Erwin Rommel

RommelField Marshal RommelGeneral Rommel
According to some revisionist authors, an assessment of Rommel's role in history has been hampered by views of Rommel that were formed, at least in part, due to political reasons, creating what these historians have called the "Rommel myth". The interpretation considered by some historians to be a myth is the depiction of the Field Marshal as an apolitical, brilliant commander and a victim of the Third Reich who participated in the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler. There are a notable number of authors who refer to "Rommel Myth" or "Rommel Legend" in a neutral or positive manner though.

Bernard Montgomery

MontgomeryField Marshal MontgomerySir Bernard Montgomery
A dissatisfied Montgomery sacked Bucknall for being insufficiently aggressive and replaced him with General Brian Horrocks. At the same time, Montgomery ordered Patton - whose Third Army was supposed to advance into Brittany - to instead capture Nantes, which was soon taken. Hitler waited too long to order his soldiers to retreat from Normandy, leading Montgomery to write: "He [Hitler] refused to face the only sound military course. As a result the Allies caused the enemy staggering losses in men and materials".

Second Battle of El Alamein

El AlameinBattle of El AlameinSecond Battles of El Alamein
The 7th Armoured Division (with one Free French Brigade under command) from XIII Corps (Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks) made a secondary attack to the south. The main attack aimed to achieve a breakthrough, engage and pin down the 21st Panzer Division and the Ariete Armoured Division around Jebel Kalakh, while the Free French on the far left were to secure Qaret el Himeimat and the el Taqa plateau. The right flank of the attack was to be protected by 44th Infantry Division with the 131st Infantry Brigade. The attack met determined resistance, mainly from the 185 Airborne Division Folgore, part of the Ramcke Parachute Brigade and the Keil Group.

Tunisian campaign

Tunisia CampaignTunisiaDjebel Choucha
On 26 March, X Corps (Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks) drove around the Matmata Hills, capturing the Tebaga Gap and the town of El Hamma at the northern extreme of the line in "Operation Supercharge II", making the Mareth Line untenable. The following day anti-tank guns from German and Italian units checked the advance of X Corps, to gain time for a withdrawal. In the next 48 hours the Axis defenders pulled out of the Mareth Line, establishing a new defensive position 60 km to the north-west at Wadi Akarit near Gabès. The reorganised US II Corps advanced from the passes again and got behind the Axis lines; the 10th Panzer Division counter-attacked at the Battle of El Guettar on 23 March.

Rommel: The Desert Fox

(The praise led Brian Horrocks, Montgomery's former deputy, to publish an April 1950 article, "The Rommel Myth Debunked", in which he argued that the 8th Army beat Rommel's Afrika Korps "fair and square".) The book was not without its detractors. A review in Time magazine noted the legendary status Rommel had achieved in his lifetime and quoted another review that described Rommel as "the British army's favorite German general". The Time reviewer concluded that the book was "just this side of hero worship" and, quoting Labour politician Ernest Bevin, alluded to it being an example of the "trade union of generals" in action.

North African campaign

North AfricaNorth Africa CampaignNorth African
The North African campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts (Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War) and in Morocco and Algeria (Operation Torch), as well as Tunisia (Tunisia Campaign).

Battle of France

Fall of FranceFranceinvasion of France
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War. On 3 September 1939 France had declared war on Germany, following the invasion of its ally Poland. In early September 1939, France launched the Saar Offensive, which stalled. By mid October, French troops had been withdrawn to their original start positions. In six weeks from 10 May 1940, German forces defeated Allied forces by mobile operations and conquered France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end until the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, the Seminal Catastrophe, and initially in North America as the European War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history.

Axis powers

AxisAxis forcesAxis power
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 樞軸國 Sūjikukoku), also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis" (also acronymized as "Roberto"), were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

Claude Auchinleck

Sir Claude AuchinleckAuchinleckClaude John Eyre Auchinleck
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War. He was a career soldier who spent much of his military career in India, where he rose to become Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army by early 1941. In July 1941 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Middle East Theatre, but after initial successes, the war in North Africa turned against the British, and he was relieved of the post in 1942 during the crucial Alamein campaign.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
The House of Commons, officially the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House.


GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Germany (Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west.

Afrika Korps

Afrika CorpsAfrikakorpsDAK
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK ) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II. First sent as a holding force to shore up the Italian defense of their African colonies, the formation fought on in Africa, under various appellations, from March 1941 until its surrender in May 1943. The unit's best known commander was Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

5th Panzer Army

Fifth Panzer ArmyPanzer Group WestPanzergruppe West
The 5th Panzer Army (5. Panzerarmee) was a German armoured formation that operated on the Western Front and North Africa. The remnants of the army surrendered in the Ruhr pocket in 1945.

Operation Market Garden

Operation Market-Gardenairborne attack on the NetherlandsMarket Garden
On the morning of 17 September Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks was given confirmation that the operation was to take place that day. At 12:30 hours Horrocks received a signal that the first wave of the airborne forces had left their bases within the United Kingdom and set the time for the ground attack to start at 14:35 hours. At 14:15 hours 300 guns of the Corps artillery opened fire, firing a rolling barrage in front of XXX Corps start line that was 1 mi wide and 5 mi in depth. The barrage was supported by seven squadrons of RAF Hawker Typhoons firing rockets at all known German positions along the road to Valkenswaard.

XXX Corps (United Kingdom)

XXX CorpsBritish XXX CorpsBritish 30th Corps
Aug 1944 – Dec 1945 Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks. Dec 1945 – Sep 1946 Lieutenant-General Alexander Galloway. Forty, George, British Army Handbook 1939–1945', Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1998, ISBN: 0-7509-1403-3. Horrocks, Brian, Escape to action, St.Martin's Press, New York, 1960 (published in UK as A full life). Moreman, Timothy Robert, Anderson, Duncan, Desert Rats: British 8th Army in North Africa 1941–43, Osprey Publishing, 2007. Col L.F. Morling, Sussex Sappers: A History of the Sussex Volunteer and Territorial Army Royal Engineer Units from 1890 to 1967, Seaford: 208th Field Co, RE/Christians–W.J. Offord, 1972. Graham E. Watson & Richard A.

Alfred Ingemar Berndt

Alfred-Ingemar BerndtTanks Break Through!
, and is regarded as propagandistic creator of the "Desert Fox" myth attached to the German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Alfred-Ingemar Berndt was the son of Gustav Berndt and Alma Berndt née Kaeding. The Berndts were expelled and dispossessed from Posen in 1920, a result of the Versailles Treaty. The family moved to Berlin-Schöneberg, where Berndt in 1922, age 17, joined the National Socialist German Workers Party. In 1924 he joined the Frontbann, reorganized front organization of the Sturmabteilung or SA. After the prohibition of the Nazi Party expired in 1925, he re-joined definitively. He was instrumental in building the organization and structure of the Hitler Youth in Berlin.

William Horrocks

Sir William HorrocksWilliam Heaton Horrocks
Sir William Heaton Horrocks (25 August 1859 – 26 January 1941) was an officer of the British Army remembered chiefly for confirming Sir David Bruce's theory that Malta fever was spread through goat's milk. He also contributed to the making safe of water, developing a simple method of testing and purifying water in the field. Because of his work, he became the first Director of Hygiene at the War Office in 1919. William Heaton Horrocks was the son of William Holden Horrocks of Bolton. Horrocks studied for his M.B. at Owen's College and passed his first M.B. examination in 1881. He received a Third Class Honours pass in Anatomy, and a Second Class in Physiology and Histology.

Miles Dempsey

Miles C. DempseySir Miles DempseySir Miles C. Dempsey
Dempsey, by now a major (having been promoted in September 1932), held this post until late January 1934, when he handed over to Brian Horrocks upon receiving an appointment as brigade major of the 5th Infantry Brigade. The brigade, commanded by Brigadier Victor Fortune (Francis Nosworthy from 1935), formed part of the 2nd Division, then commanded by Major General Archibald Wavell, was serving in Aldershot Command and took part in numerous large-scale military maneouvres throughout Dempsey's time as brigade major and, after handing over again to Brian Horrocks in February 1936, he returned to the 1st Battalion of his regiment, taking command of HQ Company.

Black Rod

Gentleman Usher of the Black RodUsher of the Black RodYeoman Usher of the Black Rod
January 1945 – 18 January 1949: Vice Admiral Sir Geoffrey Blake. 18 January 1949 – 18 June 1963: Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Horrocks. 18 June 1963 – October 1970: Air Chief Marshal Sir George Mills. October 1970 – 18 January 1978: Admiral Sir Frank Twiss. 10 January 1978 – January 1985: Lieutenant-General Sir David House. January 1985 – January 1992: Air Chief Marshal Sir John Gingell.

Eric Hayes

E. C. HayesE.C. HayesGeorge Hayes
Continuing his military service into the interwar period, most of it being spent as a captain, Hayes volunteered for service in Russia during the Russian Civil War in 1919, serving alongside Brian Horrocks on the staff of the Anglo-Russian Brigade, based in Vladivostok, and for ten months found himself as a prisoner of war (POW) by the "Reds". Returning to England, and marrying Florence Lllyanne, daughter of Henri Sudreau, in 1924, Hayes was promoted to captain on 10 January 1926, and attended the Staff College, Camberley from 1927 to 1928.

Uppingham School

UppinghamHighfield Houseschool there
Moeran, composer; Lt General Sir Brian Horrocks, Commander of the XXX Corps under Montgomery, and later a TV lecturer on battles and war; and Percy Chapman, captain of the England cricket team 1926–30, who won the Ashes. The growth of the school continued with numbers of well over 600 pupils being reached in the 1960s. In 1973 the first girl attended Uppingham, as a day-girl; with a few more added in 1974. Then in 1975 the first Sixth Form Girls' House, Fairfield, was opened, with its full complement of 50 girls achieved by 1976.

The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel

The Desert FoxDesert FoxRommel, Desert Fox
The movie played a significant role in the creation of the Rommel myth: that Rommel was an apolitical, brilliant commander, opposed Nazi policies and was a victim of the Third Reich because of his (now-disputed) participation in the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler. After a pre-credit sequence depicting an unsuccessful British commando raid to assassinate Rommel, the story commences with the North African campaign in 1942 as the British, under General Bernard Montgomery prepare to counterattack and defeat the Germans at El Alamein. The situation becomes worse when Rommel is ordered by Adolf Hitler (Luther Adler) to stand fast and not retreat.

Durham School

Durham Grammar SchoolBow School, DurhamBow, Durham School
Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Horrocks, British Army general who saw service in both World War I and World War II. Dominic Cummings, British political advisor and strategist. Edward Shortt, British politician, Home Secretary (1919–1922). William Greenwell, Church of England priest and archaeologist. Durham School Boat Club. Headmasters of Durham School. List of Old Dunelmians. School website. Bow, Durham School. Old Dunelmians website. Independent Schools Inspectorate Inspection Reports. Profile at the Independent Schools Council website.

9th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

9th Armoured DivisionBritish 9th Armoured Division9th
The 9th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, raised during the Second World War. The 9th Armoured was created on 1 December 1940 and dispersed and disbanded on 31 July 1944. The division never saw active service during the war. This formation's only use during the war was either as a training formation or when it was used to experiment with specialised armour.