the total editions recorded in ISTC at May 2013 is 28,395): The 18 languages that incunabula are printed in, in descending order, are: Latin, German, Italian, French, Dutch, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Catalan, Czech, Greek, Church Slavonic, Portuguese, Swedish, Breton, Danish, Frisian and Sardinian (see diagram). Only about one edition in ten (i.e. just over 3,000) has any illustrations, woodcuts or metalcuts.