Skeletal formula

representedskeletal structureskeleton
TMS, TBDMS, TES, TBDPS, TIPS, ... for various silyl ether groups. PMB for the 4-methoxybenzyl group. MOM for the methoxymethyl group. THP for the 2-tetrahydropyranyl group. Solid lines represent bonds in the plane of the paper or screen. Solid wedges represent bonds that point out of the plane of the paper or screen, towards the observer. Hashed wedges or dashed lines (thick or thin) represent bonds that point into the plane of the paper or screen, away from the observer. Wavy lines represent either unknown stereochemistry or a mixture of the two possible stereoisomers at that point.


solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
Formic acid.svg H-C(=O)OH. 101. 58. 1.21. 1.41. - style="background:#fcc;". n-Butanol. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH. 118. 18. 0.810. 1.63. - style="background:#fcc;". Isopropyl alcohol (IPA). 2-Propanol2.svg CH 3 -CH(-OH)-CH 3. 82. 18. 0.785. 1.66. - style="background:#fcc;". n-Propanol. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH. 97. 20. 0.803. 1.68. - style="background:#fcc;". Ethanol. CH 3 CH 2 OH. 79. 24.55. 0.789. 1.69. - style="background:#fcc;". Methanol. CH 3 OH. 65. 33. 0.791. 1.70. - style="background:#fcc;". Acetic acid. Essigsäure - Acetic acid.svg CH 3 -C(=O)OH. 118. 6.2. 1.049. 1.74. - style="background:#fcc;". Water.


A simple example of isomerism is given by propanol: It has the formula C 3 H 8 O (or C 3 H 7 OH) and occurs as two isomers: propan-1-ol (n-propyl alcohol; I) and propan-2-ol (isopropyl alcohol; II) These two molecules are position isomers of each other, because the position of the hydroxy group differs between the two: It is attached to an end carbon in the first isomer, and to the center carbon in the second. There is also another isomer of C 3 H 8 O that has significantly different properties: methoxyethane (ethyl-methyl-ether; III). Unlike the isomers of propanol, methoxyethane has an oxygen connected to two carbons rather than to one carbon and one hydrogen.

Glossary of chemical formulae

List of organic compoundsDictionary of chemical formulas
This is a list of common chemical compounds with chemical formulae and CAS numbers, indexed by formula. This complements alternative listing at inorganic compounds by element. There is no complete list of chemical compounds since by nature the list would be infinite.


alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
CCl 3 CHO + H 2 O → CCl 3 C(OH) 2 H. 1-Propanol. Butanol fuel. Cellulosic ethanol commercialization. Ethanol-induced non-lamellar phases in phospholipids. Ethenol. Ethynol. Isopropyl alcohol. Methanol. Rubbing alcohol. tert-Butyl alcohol. Timeline of alcohol fuel. Alcohol (Ethanol) at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham). International Labour Organization ethanol safety information. National Pollutant Inventory – Ethanol Fact Sheet. CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Ethyl Alcohol. National Institute of Standards and Technology chemical data on ethanol. Chicago Board of Trade news and market data on ethanol futures.

Tert-Butyl alcohol

tert''-butanoltert''-butyl alcoholtert-butanol
tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), also called tert-butanol or t-butanol, is the simplest tertiary alcohol, with a formula of (CH 3 ) 3 COH (sometimes represented as t-BuOH). It is one of the four isomers of butanol. tert-Butyl alcohol is a colorless solid, which melts near room temperature and has a camphor-like odor. It is miscible with water, ethanol and diethyl ether. tert-Butyl alcohol has been identified in beer and chickpeas. It is also found in cassava, which is used as a fermentation ingredient in certain alcoholic beverages. tert-Butyl alcohol is derived commercially from isobutane as a coproduct of propylene oxide production.


The depressant effect on the central nervous system (similar to ethanol intoxication) is a potential hazard when working with n-butanol in enclosed spaces, although the odour threshold (0.2–30 ppm) is far below the concentration which would have any neurological effect. * Butanol fuel. Diethyl ether.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
Liquid ammonia, ether, or hydrocarbon solvents are used, the most common of which being tetrahydrofuran. The most important of these compounds is sodium cyclopentadienide, NaC 5 H 5, an important precursor to many transition metal cyclopentadienyl derivatives. Similarly, the alkali metals react with cyclooctatetraene in tetrahydrofuran to give alkali metal cyclooctatetraenides; for example, dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide (K 2 C 8 H 8 ) is an important precursor to many metal cyclooctatetraenyl derivatives, such as uranocene.


oxo processoxo synthesishydroformylated
The hydroformylation of alkenyl ethers and alkenyl esters occurs usually in the α-position to the ether or ester function. The hydroformylation of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid leads in the rhodium-catalyzed process in the first step to the Markovnikov product. By variation of the reaction conditions the reaction can be directed to different products. A high reaction temperature and low carbon monoxide pressure favors the isomerization of the Markovnikov product to the thermodynamically more stable β-isomer, which leads to the n-aldehyde.


sec''-butanols''-butyl alcoholsec-butanol
In the laboratory it can be prepared via Grignard reaction by reacting ethylmagnesium bromide with acetaldehyde in dried diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran. Although some 2-butanol is used as a solvent, it is mainly converted to butanone (methyl ethyl ketone, MEK), which is an important industrial solvent and found in many domestic cleaning agents and paint removers. Volatile esters of 2-butanol have pleasant aromas and are used in small amounts as perfumes or in artificial flavors. The solubility of 2-butanol is incorrect in most sources, including some of the most well-known references such as the Merck Index, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, and Lange's Handbook of Chemistry.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
A strain of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has been genetically engineered to produce the fuels isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol from using photosynthesis. Liquid and solid carbon dioxide are important refrigerants, especially in the food industry, where they are employed during the transportation and storage of ice cream and other frozen foods. Solid carbon dioxide is called "dry ice" and is used for small shipments where refrigeration equipment is not practical. Solid carbon dioxide is always below -78.5 C at regular atmospheric pressure, regardless of the air temperature.


alcoholssecondary alcoholtertiary alcohol
Methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble. Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon hexane, and 34.6 °C for diethyl ether. Simple alcohols are found widely in nature. Ethanol is most prominent because it is the product of fermentation, a major energy-producing pathway. The other simple alcohols are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids.


When it comes to transportation fuel there are six ether additives: dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE). The European Fuel Oxygenates Association (EFOA) identifies methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) as the most commonly used ethers in fuel to replace lead. Ethers were introduced in Europe in the 1970s to replace the highly toxic compound. Although Europeans still use bioether additives, the US no longer has an oxygenate requirement therefore bioethers are no longer used as the main fuel additive.

Azeotrope tables

Azeotrope (data)
|| 69 || 66.2 || 85.9 ||. - bgcolor="#FFFFCC". nitromethane || 101.0 || 79.3 || 70 ||. }. - bgcolor="#FFCCFF". diisopropyl ether || 69 || 66.2 || 85.9 ||. - bgcolor="#FFFFCC". nitromethane || 101.0 || 79.3 || 70 ||. }.


The molecular formula C 4 H 10 O may refer to: Butanols. n-Butanol. sec-Butanol. tert-Butanol. Isobutanol. Ethoxyethane (Diethyl ether). 1-Methoxypropane (methyl propyl ether). 2-Methoxypropane (isopropyl methyl ether).

Heat of combustion

calorific valueEnthalpy of combustionlower heating value
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.


MOSCED (short for “modified separation of cohesive energy density model) is a thermodynamic model for the estimation of limiting activity coefficients (also known as activity coefficient at infinite dilution). From a historical point of view MOSCED can be regarded as an improved modification of the Hansen method and the Hildebrand solubility model by adding higher interaction term such as polarity, induction and separation of hydrogen bonding terms. This allows the prediction of polar and associative compounds, which most solubility parameter models have been found to do poorly.

Butanol fuel

Butanol. Catalyst. Dimethyl ether. Distillation. Emission standards. Energy crop. Ethanol fuel. Fermentation facility. Formic acid: can be used as an intermediary to produce isobutanol from CO2 using microbes. Gevo Biofuels. List of vegetable oils used for biofuel. Biobutanol (EERE). Biobutanol research news from Green Car Congress. Butanol 3D view and pdb-file.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
The three major products are ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (EBA), and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PMA, more commonly known as PGMEA in semiconductor manufacturing processes, where it is used as a resist solvent). This application consumes about 15% to 20% of worldwide acetic acid. Ether acetates, for example EEA, have been shown to be harmful to human reproduction. The product of the condensation of two molecules of acetic acid is acetic anhydride. The worldwide production of acetic anhydride is a major application, and uses approximately 25% to 30% of the global production of acetic acid.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
For example, sodium acetate, NaCH 3 COO, smells similar to acetic acid CH 3 COOH. * Mark Kurlansky (2002). Salt: A World History. Walker Publishing Company.


alkyl halidealkyl halideshalogenated hydrocarbons
Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial products methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. Fluorocarbon anesthetics reduce the hazard of flammability with diethyl ether and cyclopropane. Perfluorinated alkanes are used as blood substitutes. Chlorinated or fluorinated alkenes undergo polymerization. Important halogenated polymers include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE, or Teflon). The production of these materials releases substantial amounts of wastes. The formal naming of haloalkanes should follow IUPAC nomenclature, which put the halogen as a prefix to the alkane.

Cellulose acetate

acetateCellonacetate microfilm
The anhydroglucose unit is the fundamental repeating structure of cellulose and has three hydroxyl groups which can react to form acetate esters. The most common form of cellulose acetate fiber has an acetate group on approximately two of every three hydroxyls. This cellulose diacetate is known as secondary acetate, or simply as "acetate". After it is formed, cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone, forming a viscous solution for extrusion through spinnerets (which resemble a shower head). As the filaments emerge, the solvent is evaporated in warm air via dry spinning, producing fine cellulose acetate fibers.


etheneC 2 H 4 ethylene gas
ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. Ethylene is perceived by a family of five transmembrane protein dimers such as the ETR1 protein in Arabidopsis. The genes encoding ethylene receptors have been cloned in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plants. Ethylene receptors are encoded by multiple genes in plant genomes. Dominant missense mutations in any of the gene family, which comprises five receptors in Arabidopsis and at least six in tomato, can confer insensitivity to ethylene.

Sulfuric acid

sulphuric acidsulfuricH 2 SO 4
Diethyl ether – also known as "sweet oil of vitriol". Piranha solution. Sulfur oxoacid. Sulfuric acid poisoning. Sulfuric acid at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. CDC – Sulfuric Acid – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. External Material Safety Data Sheet. Calculators: surface tensions, and densities, molarities and molalities of aqueous sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid analysis – titration freeware. Process flowsheet of sulfuric acid manufacturing by lead chamber process.


hydrogenatedcatalytic hydrogenationhydrogenated vegetable oil
E.g. 1-propanol is produced from propionaldehyde, produced from ethene and carbon monoxide. Xylitol, a polyol, is produced by hydrogenation of the sugar xylose, an aldehyde. Primary amines can be synthesized by hydrogenation of nitriles, while nitriles are readily synthesized from cyanide and a suitable electrophile. For example, isophorone diamine, a precursor to the polyurethane monomer isophorone diisocyanate, is produced from isophorone nitrile by a tandem nitrile hydrogenation/reductive amination by ammonia, wherein hydrogenation converts both the nitrile into an amine and the imine formed from the aldehyde and ammonia into another amine.