William Rehnquist

RehnquistChief Justice RehnquistJustice Rehnquist
Shortly after moving to Washington, D.C., the Rehnquists purchased a home in Greensboro, Vermont, a rural community where they spent many vacations. * Revised edition: * Issue positions and quotes at OnTheIssues George H. W. Bush in 1989. Bill Clinton in 1993 and 1997. George W. Bush in 2001 and 2005. Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of United States Chief Justices by time in office. List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office. United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court.

Roe v. Wade

right to chooseRoeRoe v Wade
President Donald Trump has publicly opposed the decision, vowing to appoint pro-life justices to the Supreme Court. Upon Justice Kennedy's retirement in 2018, Trump nominated Brett Kavanaugh to replace him, and he was confirmed by the Senate in October 2018. A central point of Kavanaugh's appointment hearings was his stance on Roe V. Wade, of which he said to Senator Susan Collins that he would not "overturn a long-established precedent if five current justices believed that it was wrongly decided". Despite Kavanaugh's statement, there is concern that with the Supreme Court having a strong conservative majority, that Roe v. Wade will be overturned given an appropriate case to challenge it.

African Americans

blackAfrican-AmericanAfrican American
Clarence Thomas became the second African-American Supreme Court Justice. In 1992, Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois became the first African-American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. There were 8,936 black officeholders in the United States in 2000, showing a net increase of 7,467 since 1970. In 2001, there were 484 black mayors. In 2005, the number of Africans immigrating to the United States, in a single year, surpassed the peak number who were involuntarily brought to the United States during the Atlantic Slave Trade. On November 4, 2008, Democratic Senator Barack Obama defeated Republican Senator John McCain to become the first African American to be elected president.

United States Department of Justice

Department of JusticeJustice DepartmentU.S. Department of Justice
The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. Matthew Whitaker currently serves as the Acting Attorney General.

John Roberts Supreme Court nomination

nominated(Nominated and Confirmed)78–22
The Senate hearings on the nomination of John Roberts to the Supreme Court, began on September 12, 2005, with U.S. Senators posing questions to Roberts, who was nominated by President George W. Bush to fill the vacancy of Chief Justice of the United States. Roberts had been nominated to the Supreme Court to replace the retiring Justice Sandra Day O'Connor; however, on September 5, following Chief Justice William Rehnquist's death, President Bush announced the nomination of Roberts for the position of Chief Justice and formally sent notice to the United States Senate of the new nomination and the withdrawal of Roberts's prior nomination.

Human Rights Campaign

HRCHuman Rights Campaign FoundationHuman Rights Campaign Fund
Senate seat in Maine. HRC endorsed her opponent, incumbent Republican Senator Susan Collins, who had previously lacked a history of supporting marriage equality initiatives. However, Collins later clarified her view in support of LGBT marriage equality. On March 11, 2016, HRC voted to endorse Republican US Senator Mark Kirk over his Democratic Party challenger Representative Tammy Duckworth in his re-election bid to the US Senate.

James A. Garfield

GarfieldJames GarfieldPresident Garfield
Supreme Court justice. He enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, and civil rights for African Americans. He also proposed substantial civil service reform, eventually passed by Congress in 1883 and signed into law by his successor, Chester A. Arthur, as the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.

1988 United States presidential election

19881988 presidential election1988 election
Dukakis won 45.6% of the popular vote and carried ten states and Washington, D.C. Bush became the first sitting vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836. Republican candidates Vice President George H. W. Bush had the support of President Ronald Reagan, and pledged to continue Reagan's policies, but also vowed a "kinder and gentler nation" in an attempt to win over some more moderate voters. The duties delegated to him during Reagan's second term (mostly because of the President's advanced age, Reagan turning 78 just after he left office) gave him an unusually high level of experience for a vice president.

State legislature (United States)

state legislaturestate legislaturesstate legislator
Prior to United States Supreme Court decisions Reynolds v. Sims and Baker v. Carr in the 1960s, the basis of representation in most state legislatures was modeled on that of the U.S. Congress: the state senators represented geographical units while members of the larger chamber represented population. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court announced the one man, one vote standard and invalidated state legislative representation based on geography. (The ruling does not affect the U.S. Senate because that chamber's makeup is prescribed by the U.S. Constitution.)

United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces

Court of Appeals for the Armed ForcesUnited States Court of Military AppealsCourt of Military Appeals
Since October 31, 1952, the Court has been located in Judiciary Square in Washington, D.C.. The United States Court of Military Appeals, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was erected in 1910, and was formerly the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The building was designed by Elliott Woods. The court has five judges, who are nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate. Judges serve fifteen-year terms. After their term, they must be either re-appointed or retire from the court. When hearing a case, all five judges sit as a panel.

David Frum

Frum ForumFrum, David.
Frum opposed the nomination of Harriet Miers for the Supreme Court of the United States, on the grounds that she was insufficiently qualified for the post, as well as insufficiently conservative. Shortly after leaving the White House, Frum took up a position as a fellow of the American Enterprise Institute, a neo-conservative think tank. During the early days of his stint there, Frum coauthored An End to Evil with Richard Perle, which was a bold presentation of the neoconservative view of global affairs and an apologia of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Edward Douglass White

Edward D. WhiteWhiteEdward White
After the war, White won election to the Louisiana State Senate and served on the Louisiana Supreme Court. As a member of the Democratic Party, White represented Louisiana in the United States Senate from 1891 to 1894. In 1894, President Grover Cleveland appointed White as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1910, President William Howard Taft elevated him to the position of Chief Justice. The appointment surprised many contemporaries, as Taft was a member of the Republican Party. White served as Chief Justice until his death in 1921, when he was succeeded by Taft. He was generally a conservative member of the court.

Richard Cordray

Writing for The New Republic, Timothy Noah, a supporter of Cordray, wrote, "As someone who strongly supported a recess appointment for Richard Cordray to run the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, I'm confused as to why President Obama chose to act today. ... The trouble is that the Senate isn't in recess." The United States Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision on June 26, 2014, that vacated Cordray's appointment and several other recess appointments, in NLRB v. Noel Canning, determining that the Senate was not in recess at the time of the appointments. On January 24, 2013, Obama renominated Cordray as Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

Presidency of Barack Obama

Obama administrationadministrationObama
During the 111th Congress, when Democrats held a majority in the Senate, Obama successfully nominated two Supreme Court Justices: Justice Antonin Scalia died in February 2016, during the 114th Congress, which had a Republican majority in the Senate. In March 2016, Obama nominated Chief Judge Merrick Garland of the D.C. Circuit to fill Scalia's seat. However, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, Judiciary Committee Chair Chuck Grassley, and other Senate Republicans argued that Supreme Court nominations should not be made during a presidential election year, and that the winner of the 2016 presidential election should instead appoint Scalia's replacement.

Potter Stewart

StewartJustice StewartPotter
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court. United States Supreme Court cases during the Warren Court. Abraham, Henry J., Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). ISBN: 0-19-506557-3. Barnett, Helaine M., Janice Goldman, and Jeffrey B. Morris. A Lawyer's Lawyer, a Judge's Judge: Potter Stewart and the Fourth Amendment. 51 University of Cincinnati Law Review 509 (1982). Barnett, Helaine M., and Kenneth Levine. Mr.

Roger B. Taney

Roger TaneyTaneyChief Justice Taney
Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States. Dual federalism. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Origins of the American Civil War. United States Supreme Court cases during the Taney Court. Biography from FindLaw. Fox, John, Capitalism and Conflict, Biographies of the Robes, Roger Taney. Public Broadcasting Service. Oyez.org Supreme Court media on Roger B. Taney. Roger Brooke Taney Home/Museum in Frederick, MD.

Herbert Hoover

HooverPresident HooverPresident Herbert Hoover
This was the first time that a Republican candidate for president had carried Texas. Hoover and the national party had pursued a "lily-white southern strategy" to resuscitate the Republican Party in the South, "purging black Republicans from leadership positions in the southern wing of the G.O.P." This outraged the black leadership, which largely broke from the Republican Party, and began seeking candidates within the Democratic Party who supported civil rights. In 1956, W. E. B. Du Bois, a leader in the NAACP in the 1920s, would recall that "In 1928, Negroes faced absolute dilemma. Neither Hoover nor Smith wanted the Negro vote and both publicly insulted us."

Richard Blumenthal

BlumenthalR. Blumenthal2010 Senate campaign
Blumenthal was a summer intern reporter for The Washington Post in the London Bureau. Blumenthal was also selected for a Fiske Fellowship that allowed him to study at the University of Cambridge in England for one year after graduation from Harvard College. In 1973, Blumenthal received his J.D. degree from Yale Law School, where he was editor-in-chief of the Yale Law Journal. While at Yale, he was classmates with future President Bill Clinton and future Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. One of his co-editors on the Yale Law Journal was future United States Secretary of Labor Robert Reich.

Harlan F. Stone

Harlan Fiske StoneHarlan StoneStone
The Puzzle of Unanimity: Consensus on the United States Supreme Court. Stanford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-8047-8472-6. Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of United States Chief Justices by time in office. List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office. United States Supreme Court cases during the Stone Court. Justice Harlan Fiske Stone Bridge. Konefsky, Samuel Joseph. 1945. Chief Justice Stone and the Supreme Court (Reprint, 1971. NY: Hafner). Mason, Alpheus Thomas, Harlan Fiske Stone: Pillar of the Law New York, Viking Press, 1956.

Anthony Kennedy

KennedyJustice KennedyJustice Anthony Kennedy
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office. United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court. United States Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court. Colucci, Frank J. Justice Kennedy's Jurisprudence: The Full and Necessary Meaning of Liberty (University Press of Kansas, 2009) ISBN: 978-0-7006-1662-6. online review. Knowles, Helen J. The Tie Goes to Freedom: Justice Anthony M. Kennedy on Liberty (Rowman & Littlefield, 2009) ISBN: 0-7425-6257-3. Schmidt, Patrick D. and David A. Yalof.

Slavery in the United States

But in the Dred Scott case, the State Supreme Court ruled against the slaves, saying that "times were not what they once were". After Scott and his team appealed the case to the U.S. Supreme Court, the slaveowning Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney denied Scott his freedom in a sweeping decision. The 1857 decision, decided 7–2, held that a slave did not become free when taken into a free state; Congress could not bar slavery from a territory; and people of African descent imported into the United States and held as slaves, or their descendants, could never be citizens. A state could not bar slaveowners from bringing slaves into that state.

George Sutherland

SutherlandJustice SutherlandSutherland, George
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States. List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office. United States Supreme Court cases during the Hughes Court. United States Supreme Court cases during the Taft Court. List of United States Senators born outside the United States.