North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
German/Dutch Corps, Multinational Corps Northeast, and NATO Rapid Deployable Italian Corps among others, as well as naval High Readiness Forces (HRFs), which all report to Allied Command Operations. Headquarters for the NATO Support Agency will be in Capellen Luxembourg (site of the current NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency – NAMSA). The NATO Communications and Information Agency Headquarters will be in Brussels, as will the very small staff which will design the new NATO Procurement Agency.

World Trade Organization

WTOWTrOWorld Trade Organisation
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.

FIFA World Cup

World CupWorld CupsFootball World Cup
Italy and Brazil successfully defended their titles in 1938 and 1962 respectively, while Italy's triumph in 2006 has been followed by wins for Spain in 2010, Germany in 2014 and France in 2018. Currently, it is also the first time that one of the currently winning continents (Europe) is ahead of the other (South America) by more than one championship. At the end of each World Cup, awards are presented to the players and teams for accomplishments other than their final team positions in the tournament. There are currently six awards: An All-Star Team consisting of the best players of the tournament has also been announced for each tournament since 1998.

List of vins de primeur

nouveau wine
Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux AOC. Saumur AOC. Touraine AOC. Bordeaux AOC. Cabernet d'Anjou AOC. Cabernet de Saumur AOC. Faugères AOC. Rosé d'Anjou AOC. Rosé de Loire AOC. Saint-Chinian AOC. Tavel AOC. Touraine AOC. Buzet AOC. Corbières AOC. Costières de Nîmes AOC. Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence AOC. Coteaux du Languedoc AOC. Coteaux Varois AOC. Côtes de Duras AOC. Côtes du Marmandais AOC. Côtes de Provence AOC. Mâcon AOC. Minervois AOC. Montravel AOC. Anjou Gamay AOC. Beaujolais AOC (Beaujolais Nouveau). Beaujolais supérieur AOC. Beaujolais-Villages AOC. Coteaux du Languedoc AOC. Touraine Gamay AOC. Bergerac AOC. Coteaux du Lyonnais AOC. Coteaux du Tricastin AOC. Côtes du Rhône AOC.


AlpineItalian Alpsthe Alps
. * 17th century French-Italian border avalanche, 19th century Zermatt avalanche In the 17th century about 2500 people were killed by an avalanche in a village on the French-Italian border; in the 19th century 120 homes in a village near Zermatt were destroyed by an avalanche. The region is serviced by 4200 km of roads used by six million vehicles per year. Train travel is well established in the Alps, with, for instance 120 km of track for every 1000 km2 in a country such as Switzerland. Most of Europe's highest railways are located there. In 2007 the new 34.57 km Lötschberg Base Tunnel was opened, which circumvents the 100 years older Lötschberg Tunnel.

Ancient Greece

Greekancient Greekancient Greeks
The Greek language served as a lingua franca in the East and in Italy, and many Greek intellectuals such as Galen would perform most of their work in Rome. The territory of Greece is mountainous, and as a result, ancient Greece consisted of many smaller regions each with its own dialect, cultural peculiarities, and identity. Regionalism and regional conflicts were a prominent feature of ancient Greece. Cities tended to be located in valleys between mountains, or on coastal plains, and dominated a certain area around them.

House of Savoy

SavoyItalian Royal FamilySavoyard
Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions, the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement. In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the Statuto Albertino to Piedmont-Sardinia, which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system even after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Sparkling wine

sparklingfrizzantesparkling wines
Crémant de Bordeaux. Crémant de Bourgogne. Crémant de Die. Crémant du Jura. Crémant de Limoux. Crémant de Loire. Crémant de Savoie. Crémant de Luxembourg. Crémant de Wallonie (Belgium). Anjou mousseux AOC. Blanquette de Limoux AOC. Blanquette méthode ancestrale AOC. Bourgogne mousseux AOC. Clairette de Die AOC. Saumur mousseux AOC. Touraine mousseux AOC. Gaillac AOC. Saint-Péray AOC. Vouvray AOC. Montlouis AOC.


Frankish EmpireFrankishFrankish Kingdom
The kingdom, which included the Kingdom of Italy, Burgundy, the Provence, and the west of Austrasia, was an unnatural creation of the Treaty of Verdun, with no historical or ethnic identity. The kingdom was split on the death of Lothair II in 869 into those of Lotharingia, Provence (with Burgundy divided between it and Lotharingia), and north Italy. East Francia was the land of Louis the German. It was divided into four duchies: Swabia (Alamannia), Franconia, Saxony and Bavaria; to which after the death of Lothair II were added the eastern parts of Lotharingia. This division persisted until 1268, the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

Bituriges Vivisci

Bituriges Vivisques
The tribe's capital was in Burdigala, modern-day Bordeaux. The Vivisci traded wine which they produced themselves. Bituriges is often taken to mean Kings of the World but whether there was any link to the Bituriges Cubi of the Berry region is not known. Some believe that the Bituriges Vivisci and the Bituriges Cubi once made up one single tribe, but seemed to have fallen apart, with the Vivisci staying in Burdigala, and the Cubi founding a new capital, Avaricum in the Berry region. The latter defended Avaricum against the Roman armies under Julius Caesar, who destroyed the town and its inhabitants.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
SC: used before E or I in Italian, Romance languages in Italy as, in European Portuguese as and in French, Brazilian Portuguese, Catalan and Latin American Spanish as in words of certain etymology (notice this would represent in standard peninsular Spanish). SCH: used in Romansh for or, in Italian for before "E"or "I", including yod. SCI: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, and Corsican to represent before A, O, or U. SH: used in Aranese Occitan for. SS: used in French, Portuguese, Piedmontese, Romansh, Occitan, and Catalan for between vowels, in Italian, Romance languages of Italy, and Corsican for long. TS: used in Catalan for. TG: used in Romansh for or .

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
It also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But all of them realized that it had failed and they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.

Climate categories in viticulture

continental climateMediterranean climatecontinental
Bordeaux. Champagne. Irouléguy AOC, Lower Navarre. Madiran wine region, Gascony. Muscadet. Alsace and Lorraine (continental by French standards). Most German wine regions (continental by French standards). Liechtenstein wine regions (continental by French standards). Moselle Valley including Luxembourg (continental by French standards). Most Swiss wine regions (continental by French standards). Bizkaiko Txakolina, Basque Country. Rías Baixas (Csb). New Zealand wine regions. Southern Chile including Bío Bío Valley, Itata Valley, and Malleco Valley (Csb). Block Island, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket (part of Southeastern New England AVA and bordering continental).

Graves (wine region)

GravesGraves AOCSauternes
Bordeaux wine. Bordeaux wine regions.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

EleanorQueen EleanorEleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
Rather than act as guardian to the duchess and duchy, he decided to marry the duchess to his 17-year-old heir and bring Aquitaine under the control of the French crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and its ruling family, the House of Capet. Within hours, the king had arranged for Prince Louis to be married to Eleanor, with Abbot Suger in charge of the wedding arrangements. Prince Louis was sent to Bordeaux with an escort of 500 knights, along with Abbot Suger, Theobald II, Count of Champagne, and Count Ralph. On 25 July 1137, Eleanor and Louis were married in the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux by the archbishop of Bordeaux.

United States

During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.

A10 autoroute

A10A10 HighwayA10 Motorway
The A10, also called L'Aquitaine, is an Autoroute in France, running for 549 km (341 mi) from the A6 south of Paris to the A630 at Bordeaux. It is the longest motorway in France.It generally parallels the N10 Route Nationale, but deviates significantly from the older N10 between Paris and Tours and between Poitiers and Bordeaux. The closest Routes Nationale to those sections are the N20 from Paris to Orléans, the N152 from Orléans to Tours, the N11 from Poitiers to Niort, the N150 from Niort to Saintes, and the N137 from Saintes to Bordeaux.

Council of Europe

CECoEthe Council of Europe
English and French are its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly, and the Congress also use German, Italian, and Russian for some of their work. In a speech in 1929, French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand floated the idea of an organisation which would gather European nations together in a "federal union" to resolve common problems. But it was Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill who first publicly suggested the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
When the war had begun, European public opinion heavily favoured the Germans; many Italians attempted to sign up as volunteers at the Prussian embassy in Florence and a Prussian diplomat visited Giuseppe Garibaldi in Caprera. Bismarck's demand that France surrender sovereignty over Alsace caused a dramatic shift in that sentiment in Italy, which was best exemplified by the reaction of Garibaldi soon after the revolution in Paris, who told the Movimento of Genoa on 7 September 1870 that "Yesterday I said to you: war to the death to Bonaparte. Today I say to you: rescue the French Republic by every means."

LGV Sud Europe Atlantique

LGV SEALGV Sud-Ouestnew high-speed link between Tours and Bordeaux
For this reason the French government announced additional funding in February 2009 to build Phases 1 and 2 together. On 30 July 2010, the French government announced that work on the section to the Spanish border is expected to begin before 2020. In 2015 however, a public inquiry rejected the construction of this section due to cost. * Large parts of this article were translated from the article LGV Sud Europe Atlantique on the French language Wikipedia. 2001–2003: Pre-project studies and procedures. 3 February 2005 – 16 March 2005: Final public hearings.

Chenin blanc

CheninAgudilloAnjou (grape)
The high acidity of Chenin blanc lends itself well to sparkling wine production where it is an important component of Crémant de Loire, sparkling Vouvray, and in the Languedoc wine region of Limoux. In Crémant de Limoux, Chenin must account for at least 20% and up to 40% of the blend with Mauzac, Pinot noir and Chardonnay. The grape is also permitted in the still wines of Limoux but is only blended with Mauzac and Chardonnay. Outside of the Loire, in addition to the Languedoc plantings in Limoux, other French plantings of Chenin blanc can be found in Corsica (with 60 ha planted on the island in 2008 ), Charentes, and the Aveyron department.


AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaAlgérie
Although French has no official status, Algeria is the second-largest Francophone country in the world in terms of speakers, and French is widely used in government, media (newspapers, radio, local television), and both the education system (from primary school onwards) and academia due to Algeria's colonial history. It can be regarded as a lingua franca of Algeria. In 2008, 11.2 million Algerians could read and write in French. An Abassa Institute study in April 2000 found that 60% of households could speak and understand French or 18 million in a population of 30 million then.


French is the official language, spoken at least by all those who enjoyed several years in the educational system that is of French origin (Koranic schools are even more popular, but Arabic is not widely spoken outside of the context of recitation). During the 15th century, many European territories started to engage in trade in Senegal. By the 19th century, French powers also strengthened their roots in Senegal and thus the number of French-speaking people multiplied continuously. French was ratified as the official language of Senegal in 1960 when the country achieved independence. Around 15 to 20% of all men and around 2% of all women speak and understand French.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
It will also be taught in state primary schools in the UK, to boost children's language skills, and will be offered as a foreign language to pupils in all primary schools from 2014 as part of a major drive to boost education standards, together with Latin, Mandarin, French, German, Spanish, and Italian. Ancient Greek is also taught as a compulsory subject in all Gymnasiums and Lyceums in Greece. Starting in 2001, an annual international competition "Exploring the Ancient Greek Language and Culture" [sic] was run for upper secondary students through the Greek Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, with Greek language and cultural organisations as co-organisers.


Decimus Magnus AusoniusDecimius Magnus Ausonius(Julius) Ausonius
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (c. 310 – c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France. For a time he was tutor to the future emperor Gratian, who afterwards bestowed the consulship on him. His best-known poems are Mosella, a description of the river Moselle, and Ephemeris, an account of a typical day in his life. His many other verses show his concern for his family, friends, teachers, and circle of well-to-do acquaintances and his delight in the technical handling of meter. Decimius Magnus Ausonius was born c. 310 in Burdigala, the son of Julius Ausonius (c.