Bryan (given name)

It is a variant spelling of the masculine given name Brian. The given name Bryan is a variant of the given name Brian. Its spelling is influenced by the surname Bryan. The given name Brian is thought to be derived from an Old Celtic word meaning "high" or "noble". In 2009, the names Brandon and Bryan were ranked as the 15th most common names for male twins, according to Social Security number applications for births. * Bryan Adams (born 1959), Canadian musician. Bryan Alberts (born 1994), American–Dutch basketball player. Bryan Avery (born 1944), British architect. Bryan Breeding (born 1994), American singer. Bryan Brock, American football player. Bryan Bronson, American hurdler.

Given name

néefirst namepersonal name
Examples: Alan, Brian, Brigid, Mórag, Ross, Logan, Ciarán, Jennifer, and Seán. These names often have origins in Celtic words, as Celtic versions of the names of internationally known Christian saints, as names of Celtic mythological figures, or simply as long-standing names whose ultimate etymology is unclear. Greek names may be derived from the history and mythology of Classical Antiquity or be derived from the New Testament and early Christian traditions. Such names are often, but not always, anglicised. Examples: Helen, Stephen, Alexander, Andrew, Peter, Gregory, George, Christopher, Margaret, Nicholas, Jason, Timothy, Chloe, Zoë, Katherine, Penelope and Theodore.

Puffer train

pufferpuffer trainspuffers
A puffer whose debris consists entirely of spaceships is called a rake. The first known puffer, in Conway's Game of Life, was discovered by Bill Gosper; it is a dirty puffer, but eventually stabilizes to leave a pattern of debris that repeats every 140 generations. Since then, many puffers have been discovered for this cellular automaton, with many different speeds and periods. Puffers are significant for Life and related rules for three reasons: First, if they can be stabilized in such a way that they produce only gliders (that is, turned into rakes) they can be used as part of many more complex patterns such as breeders.

Conway's Game of Life

Game of LifeConway's LifeConway’s Game of Life
Later discoveries included other guns, which are stationary, and which produce gliders or other spaceships; puffer trains, which move along leaving behind a trail of debris; and rakes, which move and emit spaceships. Gosper also constructed the first pattern with an asymptotically optimal quadratic growth rate, called a breeder or lobster, which worked by leaving behind a trail of guns. It is possible for gliders to interact with other objects in interesting ways. For example, if two gliders are shot at a block in a specific position, the block will move closer to the source of the gliders. If three gliders are shot in just the right way, the block will move farther away.

Breeder (cellular automaton)

SMM – A gun that fires out rakes. MSM – A puffer that leaves guns in its wake. MMS – A rake that fires out puffers. MMM – A rake that fires out more rakes, such that there are no stationary elements.

Brian (disambiguation)

Brian may refer to: *Brian, masculine given name and surname, and selected list of people with the name Brian (mythology) in Celtic mythology. Brian (character) on the Larry Sanders Show. Brian (software), software package for neural network simulations. Brian, Missouri, a community in the United States. Brian and Michael, British musical duo. Bryan (disambiguation).


Brianna (given name)BreannaBreanne
Brianna is a feminine English language form of the masculine Irish language name Brian as "Briana" is the original spelling. The name is a relatively modern one and was occasionally used in England from about the 16th century and on; Briana is the name of a character in Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene. In recent years, the name has become increasingly popular (especially in the United States). Variant spellings of Brianna include: Bryanna, Breanna, Brianne, and Brina. Breanne is variant form of Breanna. Other variant spellings of the name include Briana or Breeann. Bri is a common nickname and/or derivative name. It can be considered offensive to refer to a Brianna as Brian.

List of Irish-language given names

Irish nameList of Irish language given names
This list of Irish-language given names shows Irish language (as Gaeilge) given names and Anglicized or Latinized forms, with English equivalents. Some English-language names derive directly from the Irish — Kathleen = Caitlín, Owen = Eoghan. Some Irish-language names derive or are adapted from the English-language — Éamon = Edmund or Edward. Some Irish-language names have direct English equivalents deriving from a common name in Ireland. Máire, Maura and Mary derive from the French "Marie" and the Hebrew "Mary". Maureen = Mairín, a diminutive.

Seeds (cellular automaton)

SeedsSeeds'' (B2/S)
More complex rake and puffer patterns are known which move like spaceships leaving trails of oscillators or other spaceships behind them. Most of these patterns move at a speed of 1 cell per time step (the so-called speed of light, or c/1) including three commonly seen spaceships with four on cells each, but slower-moving patterns are also known. A collection of patterns for the Seeds rule collected by Jason Summers includes patterns found by Stephen Wright, Mirek Wójtowicz, Noam Elkies, Mark Niemiec, Peter Naszvadi, and David Eppstein. * Brian's Brain, a similar cellular automaton by the same author *

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
Irish (undefined) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic languages family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated in Ireland and was historically spoken by Irish people throughout Ireland. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of habitual but non-traditional speakers across the country.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonMiddle Breton
Breton (, ; brezhoneg or in Morbihan ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family spoken in Brittany.


family nameoccupational surnamelast name
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion (in some cultures) of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture). Depending on the culture, all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules.

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language. It is spoken in Southern France, Italy's Occitan Valleys, Monaco, as well as Spain's Val d'Aran; collectively, these regions are sometimes referred to as Occitania. Occitan is also spoken in the linguistic enclave of Guardia Piemontese (Calabria, Italy). Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects (such as the Gascon language) is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects. In fact, Catalan was considered an Occitan dialect until the end of the 19th century.

English-speaking world

AnglophoneEnglish-speaking countriesEnglish-speaking
[[File:Countries with English as Official Language.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Nations in which English is an official language (de facto or de jure).Anglosphere countries are a subset of those where English is the main native language.

Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageQ-Celtic
The Celtic languages (usually, but sometimes ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.

Brian Boru

Brian BórumaBrian BorúBrian Bóruma mac Cennétig
Brian campaigned against these enemies in 1013. In 1014, Brian's armies confronted the armies of Leinster and Dublin. The resulting Battle of Clontarf saw Brian killed, his army nonetheless victorious against the Leinstermen and Norsemen. The battle is widely lauded as an instrumental moment in Irish history, and is well known in popular memory. Brian was well regarded by contemporary chroniclers. The Norse-Gaels and Scandinavians also produced works mentioning Brian, including Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga, and the now-lost Brian's Saga.

High King of Ireland

High KingHigh Kings of IrelandHigh Kingship of Ireland
In 1002, the high kingship of Ireland was wrested from Mael Sechnaill II of the southern Uí Neill by Brian "Boruma" mac Cennédig of the Kingdom of Munster. Some historians have called this a "usurpation" of the throne. Others have pointed out that no one had a strict legal right to the kingship and that Brian "had as much right to the high throne as any Uí Neill and... displayed an ability sadly lacking amongst most of the Uí Neill who had preceded him." Brian was killed in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship but he died in 1022. From 1022 through the Norman take-over of 1171, the High Kingship was held alongside "Kings with Opposition".

Cellular automaton

cellular automataCACell games (cellular automaton)
Brian's Brain. Langton's ant. Wireworld. Rule 90. Rule 184. von Neumann cellular automata. Nobili cellular automata. Codd's cellular automaton. Langton's loops. CoDi. Firing squad synchronization problem. Majority problem. Golly. Discrete calculus. Golly. Discrete calculus. Golly. Discrete calculus. Golly. Discrete calculus. Discrete calculus. Discrete calculus. Discrete calculus. Discrete calculus. Cellular automaton FAQ from the newsgroup comp.theory.cell-automata. "Neighbourhood Survey" (includes discussion on triangular grids, and larger neighborhood CAs). von Neumann, John, 1966, The Theory of Self-reproducing Automata, A. Burks, ed., Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

East Anglia

East AnglianEast AnglesAnglia
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or medieval period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.


BretonBreton peopleBreton raiders
The Bretons (Bretoned, ) are a Celtic ethnic group native to historical region Brittany. They trace much of their heritage to groups of Brittonic speakers who emigrated from southwestern Great Britain, particularly Cornwall and Devon, mostly during the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. They migrated in waves from the 3rd to 9th century (most heavily from 450 to 600) into Armorica, which was subsequently named Brittany after them.

Norman conquest of England

Norman ConquestConquestNorman invasion
Harold's sons launched a second raid from Ireland and were defeated in Devon by Norman forces under Count Brian, a son of Eudes, Count of Penthièvre. In August or September 1069 a large fleet sent by Sweyn II of Denmark arrived off the coast of England, sparking a new wave of rebellions across the country. After abortive raids in the south, the Danes joined forces with a new Northumbrian uprising, which was also joined by Edgar, Gospatric and the other exiles from Scotland as well as Waltheof.


NormanNorman timesAnglo-Norman
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Old Norse: Norðmaðr) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between Viking settlers and indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans. The settlements in France followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, and they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries.


Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2780400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the second largest in South America after Brazil, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation.


UruguayanOriental Republic of UruguayRepublic of Uruguay
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay; Portuguese: República Oriental do Uruguai), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata (River of Silver) to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176000 km2, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.