Baking

bakedbaked goodsbake
Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products especially cheese, they are often prepared as a dessert. For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch (in the form of flour, cornflour, arrowroot, or potato flour), the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, and the bain-marie method serves this purpose. The cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more gently applied during the baking process.

Fermentation in food processing

fermentationfermentedferment
Kimchi, mixed pickle, sauerkraut, Indian pickle, gundruk, tursu Wine, vinegar, cider, perry, brandy, atchara, nata de coco, burong mangga, asinan, pickling, vişinată, chocolate, rakı Mead, metheglin Some kinds of cheese also, kefir, kumis (mare milk), shubat (camel milk), cultured milk products such as quark, filmjölk, crème fraîche, smetana, skyr, and yogurt Bagoong, faseekh, fish sauce, Garum, Hákarl, jeotgal, rakfisk, shrimp paste, surströmming, shidal Chorizo, salami, sucuk, pepperoni, nem chua, som moo, saucisson Pu-erh tea, Kombucha Alaska has witnessed a steady increase of cases of botulism since 1985.

Waffle

wafflesgaufreBrussels waffle
Take with that the yolk of an egg and a spoonful of pot sugar or powdered sugar. Take with that half water and half wine, and ginger and cinnamon.'' Alternately attributed to the 16th and 17th centuries, Groote Wafelen from the Belgian Een Antwerps kookboek was published as the first recipe to use leavening (beer yeast): ''Take white flour, warm cream, fresh melted butter, yeast, and mix together until the flour is no longer visible. Then add ten or twelve egg yolks. Those who do not want them to be too expensive may also add the egg white and just milk. Put the resulting dough at the fireplace for four hours to let it rise better before baking it.

List of How It's Made episodes

How It's Made is a documentary television series that premiered on January 6, 2001 on the Discovery Channel (now known as Discovery Science in Canada, and Science in the UK and US.) The program is produced in the Canadian province of Quebec by Productions MAJ, Inc. and Productions MAJ 2. In the UK, it is broadcast on Discovery Channel, Quest, and DMAX.

List of pastries

pastries
There are five basic types of pastry (a food that combines flour and fat); these are shortcrust pastry, filo pastry, choux pastry, flaky pastry and puff pastry. Two main types of pastry are nonlaminated, when fat is cut or rubbed into the flour, and laminated, when fat is repeatedly folded into the dough using a technique called lamination. An example of a nonlaminated pastry would be a pie or tart crust and brioche. An example of a laminated pastry would be a croissant, danish, or puff pastry. Many pastries are prepared using shortening, a fat food product that is solid at room temperature, the composition of which lends to creating crumbly, shortcrust-style pastries and pastry crusts.

List of cakes

Erotic cakeQueen cakecake
The majority of the cakes contain some kind of flour, egg, and sugar, and these ingredients are not listed. Bustrengo. Cassava cake. Countess (cake). Krantz cake. Mango cake. Vanilla slice. Ube cake. Ul boov (Mongolia). Yema cake. List of baked goods. List of breads. List of buns. List of desserts. List of pancakes. List of pastries. Pop out cake.

Chocolate chip cookie

chocolate chip cookiesToll House cookieToll House cookies
Chocolate chip cookies are commonly made with white sugar; brown sugar; flour; a small portion of salt; eggs; a leavening agent such as baking powder; a fat, typically butter or shortening; vanilla extract; and semi-sweet chocolate pieces. Some recipes also include milk or nuts (such as chopped walnuts) in the dough. Depending on the ratio of ingredients and mixing and cooking times, some recipes are optimized to produce a softer, chewy style cookie while others will produce a crunchy/crispy style. Regardless of ingredients, the procedure for making the cookie is fairly consistent in all recipes: First, the sugars and fat are creamed, usually with a wooden spoon or electric mixer.

Wacky cake

It is unique in that unlike most pastries and desserts, no eggs, butter or milk are used to make the cake batter. Wacky Cake may have been created as the result of rationing during World War II, when milk and eggs were scarce. Active ingredients in wacky cake include flour, sugar, cocoa powder, baking soda, vegetable oil, white vinegar, salt and vanilla extract. The eggless batter means that the structure of the cake is entirely supported by gluten, which is strengthened by the acidic vinegar and salt. Some recipes add brewed coffee as an additional ingredient. The cake may be topped with icing or confectioner's sugar, or even served plain.

List of snack foods from the Indian subcontinent

List of Indian snack foodsList of Indian snacksnamkeen
This is a list of Indian snack foods. Snack foods are a significant aspect of Indian cuisine, and are sometimes referred to as chaat.

Khanom bodin

Khanom bodin looks like a typical butter cake, but with a denser texture and has a sweeter taste because it is made from wheat flour (or Maida flour), fresh butter and fresh milk. The original, this type of cake is produced and eaten only among Muslims in times of significant religious traditions. At present, it is considered a rare dessert and is produced and sold only in Muslim communities of central Thailand. In Bangkok, there are only a few bakeries in Muslim community that sell this type of dessert such as Suan Phlu Mosque in Talat Phlu area, and Maha Nak Mosque by the Khlong Maha Nak in the area of Bobae etc.

Riboflavin

vitamin B 2 B 2 vitamin B2
Bovine milk contains mainly free riboflavin, with a minor contribution from FMN and FAD. In whole milk, 14% of the flavins are bound noncovalently to specific proteins. Milk and yogurt contain some of the highest riboflavin content. Egg white and egg yolk contain specialized riboflavin-binding proteins, which are required for storage of free riboflavin in the egg for use by the developing embryo. Riboflavin is added to baby foods, breakfast cereals, pastas and vitamin-enriched meal replacement products.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk), glucose and fructose, both of which occur naturally in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are often added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are often described as bakers' confectionery. The word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder, and eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts, quiches, croissants, and pasties. The French word pâtisserie is also used in English (with or without the accent) for the same foods.

French toast

Torrijapain perduRabanada
Slices of bread are soaked or dipped in a mixture of beaten eggs, often whisked with milk or cream. Sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, and vanilla may be variously added to the mixture. The bread is then fried in butter or olive oil until browned and cooked through. Day-old bread is often used, both for its thrift and because it will soak up more egg mixture without falling apart. The cooked slices may be served with sugar or sweet toppings such as jam, honey, fruit, or maple syrup. According to the Compleat Cook (1659) as quoted in the OED, the bread was dipped in milk only, with the egg mixture added afterwards.

Pudding

puddingsBudyńbutterscotch pudding
The original pudding was formed by mixing various ingredients with a grain product or other binder such as butter, flour, cereal, eggs, and/or suet, resulting in a solid mass. These puddings are baked, steamed, or boiled. Depending on its ingredients, such a pudding may be served as a part of the main course or as a dessert. Steamed pies consisting of a filling completely enclosed by suet pastry are also known as puddings.

Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Water, or some other liquid, is used to form the flour into a paste or dough. The weight of liquid required varies between recipes, but a ratio of 3 parts liquid to 5 parts flour is common for yeast breads. Recipes that use steam as the primary leavening method may have a liquid content in excess of 1 part liquid to 1 part flour. Instead of water, recipes may use liquids such as milk or other dairy products (including buttermilk or yoghurt), fruit juice, or eggs. These contribute additional sweeteners, fats, or leavening components, as well as water.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Leavened or fermented doughs (generally made from grain cereals or legumes that are ground to produce flour, mixed with water and yeast) are used all over the world to make various breads. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are also common ingredients in bread dough. Commercial bread doughs may also include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product. Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough. Some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents; others, such as matzo, do not.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Other staple foods include pulses (dried legumes), sago (derived from the pith of the sago palm tree), and fruits (such as breadfruit and plantains). Staple foods may also include (depending on the region): olive oil, coconut oil and sugar (e.g. from plantains).

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
Milk of lime is added to the raw juice with calcium carbonate. After water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum, the syrup is cooled and seeded with sugar crystals. The white sugar that crystallizes can be separated in a centrifuge and dried, requiring no further refining. Refined sugar is made from raw sugar that has undergone a refining process to remove the molasses. Raw sugar is sucrose which is extracted from sugarcane or sugar beet. While raw sugar can be consumed, the refining process removes unwanted tastes and results in refined sugar or white sugar.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep biosphere of the earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fats
This also means that only single bonds (sigma bonds) will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail. * Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter). Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk). Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms (contained in cow's milk and dairy products). Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms (contained in palm oil and meat). Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms (also contained in meat and cocoa butter). List of saturated fatty acids. List of vegetable oils. Trans fat. Food groups. Food guide pyramid. Healthy diet. Diet and heart disease. Fast food. Junk food. Advanced glycation endproduct. ANGPTL4.

Vitamin A

Avitamins ARAE
In 1912, Frederick Gowland Hopkins demonstrated that unknown accessory factors found in milk, other than carbohydrates, proteins, and fats were necessary for growth in rats. Hopkins received a Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1929. By 1913, one of these substances was independently discovered by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Burr Osborne at Yale University, who studied the role of fats in the diet. McCollum and Davis ultimately received credit because they submitted their paper three weeks before Mendel and Osborne. Both papers appeared in the same issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry in 1913.

Batter (cooking)

batterbatteredbatters
Many batters are made by combining dry flours with liquids such as water, milk or eggs. Batters can also be made by soaking grains in water and grinding them wet. Often a leavening agent such as baking powder is included to aerate and fluff up the batter as it cooks, or the mixture may be naturally fermented for this purpose as well as to add flavour. Carbonated water or another carbonated liquid such as beer may instead be used to aerate the batter in some recipes. The liquid mixture churned and frozen in order to produce ice cream is also referred to as batter, although it does not contain any dry flours or grains.

Blini

blinyblinisBLIN
A lighter and thinner form made from unyeasted batter (usually made of flour, eggs, milk or soured milk, kefir, ryazhenka, varenets), is also common in Russia. Traditionally, blini are baked in a Russian oven. The process of preparing blini is still referred to as baking in Russian, even though they are nowadays pan-fried, like pancakes. All kinds of flour may be used, from wheat and buckwheat to oatmeal and millet, although wheat is currently the most popular. A somewhat similar Jewish dish exists, and is a very popular traditional Ashkenazi Jewish dish called blintz. Blintzes were popularized in the United States by Jewish refugees fleeing persecution and violence in Eastern Europe.

Folate

folic acidfolate biosynthesisone carbon pool by folate
In the US, mandatory fortification of enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meal, pastas, rice, and other grain products began in January 1998. As of December 21, 2018, 81 countries required food fortification with one or more vitamins. The most commonly fortified vitamin – as used in 62 countries – is folate; the most commonly fortified food is wheat flour, followed by maize flour and rice. From country to country, added folic acid amounts range from 0.4 to 5.1 μg/100 g, but the great majority are in a more narrow range of 1.5 to 2.5 μg/100 g. Folate naturally found in food is susceptible to destruction from high heat cooking, especially in the presence of acidic foods and sauces.