A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French (the official languages) being the mother tongues of approximately 56% and 21% of Canadians, respectively. As of the 2016 Census, just over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (1,227,680 first-language speakers), Punjabi (501,680), Spanish (458,850), Tagalog (431,385), Arabic (419,895), German (384,040), and Italian (375,645).

Northwest Territories

NTNorth-West TerritoriesNWT
The Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, and by the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the south. The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory (see History). In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ (Nunatsiaq), "beautiful land." There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut, possibly to a term from an Aboriginal language.


A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. In Quebec, about 42.6 percent of the population (3,328,725 people) report knowing both languages; this is the highest proportion of bilinguals of any Canadian province. One specific area in the Bilingual Belt called the West Island of Montreal, represented by the federal electoral district of Lac-Saint-Louis, is the most bilingual area in the province: 72.8% of its residents claim to know English and French according to the most recent census.

Demographics of Canada

Alberta (3,567,980): English (24.9%), Canadian (21.8%), German (19.2%), Scottish (18.8%), Irish (15.8%), French (11.1%). Manitoba (1,174,345): English (21.8%), German (18.6%), Canadian (18.5%), Scottish (18.0%), Ukrainian (14.9%), Irish (13.2%), French (12.6%), North American Indian (10.6%). Saskatchewan (1,008,760): German (28.6%), English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (12.2%), North American Indian (12.1%). British Columbia (4,324,455): English (27.7%), Scottish (19.3%), Canadian (19.1%), German (13.1%), Chinese (10.7%).


ABAlberta, CanadaALB
Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
According to the Canadian Constitution, both English and French are the official languages of New Brunswick, making it the only officially bilingual province. Anglophone New Brunswickers make up roughly two-thirds of the population, with about one-third being Francophone. Recently there has been growth in the numbers of people reporting themselves as bilingual, with 34% reporting that they speak both English and French. This reflects a trend across Canada. In the 2011 census, 84% of provincial residents reported themselves as Christian: 52% were Roman Catholic, 8% Baptist, 8% United Church of Canada, and 7% Anglican. Fifteen percent of residents reported no religion.

Nova Scotia

NSProvince of Nova ScotiaNova Scotia, Canada
According to the 2006 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish (31.9%), followed by English (31.8%), Irish (21.6%), French (17.9%), German (11.3%), Aboriginal origin (5.3%), Dutch (4.1%), Black Canadians (2.8%), Welsh (1.9%) Italian (1.5%), and Scandinavian (1.4%). 40.9% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian". Nova Scotia has a long history of social justice work to address issues such as racism and sexism within its borders. The Nova Scotia legislature was the third in Canada to pass human rights legislation (1963). The Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission was established in 1967. The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 921,727.

Census in Canada

Canadian censuscensusfederal census
By this time, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, and British Columbia were part of Canada and included in the national census, as was the North-West Territories. A special census was conducted in 1906 after Alberta and Saskatchewan were delineated from the North-West Territories and became provinces. These special censuses continued every 10 years until 1956, at which time all of Canada was included. Since that time, a census has been conducted in Canada every five years. In 1912, the federal government transferred responsibility for conducting the census from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Trade and Commerce.

Chipewyan language

ChipewyanDeneDene Suline
Dënesųłiné has nearly 12,000 speakers in Canada, mostly in Saskatchewan, Alberta, Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. It has official status only in the Northwest Territories, alongside 8 other aboriginal languages: Cree, Dogrib, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey and South Slavey. Most Chipewyan people now use Dené and Dënesųłiné to refer to themselves as a people and to their language, respectively. The Saskatchewan communities of Fond-du-Lac, Black Lake, Wollaston Lake and La Loche are among these. The 39 consonants of Dënesųłiné: Dënesųłiné has vowels of 6 differing qualities.

Canadian Pacific Railway

CPRCanadian PacificCP
The Canadian Pacific Railway inception - A rich digital set of unique artifacts, archival and graphic material from the UBC Library Digital Collections. The Early Chinese Canadians: Working in B.C.: Gold, Railway, Mining, and Salmon. Royal Canadian Pacific., illustrated account of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples
The Métis homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario, as well as the Northwest Territories (NWT). Amongst notable Métis people are singer and actor Tom Jackson, Commissioner of the Northwest Territories Tony Whitford, and Louis Riel who led two resistance movements: the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870 and the North-West Rebellion of 1885, which ended in his trial. The languages inherently Métis are either Métis French or a mixed language called Michif. Michif, Mechif or Métchif is a phonetic spelling of Métif, a variant of Métis.

French language in Canada

Frenchfrancophonefrancophone Canada
Fransaskois (in Saskatchewan). Franco-Albertans. Franco-Columbians. Franco-Terreneuviens. Franco-Ténois (in the Northwest Territories). Franco-Yukon(n)ais (in the Yukon). Franco-Nunavois (in Nunavut). Office québécois de la langue française. Charter of the French Language. Canadian French. Quebec French. Official bilingualism in Canada. Québécois. Joual. Chiac. Quebec French lexicon. French Canadian. Languages of Canada. Acadian French. Metis French. Influence of French on English. French language in the United States. French language. French phonology. Michif language. American French. "French language: Canadian French today" The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Hurtig Publishers.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins. They had dyed or painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black. They had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago. .

Outline of Canada

Languages of Canada. Canadian Aboriginal syllabics. Official bilingualism in Canada. Canadian English. Canadian French. Media in Canada. Symbols of Canada. National symbols of Canada. Coat of arms of Canada. Flag of Canada. National anthem of Canada. Royal symbols of Canada. Canadians. Canadian identity. Canadian nationalism. Canadian cultural protectionism. Ethnic groups in Canada. History of immigration to Canada. Prostitution in Canada. Public holidays in Canada. World Heritage Sites in Canada. Culture of Alberta. Culture of British Columbia. Culture of Vancouver (city). Culture of Manitoba. Culture of New Brunswick. Culture of Nova Scotia. Culture of Ontario.

Ukrainian Canadians

There are a number of Ukrainian Canadian institutions, such as: Ukrainians by main cities The provinces with the largest Ukrainian populations (single and multiple origins, 2006) are Ontario, 336,355; Alberta, 332,180; British Columbia, 197,265; Manitoba, 167,175; Saskatchewan 129,265; and Quebec, 31,955. In terms of proportion of the total population, the most Ukrainian provinces and territories are Manitoba (15%), Saskatchewan (13%), Alberta (10%), Yukon (5%), British Columbia (5%), and Ontario (3%).

English Canadians

Chinese workers, brought in to labour on the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, established sizeable populations in many B.C. communities, particularly Vancouver which quickly became the province's economic and cultural centre after the railway's completion in 1886. Like Ontario, British Columbia has received immigrants from a broad range of countries including large numbers of Germans, Scandinavians, Italians, Sikhs from India and Chinese from Hong Kong, Taiwan and in more recent years, the People's Republic, and the ongoing influx of Europeans from Europe continues.

French language

Official bilingualism in Canada. Francophobia. Francophile. Varieties of French. Influence of French on English. Nadeau, Jean-Benoît, and Julie Barlow (2006). The Story of French. (First U.S. ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN: 0-312-34183-0. Ursula Reutner (2017). Manuel des francophonies. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter. ISBN: 978-3-11-034670-1. Fondation Alliance française: an international organization for the promotion of French language and culture. Agence de promotion du FLE: Agency for promoting French as a foreign language. Français interactif: interactive French program, University of Texas at Austin. Tex's French Grammar, University of Texas at Austin. Lingopolo French.

Cree language

If classified as one language, it is the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. The only region where Cree has any official status is in the Northwest Territories, alongside eight other aboriginal languages. There, Cree is spoken mainly in Fort Smith and Hay River.

Canadian English

Canadian English morpho-syntactic features also affect their vocabulary; this includes their tendency to use the possessive "have" as opposed to "have got" or "got," which differs from both British English and American English. In addition, the vocabulary of Canadian English also features some words that are seldom (if ever) found elsewhere. A good resource for these and other words is the Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, which is currently being revised at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Western Canada

Western CanadianWesternwestern provinces
Approximate breakdown: Energy: Agriculture: * Peel's Prairie Provinces: Sources for Canada and Western Canadian History Manitoba established as a province of Canada in 1870, following the enacting of the Manitoba Act. British Columbia: Under terms that Canada would absorb the colony's debt, would begin to subsidize public work, and would begin to construct a railway allowing travel from British Columbia to Ontario, British Columbia agreed to join Canadian confederation in 1871. Saskatchewan: Established as province in 1905, with the implementation of the Saskatchewan Act. Alberta: In 1905, the same year as Saskatchewan, Alberta also was established as province.