List of pastries

The introduction of sugar into European cookery resulted in a large variety of new pastry recipes in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. The greatest innovator was Marie-Antoine Carême who perfected puff pastry and developed elaborate designs of pâtisserie. Apfelküchle. Carolina. Chebakia. Coventry Godcakes. Gukhwappang. Osmanthus cake. Shorgoghal. Chinese bakery products. Cuisine. Global cuisine. List of baked goods. List of bread rolls. List of breads. List of buns. List of cakes. List of choux pastry dishes. List of desserts. List of doughnut varieties. List of hors d'oeuvre. List of pies, tarts and flans. Lists of prepared foods. List of sweet breads.

List of World Heritage Sites by year of inscription

UNESCO World Heritage portal – Official website (in English and French). The World Heritage List – Official searchable list of all Inscribed Properties. New Inscribed Properties – List of new Inscribed Properties. Also lists nominated sites prior to an upcoming session of the World Heritage Committee.

List of World Heritage Sites in Western Europe

Western EuropeListWorld Heritage Sites
It also omits eight sites outside of Europe belonging to European state parties: Curaçao (Netherlands), French Austral Lands and Seas (France), French Polynesia (France), New Caledonia (France), Reunion Island (France), Gough Island (United Kingdom), Henderson Island (United Kingdom), and Bermuda (United Kingdom). These sites are included in the African, American, and Oceania lists. The table is sortable by column by clicking on the at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Site – named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation.

Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark

Prince HenrikHenri de Laborde de MonpezatPrince Henrik of Denmark
Henrik was born in the French commune of Talence near Bordeaux to an old French family, the Laborde de Monpezats. He spent his early years in Tonkin in French Indochina (now part of Vietnam), where his family had lived for many years. The family spent the Second World War at the family home in Cahors, France. They returned to French Indochina after the war. However, they were forced to flee following the defeat of the French in the First Indochina War. After completing his education in France and Vietnam, Henrik served in the French Army during the Algerian War. Prior to his marriage to Margrethe, he worked in the diplomatic service.

European Train Control System

ETCSETCS Level 2ETCS Level 1
It is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network, connecting Paris and Strasbourg. July 2017: The LGV BPL from Connerré (near Le Mans) to Rennes opens with ETCS L2. July 2017: The LGV SEA from Tours to Bordeaux opens with ETCS L2. December 2005: Rome–Naples high-speed railway opens with ETCS Level 2. February 2006: ETCS Level 2 is extended to the Turin–Milan high-speed line on the section between Turin and Novara. December 2008: Opening of Milano–Bologna line. Autumn/Winter 2009: Opening of High Speed lines Novara–Milano and Bologna–Florence, thus completing the whole HS line Turin-Naples. December 2016: Opening of high-speed line Treviglio-Brescia, part of Milan-Verona line.


The following table shows the 20 main 15th century printing locations; as with all data in this section, exact figures are given, but should be treated as close estimates (the total editions recorded in ISTC at May 2013 is 28,395): The 18 languages that incunabula are printed in, in descending order, are: Latin, German, Italian, French, Dutch, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Catalan, Czech, Greek, Church Slavonic, Portuguese, Swedish, Breton, Danish, Frisian and Sardinian (see diagram). Only about one edition in ten (i.e. just over 3,000) has any illustrations, woodcuts or metalcuts.

Fronsac, Gironde

French wine. Bordeaux wine. Plan Bordeaux. Bordeaux wine regions.


Romuald II, duke of Benevento (Italy). Rupert of Bingen, patron saint (b. 712). Sima Zhen, Chinese historian (b. 679).


Narbonne, FranceNarboNarbo Martius
It was located on the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, built at the time of the foundation of the colony, and connecting Italy to Spain. Geographically, Narbonne was therefore located at a very important crossroads because it was situated where the Via Domitia connected to the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa and Burdigala. In addition, it was crossed by the Aude River. Surviving members of Julius Caesar's Legio X Equestris were given lands in the area that today is called Narbonne. Politically, Narbonne gained importance as a competitor to Massalia (Marseille).

List of diplomatic missions of Senegal

Diplomatic missions of Senegal
Bordeaux (Consulate-General). Lyon (Consulate-General). Marseille (Consulate-General). Le Havre (Consular Agency). 🇩🇪 Germany. Berlin (Embassy). Holy See. Rome (Embassy). 🇮🇹 Italy. Rome (Embassy). Milan (Consulate-General). 🇳🇱 Netherlands. The Hague (Embassy). 🇵🇱 Poland. Warsaw (Embassy). 🇵🇹 Portugal. Lisbon (Embassy). 🇷🇺 Russia. Moscow (Embassy). 🇪🇸 Spain. Madrid (Embassy). 🇨🇭 Switzerland. Geneva (Embassy). 🇬🇧 United Kingdom. London (Embassy). African Union. Addis Ababa (Permanent Mission to the African Union). Brussels (Mission to the European Union). Geneva (Permanent Mission to the United Nations and international organizations).

Argentina–France relations

Ambassador to FranceAmbassador of Argentina to FranceEmbassy in Argentina
Some Argentine cities, such as Pigüé above, were originated by colonies of French immigrants, and generated an Argentine-French local culture. Carlos Gardel was a native of Languedoc and Provence, the eastern tip of Occitania, became the liberator Hipólito Bouchard who spread the design of the Argentina flag Central America and captured the realistic teaches at the Battle of San Lorenzo. Buenos Aires is a city of diverse architectural influences, especially from Italy, Spain and France.

L'Illusion Comique

The IllusionThe Comic IllusionThe Theatre of Illusion
Vuillemin, Jean-Claude, "Illusions comiques et dramaturgie baroque: Corneille, Rotrou et quelques autres", Papers on French Seventeenth-Century Literature, 2001, p. 307-325. Vialleton Jean-Yves, Lecture du jeune Corneille "L'Illusion comique" et "Le Cid", Rennes : Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2001. Mannoni Octave, : Ressources en ligne et bibliographie. L'Illusion comique and commentary in French. |N088016|N027719 Gallica online text. Gallica bibliography of Corneille.

French diaspora

FrenchFrench immigrantsExpatriates
The French by now strongly identified with the island, and the terms of capitulation allowed the settlers to live on as a distinct francophone ethnic group for the next 158 years under British rule before Mauritius attained independence. Not all Franco-Mauritians have pure French lineage, many also have British or other European ancestors that came to Mauritius and were absorbed in the Franco-Mauritian community or the gens de couleur (Coloureds). There are an estimated 15,000–20,000 Franco-Mauritians; French lineage is also found within the gens de couleur community with many having predominantly French ancestors—a further 30,000 people with considerable French bloodline.

Overseas Vietnamese

VietnameseVietnamese diasporaViệt Kiều
Earlier Vietnamese migrants also settled in the cities of Lille and Bordeaux. Unlike their counterparts in North America or Australia, the Vietnamese have not formed distinct enclaves within the major cities of France and the degree of assimilation is higher, due to better cultural, historical, and linguistic knowledge of the host country. The community is still strongly attached to its homeland while being well integrated in the French society.

Classification of wine

classificationwine classificationclassified
Classification of Saint-Émilion wine of Bordeaux. Classification of Grapes wine of Bordeaux. Cru Bourgeois of Bordeaux (Médoc). Classified estates of Provence. Classification of Champagne vineyards. Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. ISWN (International Standard Wine Number). Langton’s Classification of Australian Wine. Protected designation of origin. Quinta classification of Port vineyards in the Douro.


Loire RiverRiver LoireLoire estuary
It is also known as the Garden of France – due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, artichoke, asparagus and cherry fields which line the banks of the river – and also as the "cradle of the French language".

List of drinks named after places

Uva di Troia after the town of Troia, Apulia, Italy. Uva Tosca, named after though not originated in Tuscany, Italy. Verduzzo Trevigiano after the Province of Treviso, Veneto, Italy. Vernaccia di Oristano after the Province of Oristano, Sardinia, Italy. Vien de Nus after the town of Nus, Aosta Valley, northwest Italy. Vitovska after the village of Vitovlje, western Slovenia. Wildbacher, after the village of Wildbach, near the town of Deutschlandsberg, Styria, Austria. Alsace after the Alsace region. Anjou after the historical province of Anjou. Banyuls after Banyuls-sur-Mer. Beaujolais after the historical province of Beaujolais. Bergerac after the town of Bergerac, Dordogne.


SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
[[File:Karte Schweizer Sprachgebiete 2017.png|thumb|National languages in Switzerland (2016): ]] Switzerland has four national languages: mainly German (spoken by 62.8% of the population in 2016); French (22.9%) in the west; and Italian (8.2%) in the south. The fourth national language, Romansh (0.5%), is a Romance language spoken locally in the southeastern trilingual canton of Grisons, and is designated by Article 4 of the Federal Constitution as a national language along with German, French, and Italian, and in Article 70 as an official language if the authorities communicate with persons who speak Romansh.

Aosta Valley

Valle d'AostaVal d'AostaAosta
The Aosta Valley was the first government authority to adopt Modern French as the official language in 1536, three years before France itself. Italian and French are nowadays the region's official languages, and are used for the regional government's acts and laws, though Italian is much more widely spoken in everyday life, and French is mostly spoken in cultural life. Education is conducted evenly in French and Italian, so that anyone who has gone to school in the Aosta Valley can speak French to at least a medium-high level. The regional language, known as patoué valdotèn or simply patoué (valdostano in Italian, valdôtain in French), is a dialectal variety of Franco-Provençal.

German language

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music. The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises in pure (Old High) German in the decades after the year 1000.

Catalan language

Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, French, Spanish and Portuguese among others). However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group (Spanish and Portuguese) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with languages native to France and northern Italy, particularly Occitan and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance (Franco-Provençal, French, Gallo-Italian).

Franco-Provençal language

Franco-ProvençalArpitanArpitan language
Precise Map of Arpitania and Occitania in Italy and Switzerland.

Italian language

Italian ' "fourteen" < Latin (cf. Romanian /, Spanish ', French, Catalan and Portuguese catorze). Italian settimana "week" < Latin (cf. Romanian săptămână, Spanish and Portuguese semana, French semaine, Catalan setmana). Italian medesimo "same" < Vulgar Latin * (cf. Spanish mismo, Portuguese mesmo, French même, Catalan mateix; note that Italian usually uses the shorter stesso). Italian guadagnare "to win, earn, gain" < Vulgar Latin * < Germanic (cf. Spanish ganar, Portuguese ganhar, French gagner, Catalan guanyar). Little or no lenition of consonants between vowels, e.g. > vita "life" (cf. Romanian viață, Spanish vida, French vie), > piede "foot" (cf. Spanish pie, French pied ).

Spanish language

Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages, particularly other Romance languages—French, Italian, Andalusi Romance, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Occitan, and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua, Nahuatl, and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.

Gustave Eiffel

Gustav EiffelEiffelAlexandre Gustave Eiffel
A proposal to demolish the railway bridge of Bordeaux (also known as the "passerelle St Jean"), Eiffel's first major work, resulted in a large response from the public. Actions to protect the bridge were taken as early as 2002 by the Association of the Descendants of Gustave Eiffel, joined from 2005 onwards by the Association Sauvons la Passerelle Eiffel ("Association to Save the Eiffel Bridge"). They led, in 2010, to the decision to list Eiffel's Bordeaux bridge as a French Historical Monument. * * * Railway station at Toulouse, France (1862). Railway station at Agen, France. Church of Notre Dame des Champs, Paris (1867). Performing Artes Center Lía Bermúdez, Maracaibo, Venezuela (1886).