Langues d'oïl

langue d'oïlOïlOïl languages
Subsequent development changed "oïl" into "oui", as in modern French. The term langue d'oïl itself was first used in the 12th century, referring to the Old French linguistic grouping noted above. In the 14th century, the Italian poet Dante mentioned the yes distinctions in his De vulgari eloquentia. He wrote in Medieval Latin: "nam alii oc, alii si, alii vero dicunt oil" ("some say 'oc', others say 'si', others say 'oïl'")—thereby distinguishing at least three classes of Romance languages: oc languages (in southern France); si languages (in Italy and Iberia) and oïl languages (in northern France).

Southern Italy

Southern ItaliansouthernSouth
Being a member of the House of Bourbon, King Ferdinand IV was a natural opponent of the French Revolution and Napoleon. In January 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic, captured Naples and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic, a French client state, as successor to the kingdom. King Ferdinand fled from Naples to Sicily until June of that year. In 1806, Bonaparte, by then French Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Naples.

Bordeaux Cathedral

Cathedral of BordeauxCathedral of Saint-AndréCathédrale Saint-André
The Cathedral of Saint Andrew of Bordeaux (French: Cathédrale Saint-André de Bordeaux), commonly known as Bordeaux Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church dedicated to Saint Andrew and located in Bordeaux, France. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Bordeaux. The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. Of the original Romanesque edifice, only a wall in the nave remains. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th-15th centuries. The building is a national monument of France. In this church in 1137 the 13-year-old Eleanor of Aquitaine married the future Louis VII, a few months before she became Queen.

Foreign relations of Italy

Italymany more Foreign relations
Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian government's external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861. Its main allies are the NATO countries and the EU states, two entities of which Italy is a founding member. Italy has a particular role within the Christian world because Rome is the seat of the Pope and the center of the Catholic Church.

Château d'Yquem

Chateau d'Yquem
Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, had been the mayor of Bordeaux. His son Michel Eyquem de Montaigne died in 1592. Château d'Yquem was acquired by Jacques de Sauvage in December 1593. De Sauvage acquired the property from the French monarchy by exchanging other lands that he owned for what was then referred to as the 'House of Yquem'. The site has been home to a vineyard since at least 1711 when the estate became fully owned by Léon de Sauvage d'Yquem. In 1785 it passed to the Lur-Saluces family when Françoise-Joséphine de Sauvage d'Yquem married Count Louis-Amédée de Lur-Saluces, a godson of Louis XV and Lady Victoire de France.


Brussels-Capital RegionBrussels, BelgiumBruxelles
Even though some people want English to be used as an unofficial compromise language between Dutch and French, French remains the lingua franca, and laws still require Dutch and French translations in most cases. The acceptance of English as a language for communication with the city's public servants depends entirely on their knowledge of this language, though they must accept questions in French and Dutch. The migrant communities, as well as rapidly growing communities of EU-nationals from other member states, speak many languages like French, Turkish, Arabic, Berber, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, German, and (increasingly) English.

Italic peoples

The Italic peoples descended from Indo-Europeans who migrated into Italy in the 2nd millennium BC. Latins achieved a dominant position among these tribes, establishing ancient Roman civilization. During this development, other Italic tribes adopted Latin language and culture in a process known as romanization. With the creation of the Roman Empire, romanization was extended beyond the Italian peninsula and spread to much of Europe. The modern ethnic groups descended from this development speak Romance languages, and are collectively referred to as Romance peoples or Latin peoples. This includes the Italians, French people, Spaniards, Romanians, Portuguese people, and others.


🇱🇺LUXGrand Duchy of Luxembourg
The immigrant population increased in the 20th century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from the latter: in 2013 there were about 88,000 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality. In 2013, there were 537,039 permanent residents, 44.5% of which were of foreign background or foreign nationals; the largest foreign ethnic groups were the Portuguese, comprising 16.4% of the total population, followed by the French (6.6%), Italians (3.4%), Belgians (3.3%) and Germans (2.3%). Another 6.4% were of other EU background, while the remaining 6.1% were of other non-EU, but largely other European, background.


the Renaissanceearly RenaissanceRenaissance Europe
A French nationalist, Michelet also sought to claim the Renaissance as a French movement. The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) in his The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries. He saw in the Renaissance the emergence of the modern spirit of individuality, which the Middle Ages had stifled. His book was widely read and became influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.

Canton of Valais

The western part of Valais (Central and Lower Valais) is French-speaking, while the eastern part (Upper Valais) is German-speaking. The language border crosses the Rhône between the towns of Sierre and Salgesch and follows the mountain ridge including Bella Tola, Weisshorn and Dent Blanche. At the 2000 census, 62.8% of the population of Valais spoke French or Arpitan, 28.4% spoke German or Walser German, 2.2% spoke Italian and 6.6% spoke other languages. Only 114 people reported speaking Romansh. The canton is sparsely populated. Its population (as of ) is., the population included 57,061 foreigners, or about 19.1% of the total population.

Italian Renaissance

RenaissanceRenaissance ItalyItalian
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento ) was a period of European history that began in Italy in the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity. The French word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of cultural revival and renewed interest in classical antiquity after the centuries labeled the Dark Ages by Renaissance humanists.

Geographical distribution of French speakers

francophonesFrancophonefrancophone countries
Observatoire démographique et statistique de l’espace francophone (ODSEF). Why French Matters.

Petit Verdot

Almost all the Petit Verdot in France is planted in Bordeaux, mostly in the Médoc where it is used in small amounts to give structure to the classic Bordeaux blend. However the late ripening means that in some years the entire crop is lost and it only properly ripens once every four years, so it has fallen out of favour, particularly with the trend towards earlier-maturing wine. Château Palmer is unusual in having up to 6% Petit Verdot in its blend, which helps stiffen the high proportion of Merlot in their wines. 1-3% is more usual. In Italy it is sometimes cultivated in Maremma (Tuscany) and Lazio. In Peru, Petit Verdot vines are grown in the southern Ica Region.


After a brief military occupation by the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes, followed by the unilateral annexation of the former Corpus Separatum by Belgrade, an international force of British, Italian, French and American troops entered the city in November 1918. Its future came under discussion at the Paris Peace Conference during the course of 1919. Italy based its claim on the fact that Italians comprised the largest single nationality within the city (46.9% of the total population).

League of Nations

Leaguethe League of NationsCouncil of the League of Nations
The League sanctions were lifted on 4 July 1936, but by that point Italy had already gained control of the urban areas of Abyssinia. The Hoare–Laval Pact of December 1935 was an attempt by the British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister Pierre Laval to end the conflict in Abyssinia by proposing to partition the country into an Italian sector and an Abyssinian sector. Mussolini was prepared to agree to the pact, but news of the deal leaked out. Both the British and French public vehemently protested against it, describing it as a sell-out of Abyssinia.


From the 5th to the 10th century, invasions by foreign tribes led the population to seek refuge in the castrum, a fortified city that, in 1223, became the property of the Seigneurie des Les Baux-de-Provence. In the fifteenth century, Cassis was ceded to the Counts of Provence, then René of Anjou gave the town to the Bishops of Marseille, who ruled the town until the Revolution of 1789. In the eighteenth century, Cassis started to develop outside the ramparts of the fortified city and around the port.


🇲🇨MonegasquePrincipality of Monaco
Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%). Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalized, are called Monégasque. Monaco has the world's highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years. The official language of Monaco is French, while Italian is spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Vulgar Latin combined with neighboring Germanic and Celtic languages, giving rise to modern Romance languages such as Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and a large number of minor languages and dialects. Today, more than 900 million people are native speakers of Romance languages worldwide. In addition, many Romance languages are used as lingua francas by non-native speakers. Latin also influenced Germanic languages such as English and German. It survives in a "purer" form as the language of the Catholic Church; the Catholic Mass was spoken exclusively in Latin until 1969. As such it was also used as a lingua franca by ecclesiasticals.

Holy See

VaticanRomethe Vatican
Following the French Revolution, the Papal States briefly were occupied as the "Roman Republic" from 1798 to 1799 as a sister republic of the First French Empire under Napoleon, before their territority was reestablished. Notwithstanding, the Holy See was represented in and identified as a "permanent subject of general customary international law vis-à-vis all states" in the Congress of Vienna of 1814 to 1815. The Papal States were recognised under the rule of the Papacy and largely restored to their former extent.

European Economic Community

EECECEuropean Community
{{Infobox former country |conventional_long_name = {{resize|135%|European Economic Community}} {{Infobox |subbox=yes |bodystyle=font-size:74%;font-weight:normal; | rowclass4 = mergedrow | label4 = Danish: | data4 = {{lang|da|Europæiske Økonomiske Fællesskab}} European Community Luxembourg Strasbourg² |common_languages = 9 (1993) Danish Dutch English French German Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish |national_anthem = "Ode to Joy" (orchestral) |currency = 13 currencies EUA/ECU (accounting) Belgian franc Danish krone French franc German mark Greek drachma Irish pound Italian lira Luxembourgish franc Dutch guilder Portuguese escudo Spanish peseta Pound sterling European Parliament


MataroMonastrellBeni Carlo
While Bandol is the AOC region that most prominent features Mourvèdre (by law all red Bandols must contain at least 50% Mourvèdre), other Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC)s that has Mourvèdre as a permitted variety include Cassis, Collioure, Corbières, Costières de Nîmes, Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence, Coteaux du Languedoc, Coteaux de Pierrevert, Coteaux Varois, Côtes du Luberon, Coteaux du Tricastin, Côtes de Provence, Côtes du Rhône, Côtes du Rhône Villages, Côtes du Roussillon, Côtes du Roussillon Villages, Côtes du Ventoux, Faugères, Fitou, Palette, Saint-Chinian, Gigondas, Lirac, Minervois and Vacqueyras.

Union for the Mediterranean

Barcelona ProcessEuro-Mediterranean PartnershipMediterranean Union
The InfraMed Infrastructure Fund was established in June 2010 by five financial entities: the French Caisse des Dépôts, the Moroccan Caisse de Dépôts et de Gestion, the Egyptian EFG Hermes, the Italian Cassa Depositi e Prestiti and the European Investment Bank. On an initial phase, the Fund will contribute €385 million to the Secretariat's projects on infrastructure. The World Bank has allocated $750 million for the renewable energy project through the Clean Technology Fund. Economic-Financial Meeting, 7 October 2008, Luxembourg City (Luxembourg). Industry, 5–6 November 2008, Nice (France). Employment and Labor, 9–10 November 2008, Marrakech (Morocco).