Bituriges Vivisci

Bituriges Vivisques
The tribe's capital was in Burdigala, modern-day Bordeaux. The Vivisci traded wine which they produced themselves. Bituriges is often taken to mean Kings of the World but whether there was any link to the Bituriges Cubi of the Berry region is not known. Some believe that the Bituriges Vivisci and the Bituriges Cubi once made up one single tribe, but seemed to have fallen apart, with the Vivisci staying in Burdigala, and the Cubi founding a new capital, Avaricum in the Berry region. The latter defended Avaricum against the Roman armies under Julius Caesar, who destroyed the town and its inhabitants.

United Nations

It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realised that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomance philologist
SC: used before E or I in Italian, Romance languages in Italy as, in European Portuguese as and in French, Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan and Latin American Spanish as in words of certain etymology (notice this would represent in standard peninsular Spanish). SCH: used in Romansh for or, in Italian for before "E"or "I", including yod. SCI: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, and Corsican to represent before A, O, or U. SH: used in Aranese Occitan for. SS: used in French, Portuguese, Piedmontese, Romansh, Occitan, and Catalan for between vowels, in Italian, Romance languages of Italy, and Corsican for long. TS: used in Catalan for. TG: used in Romansh for or .

Climate categories in viticulture

continental climateMediterranean climatecontinental
Bordeaux. Champagne. Irouléguy AOC, Lower Navarre. Madiran wine region, Gascony. Muscadet. Alsace and Lorraine (continental by French standards). Most German wine regions (continental by French standards). Liechtenstein wine regions (continental by French standards). Moselle Valley including Luxembourg (continental by French standards). Most Swiss wine regions (continental by French standards). Bizkaiko Txakolina, Basque Country. Rías Baixas (Csb). New Zealand wine regions. Southern Chile including Bío Bío Valley, Itata Valley, and Malleco Valley (Csb). Block Island, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket (part of Southeastern New England AVA and bordering continental).

Graves (wine region)

GravesSauternesDe Grave
Bordeaux wine. Bordeaux wine regions.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

EleanorQueen EleanorEleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
Rather than act as guardian to the duchess and duchy, he decided to marry the duchess to his 17-year-old heir and bring Aquitaine under the control of the French crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and its ruling family, the House of Capet. Within hours, the king had arranged for Prince Louis to be married to Eleanor, with Abbot Suger in charge of the wedding arrangements. Prince Louis was sent to Bordeaux with an escort of 500 knights, along with Abbot Suger, Theobald II, Count of Champagne, and Count Ralph. On 25 July 1137, Eleanor and Louis were married in the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux by the archbishop of Bordeaux.

A10 autoroute

A10A10 HighwayA10 Motorway
The A10, also called L'Aquitaine, is an Autoroute in France, running for 549 km (341 mi) from the A6 south of Paris to the A630 at Bordeaux. It is the longest motorway in France.It generally parallels the N10 Route Nationale, but deviates significantly from the older N10 between Paris and Tours and between Poitiers and Bordeaux. The closest Routes Nationale to those sections are the N20 from Paris to Orléans, the N152 from Orléans to Tours, the N11 from Poitiers to Niort, the N150 from Niort to Saintes, and the N137 from Saintes to Bordeaux.

Franco-Prussian War

War of 1870Franco-German WarFranco-Prussian
When the war had begun, European public opinion heavily favoured the Germans; many Italians attempted to sign up as volunteers at the Prussian embassy in Florence and a Prussian diplomat visited Giuseppe Garibaldi in Caprera. Bismarck's demand that France surrender sovereignty over Alsace caused a dramatic shift in that sentiment in Italy, which was best exemplified by the reaction of Garibaldi soon after the revolution in Paris, who told the Movimento of Genoa on 7 September 1870 that "Yesterday I said to you: war to the death to Bonaparte. Today I say to you: rescue the French Republic by every means."


🇩🇿AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second-largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers, and French is widely used in government, media (newspapers, radio, local television), and both the education system (from primary school onwards) and academia due to Algeria's colonial history. It can be regarded as a lingua franca of Algeria. In 2008, 11.2 million Algerians could read and write in French. An Abassa Institute study in April 2000 found that 60% of households could speak and understand French or 18 million in a population of 30 million then.


French is the only official language in the country, but a backlash in the form of a rising Senegalese linguistic nationalist movement supports the integration of Wolof, the common vernacular language of the country, into the national constitution. Senegalese regions of Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies and Ziguinchor are members of the International Association of Francophone regions Senegal's capital of Dakar is by far the largest city in Senegal, with over two million residents. The second most populous city is Touba, a de jure communaute rurale (rural community), with half a million.


Decimius Magnus AusoniusDecimus Magnus Ausonius(Julius) Ausonius
In 383 the army of Britain, led by Magnus Maximus, revolted against Gratian and assassinated him at Lyons; and when emperor Valentinian II was driven out of Italy, Ausonius retired to his estates near Burdigala (now Bordeaux) in Gaul. When Magnus Maximus was overthrown by emperor Theodosius I in 388, Ausonius did not leave his country estates. They were, he says, his nidus senectutis, the "nest of his old age", and there he spent the rest of his days, composing poetry and writing to many eminent contemporaries, several of whom had been his pupils. His estates supposedly included the land now owned by Château Ausone, which takes its name from him.


🇮🇱IsraeliState of Israel
In 1799 governor Jazzar Pasha successfully repelled an assault on Acre by troops of Napoleon, prompting the French to abandon the Syrian campaign. In 1834 a revolt by Palestinian Arab peasants broke out against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies under Muhammad Ali. Although the revolt was suppressed, Muhammad Ali's army retreated and Ottoman rule was restored with British support in 1840. Shortly after, the Tanzimat reforms were implemented across the Ottoman Empire.


TizianoTitian (Tiziano Vecellio)Titian, Vecellio
His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of colour, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the late Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. His career was successful from the start, and he became sought after by patrons, initially from Venice and its possessions, then joined by the north Italian princes, and finally the Habsburgs and papacy. Along with Giorgione, he is considered a founder of the Venetian School of Italian Renaissance painting. During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in colour.


Arabic-languageArabArabic language
Also, while it is comprehensible to people from the Maghreb, a linguistically innovative variety such as Moroccan Arabic is essentially incomprehensible to Arabs from the Mashriq, much as French is incomprehensible to Spanish or Italian speakers but relatively easily learned by them. This suggests that the spoken varieties may linguistically be considered separate languages. The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries, because it is the language of the Islamic sacred book, the Quran.


The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers. The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, and the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Italy. Luxembourg. The Netherlands. Norway. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. Switzerland. Turkey. United Kingdom. United States. The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries. The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators. The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs.


Grenache is the principal grape behind the rosés of Tavel and Lirac and its plays an important role in the Provence region as well. In the Roussillon region, Grenache noir and its gris and blanc mutations are used in the production of the fortified vin doux naturels of Banyuls and Maury. The characteristic of French Grenache-based wines depends largely on the selection of its blending partners and can range from the spicy richness associated with Châteauneuf-du-Pape to the chewy fruitiness associated with basic Côtes du Rhône Villages. Other regions with sizable plantings of Grenache include the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) regions of Minervois, Fitou and Corbières.


strawberriesgarden strawberryFragaria'' × ''ananassa
The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts. The strawberry is found in Italian, Flemish, and German art, and in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common. People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species.

Sparkling wine production

méthode champenoisemethode champenoisedosage
The ancestral method (méthode ancestrale) goes under many local names in the various French regions, such as "rurale", "artisanale" and "gaillacoise". This is by far the oldest method of making sparkling wine and preceded the traditional method by almost 200 years, or possibly even more. The wine that is now called Blanquette de Limoux is considered by wine historians to be the world's first sparkling wine, and was produced in Limoux in 1531 by monks in the monastery of Saint-Hilaire.


Also expectable but not so common are South European (Sardinian, Italian and Balkans), Broadly Northwestern (West Germanic) and in a less extent British/Irish (Brythonic/Gaelic) and French (Alpine). With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers. Other sources would point out a small presence of Berber and Jewish that would be also part of a low confidence region. Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age.

Bordeaux wine regions

BordeauxBordeaux regionLibournais
The chateaux in the area are not classified, with the winemakers seemingly disinclined to devise one, although Château Pétrus is often unofficially grouped with the First Growths of Bordeaux. The wine region of Saint-Émilion centres on the commune of the same name. There are several villages around the region that share the Saint-Émilion name, such as Montagne-Saint-Émilion and St-Georges-Saint-Émilion, and are permitted to label their wines under the same name. The area is bordered to the west by Pomerol. Merlot is the dominant grape in this area, followed by Cabernet Franc.


Titus LiviusLiviusLiv.
Livy was born Titus Livius in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate about the year of Titus Livius' birth- either in 64 BC, or more likely, in 59 BC (see below). At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, and the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. In his works, Livy often expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, and the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.