United States

The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote. The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators. The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The President is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. Presidentpresidential
The president also has the power to nominate federal judges, including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States. However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. When nominating judges to U.S. district courts, presidents often respect the long-standing tradition of senatorial courtesy. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

George W. Bush

BushPresident BushPresident George W. Bush
Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John Roberts to succeed her. On September 5, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, this nomination was withdrawn and Bush instead nominated Roberts for Chief Justice to succeed Rehnquist. Roberts was confirmed by the Senate as the 17th Chief Justice on September 29, 2005. On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated long time White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position. After facing significant opposition from both parties, who found her to be ill-prepared and uninformed on the law, Miers asked that her name be withdrawn on October 27.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats are the opposition party as of 2019, due to having the minority of seats in the Senate, as well as having the minority of governorships and state legislatures (full control of 17/50, split control of one other); However, they do have the majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" (the executive branch and both chambers of the legislative branch) in 14 states, and the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. In the Supreme Court, four of the nine seats are filled by justices appointed by Democratic presidents.

Federal government of the United States

federal governmentfederalU.S. government
There is one delegate each from the District of Columbia, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the resident commissioner from Puerto Rico. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population. There are currently 100 senators (2 from each of the 50 states), who each serve six-year terms. Approximately one-third of the Senate stands for election every two years. The House and Senate each have particular exclusive powers.


MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
Out of the state house's 160 seats, Democrats hold 127 seats (79%) compared to the Republican Party's 32 seats (20%), an independent sits in the remaining one, and 34 out of the 40 seats in the state senate (85%) belong to the Democratic Party compared to the Republican Party's six seats (15%). Although Republicans held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to 2007 and from 2015 onwards, they have been among the most moderate Republican leaders in the nation. In the 2004 election, the state gave Massachusetts senator John Kerry 61.9% of the vote, his best showing in any state. In 2008, President Barack Obama carried the state with 61.8% of the vote.

Chief Justice of the United States

Chief JusticeChief Justice of the Supreme CourtSupreme Court Chief Justice
William Cushing, an associate justice of the Supreme Court, administered Washington's second oath of office in 1793. Calvin Coolidge's father, a notary public, administered the oath to his son after the death of Warren Harding. This, however, was contested upon Coolidge's return to Washington and his oath was re-administered by Judge Adolph A. Hoehling, Jr. of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. John Tyler and Millard Fillmore were both sworn in on the death of their predecessors by Chief Justice William Cranch of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia. Chester A. Arthur and Theodore Roosevelt's initial oaths reflected the unexpected nature of their taking office.

2000 United States presidential election

20002000 presidential electionPresident
However, pursuant to the Electoral Count Act of 1887, any such objection had to be sponsored by both a representative and a senator. No senator would co-sponsor these objections, deferring to the Supreme Court's ruling. Therefore, Gore, who presided in his capacity as President of the Senate, ruled each of these objections out of order. Subsequently, the joint session of Congress certified the electoral votes from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Bush took the oath of office on January 20, 2001. He would serve for the next eight years.

Donald Trump

TrumpPresident TrumpPresident Donald Trump
He successfully nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, the Justice Department appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with investigating links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference, and any matters arising from the probe. Through undefined, the ongoing investigation has led to guilty pleas by several Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, and tax fraud.

Arlen Specter

Senator Arlen Specterparty-switchArlen Specter’s
He was then denied seniority on Senate committees by his Democratic colleagues. In October 2009, Specter called for the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, which he had supported in 1996. In November 2009, Specter introduced a bill to require televising U.S. Supreme Court proceedings, and explained that "[t]he Supreme Court makes pronouncements on constitutional and federal law that have direct impacts on the rights of Americans. Those rights would be substantially enhanced by televising the oral arguments of the Court so that the public can see and hear the issues presented." Specter's career in the United States Senate ended on January 3, 2011, after his primary defeat to Joe Sestak.

Sandra Day O'Connor

Justice O'ConnorO'ConnorJustice Sandra Day O'Connor
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of United States Chief Justices by time in office. List of United States Supreme Court Justices by time in office. United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court. United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court. United States Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court. List of female state supreme court justices. Booknotes interview with O'Connor on Lazy B: Growing Up On a Cattle Ranch in the American Southwest, January 27, 2002. iCivics.org, project to teach children civics, O'Connor is Chairman of the Board.

United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary

Senate Judiciary CommitteeJudiciaryJudiciary Committee
In January 2018, the Democratic minority had their number of seats increase from 9 to 10 upon the election of Doug Jones (D-AL), changing the 52–48 Republican majority to 51–49. On January 2, 2018, Al Franken, who had been a member of the committee, resigned from the Senate following accusations of sexual misconduct. Source: to 297 United States House Committee on the Judiciary. List of current United States Senate committees. United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary Official Website ( Archive). Senate Judiciary Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov.

United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit

D.C. CircuitD.C. Circuit Court of AppealsU.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Appeals from the D.C. Circuit, as with all U.S. Courts of Appeals, are heard on a discretionary basis by the Supreme Court. It should not be confused with the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which is limited in jurisdiction by subject matter rather than geography, or with the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, which is roughly equivalent to a state supreme court in the District of Columbia, and was established in 1970 to relieve the D.C.

Neil Gorsuch

GorsuchJustice Neil GorsuchNeil M. Gorsuch
s Judicial Common Space scores (which are not based on a judge's behavior, but rather the ideology scores of either home state senators or the appointing president) to find a close alignment between the conservatism of other appellate and Supreme Court judges such as Brett Kavanaugh, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito. The Washington Posts statistical analysis estimated that the ideologies of most of Trump's announced candidates were "statistically indistinguishable" and also associated Gorsuch with Kavanaugh and Alito.


OHState of OhioOhio, USA
In United States presidential election of 2008, then-Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59 percentage points more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain of Arizona (with 46.91% of the popular vote). However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties. Since 2010, the Republicans have largely controlled Ohio state politics, including a super-majority in the state's House, a majority in the state Senate, the Governorship, etc. As of 2014, the state Senate is 1 Republican away from a super-majority.

Patrick Leahy

LeahyPat LeahySenator Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
On January 5, 2005, Leahy was sworn in for his sixth term in the Senate by Cheney. On September 21, 2005, Leahy announced his support for John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. On January 19, 2006, Leahy announced that he would vote against Judge Samuel Alito to be a justice of the Supreme Court. He has a mixed record on gun control, being one of the few Senate Democrats to vote against the Brady Bill. He voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and is in favor of phasing out farm subsidies that are supported by the populist wing of the Democratic Party. He voted against the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

United States Constitution

ConstitutionU.S. Constitutionconstitutional
The District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment (proposed 1978) would have granted the District of Columbia full representation in the United States Congress as if it were a state, repealed the 23rd Amendment, granted the District unconditional Electoral College voting rights, and allowed its participation in the process by which the Constitution is amended. A seven-year ratification time limit was placed on the amendment.

Michael Bennet

MichaelMichael Bennet (D-Colo.)Michael F. Bennet
Bennet grew up in Washington, D.C. as his father served as an aide to Vice President Hubert Humphrey, among others. Bennet was held back in second grade because of his struggle with dyslexia. He was enrolled at St. Albans School, an elite all-boys preparatory school, and served as a page on Capitol Hill. In 1987, Bennet earned his B.A. degree in history from Wesleyan University, the alma mater of his father and grandfather. At Wesleyan, Bennet was a member of Beta Theta Pi. Bennet earned his J.D. degree from Yale Law School, where he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Yale Law Journal. From 1988 until 1990, when he left to attend Yale, he served as an aide to Ohio Governor Richard Celeste.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeHouse of RepresentativesU.S. House of Representatives
The Constitution does not provide for the representation of the District of Columbia or of territories. The District of Columbia and the territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are each represented by one non-voting delegate. Puerto Rico elects a Resident Commissioner, but other than having a four-year term, the Resident Commissioner's role is identical to the delegates from the other territories. The five Delegates and Resident Commissioner may participate in debates; prior to 2011, they were also allowed to vote in committees and the Committee of the Whole when their votes would not be decisive.

Samuel Alito

AlitoJustice AlitoJustice Samuel Alito
Response to a Senate Judiciary Committee questionnaire (November 30, 2005) (PDF), ( Appendix1 Appendix2 Appendix3 Appendix4). Judicial restraint. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office. Unitary Executive theory. United States Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court. Bazelon, Emily (October 31, 2005). "Alito v. O'Connor". Slate. "Bush choice sets up court battle". BBC. Collins, Ronald K.L. (October 31, 2005). Judge Alito: fairly strong on free expression. Collins, Ronald K.L. (November 3, 2005).