European Train Control System

ETCSETCS Level 2ETCS Level 1
It is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network, connecting Paris and Strasbourg. July 2017: The LGV BPL from Connerré (near Le Mans) to Rennes opens with ETCS L2. July 2017: The LGV SEA from Tours to Bordeaux opens with ETCS L2. December 2005: Rome–Naples high-speed railway opens with ETCS Level 2. February 2006: ETCS Level 2 is extended to the Turin–Milan high-speed line on the section between Turin and Novara. December 2008: Opening of Milano–Bologna line. Autumn/Winter 2009: Opening of High Speed lines Novara–Milano and Bologna–Florence, thus completing the whole HS line Turin-Naples. December 2016: Opening of high-speed line Treviglio-Brescia, part of Milan-Verona line.

Fronsac, Gironde

French wine. Bordeaux wine. Plan Bordeaux. Bordeaux wine regions.


Romuald II, duke of Benevento (Italy). Rupert of Bingen, patron saint (b. 712). Sima Zhen, Chinese historian (b. 679).

List of diplomatic missions of Senegal

Bordeaux (Consulate-General). Lyon (Consulate-General). Marseille (Consulate-General). Le Havre (Consular Agency). 🇩🇪 Germany. Berlin (Embassy). Holy See. Rome (Embassy). 🇮🇹 Italy. Rome (Embassy). Milan (Consulate-General). 🇳🇱 Netherlands. The Hague (Embassy). 🇵🇱 Poland. Warsaw (Embassy). 🇵🇹 Portugal. Lisbon (Embassy). 🇷🇺 Russia. Moscow (Embassy). 🇪🇸 Spain. Madrid (Embassy). 🇨🇭 Switzerland. Geneva (Embassy). 🇬🇧 United Kingdom. London (Embassy). African Union. Addis Ababa (Permanent Mission to the African Union). Geneva (Permanent Mission to the United Nations and international organizations). New York (Permanent Mission to the United Nations). UNESCO.

Argentina–France relations

Ambassador to FranceAmbassador of Argentina to FranceEmbassy in Argentina
Some Argentine cities, such as Pigüé above, were originated by colonies of French immigrants, and generated an Argentine-French local culture. Carlos Gardel was a native of Languedoc and Provence, the eastern tip of Occitania, became the liberator Hipólito Bouchard who spread the design of the Argentina flag Central America and captured the realistic teaches at the Battle of San Lorenzo. Buenos Aires is a city of diverse architectural influences, especially from Italy, Spain and France.

L'Illusion Comique

The IllusionThe Theatre of IllusionThe Theatrical Illusion
Vuillemin, Jean-Claude, "Illusions comiques et dramaturgie baroque: Corneille, Rotrou et quelques autres", Papers on French Seventeenth-Century Literature, 2001, p. 307-325. Vialleton Jean-Yves, Lecture du jeune Corneille "L'Illusion comique" et "Le Cid", Rennes : Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2001. Mannoni Octave, : Ressources en ligne et bibliographie. L'Illusion comique and commentary in French. |N088016|N027719 Gallica online text. Gallica bibliography of Corneille.

Overseas Vietnamese

VietnameseVietnamese diasporaethnic Vietnamese
Earlier Vietnamese migrants also settled in the cities of Lille and Bordeaux. Unlike their counterparts in North America or Australia, the Vietnamese have not formed distinct enclaves within the major cities of France and the degree of assimilation is higher, due to better cultural, historical, and linguistic knowledge of the host country. The community is still strongly attached to its homeland while being well integrated in the French society.

Classification of wine

classificationwine classificationclassified
Classification of Saint-Émilion wine of Bordeaux. Classification of Grapes wine of Bordeaux. Cru Bourgeois of Bordeaux (Médoc). Classified estates of Provence. Classification of Champagne vineyards. Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855. ISWN (International Standard Wine Number). Langton’s Classification of Australian Wine. Protected designation of origin. Quinta classification of Port vineyards in the Douro.

Chinese diaspora in France

FranceChinese community in FranceChinese-French
In 1909, the three arranged for 140 students to come from China to work in the beancurd factory in order to support their study of French language and culture. Over the next two decades, Li, Zhang, and Wu established a number of institutions of Sino-French friendship such as the Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement. Also arriving in Paris at this time was the art-dealer C.T. Loo, who married a French woman and maintained a business there until the 1950s.


Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); and Svizra or (Romansh). On coins and stamps, the Latin name – frequently shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

Aosta Valley

AostaVal d'AostaValle d'Aosta
The Aosta Valley was the first government authority to adopt Modern French as the official language in 1536, three years before France itself. Italian and French are nowadays the region's official languages, and are used for the regional government's acts and laws, though Italian is much more widely spoken in everyday life, and French is mostly spoken in cultural life. Education is conducted evenly in French and Italian, so that anyone who has gone to school in the Aosta Valley can speak French to at least a medium-high level. The regional language, known as patoué valdotèn or simply patoué (valdostano in Italian, valdôtain in French), is a dialectal variety of Franco-Provençal.

Council of Europe

CECoEthe Council of Europe
English and French are its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress also use German, Italian, Russian, and Turkish for some of their work. Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war," once victory had been achieved, and think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent.

German language

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music. The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great. Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises in pure (Old High) German in the decades after the year 1000.

Catalan language

Features include: In gender inflection, the most notable feature is (compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian), the loss of the typical masculine suffix -o. Thus, the alternance of -o/-a, has been replaced by ø/-a. There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa ("scarce"). Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as: Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has noi/noia ("boy"/"girl") and gall/gallina ("cock"/"hen"), whereas French has garçon/fille and coq/poule.

Spanish language

Italian, on the other hand its phonology similar to Spanish, but has a lower lexical similarity of 82%. Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or between Spanish and Romanian is lower still, given lexical similarity ratings of 75% and 71% respectively. And comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is much lower, at an estimated 45%. In general, thanks to the common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages, interlingual comprehension of the written word is greater than that of oral communication. The following table compares the forms of some common words in several Romance languages: 1.

Gustave Eiffel

EiffelAlexandre Gustave Eiffel(Alexandre) Gustave Eiffel
A proposal to demolish the railway bridge of Bordeaux (also known as the "passerelle St Jean"), the first major work of Gustave Eiffel, resulted in a large response from the public. Actions to protect the bridge were taken as early as 2002 by the "Association of the Descendants of Gustave Eiffel", joined from 2005 onwards by the Association "Sauvons la Passerelle Eiffel" ("Save the Eiffel Bridge"). They led, in 2010, to the decision to list Eiffel's Bordeaux bridge as a French Historical Monument. * Einsturz der Birsbrücke bei Münchenstein (Basel) Railway station at Toulouse, France (1862). Railway station at Agen, France. Church of Notre Dame des Champs, Paris (1867).


North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
German/Dutch Corps, Multinational Corps Northeast, and NATO Rapid Deployable Italian Corps among others, as well as naval High Readiness Forces (HRFs), which all report to Allied Command Operations. Headquarters for the NATO Support Agency will be in Capellen Luxembourg (site of the current NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency – NAMSA). The NATO Communications and Information Agency Headquarters will be in Brussels, as will the very small staff which will design the new NATO Procurement Agency.

World Trade Organization

WTOWTrOWorld Trade Organisation
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.

FIFA World Cup

World CupWorld Cupsthe competition
Italy and Brazil successfully defended their titles in 1938 and 1962 respectively, while Italy's triumph in 2006 has been followed by wins for Spain in 2010, Germany in 2014 and France in 2018. Currently, it is also the first time that one of the currently winning continents (Europe) is ahead of the other (South America) by more than one championship. At the end of each World Cup, awards are presented to the players and teams for accomplishments other than their final team positions in the tournament. There are currently six awards: An All-Star Team consisting of the best players of the tournament has also been announced for each tournament since 1998.

House of Savoy

SavoySavoyardItalian Royal Family
Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement. In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system even after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire.