Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys.
Kingdom of ChampaChamChampa Kingdom
Champa or Tsiompa (Cham: Campa; Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832. The kingdom was known variously as nagara Campa (Sanskrit: नगरः चम्पः; ចាម្ប៉ា) in the Chamic and Cambodian inscriptions, Chăm Pa in Vietnamese (Chiêm Thành in Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary) and 占城 (Zhànchéng) in Chinese records.
Srivijaya EmpireSriwijayaSri Vijaya
The discovery of golden Tara statue in Agusan del Sur, also golden Kinnara from Butuan, Northeastern Mindanao, in the Philippines suggests the ancient link between ancient Philippines and the Srivijayan empire. Tara and Kinnara are important figures or deities in Mahayana Buddhist beliefs. The Mahayana-Vajrayana Buddhist religious commonality is interesting, it is possible that ancient Philippines acquired their Mahayana-Vajrayana beliefs from Srivijayan influence in Sumatra. The 10th century Arab account Ajayeb al-Hind (Marvels of India) gives an account of invasion in Africa, probably by Malay people of Srivijaya, in 945-946 CE.
SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynasty
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north. It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.
People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
China (undefined), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9600000 km2, it is the third largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Song ShiSong ShihChinese records
The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279). It was commissioned in 1343 and compiled under the direction of First Minister Toqto'a and Prime Minister Alutu during the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) at the same time as the History of Liao and the History of Jin. Running to a total of 496 chapters, the History of Song includes biographies of the Song Emperors along with contemporary records and biographical sketches of Song dynasty politicians, soldiers and philosophers.
Palace Museumimperial palaceForbidden Palace
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. It houses the Palace Museum, and was the former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty (the years 1420 to 1912). The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households and was the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.
Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. It is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period (1500 to 500 BCE), and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.
local languageregionalregional languages
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federated state or province or some wider area.
Theravada BuddhismTheravādaTheravada Buddhist
Theravāda (Pāli, lit. "School of the Elders") is the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existent school. The school's adherents, termed Theravādins, have preserved their version of the Gautama Buddha's teaching in the Pāli Canon. The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon surviving in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as the school's sacred language and lingua franca. For over a millennium, theravādins have endeavored to preserve the dhamma as recorded in their school's texts. In contrast to Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna, Theravāda tends to be conservative in matters of doctrine and monastic discipline.
YuanYuan ChinaYuan Empire
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Middle Mongolian:, Dai Ön Ulus, literally "Great Yuan State"), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including modern-day North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279 when the Southern Song dynasty was defeated in the Battle of Yamen.
CelebesCelebes IslandsSulawesi Island
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia. The world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations.
treasure huntertreasure hunterstreasure hunt
Treasure hunting is the physical search for treasure. For example, treasure hunters try to find sunken shipwrecks and retrieve artifacts with market value. This industry is generally fueled by the market for antiquities. The practice of treasure-hunting can be controversial, as locations such as sunken wrecks or cultural sites may be protected by national or international law concerned with property ownership, marine salvage, sovereign or state vessels, commercial diving regulations, protection of cultural heritage and trade controls.
Easter SundayPaschaEaster Day
Easter, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. undefined 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a 40-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance.
MagellanFernão de MagalhãesFernando de Magallanes
Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; Fernão de Magalhães, ; Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
The Mass, known more fully as the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is the central liturgical ritual in the Catholic Church where the bread and wine are consecrated and become the body and blood of Christ. As defined by the Church at the Council of Trent, in the Mass, "The same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross, is present and offered in an unbloody manner." The Church describes the Holy Mass as "the source and summit of the Christian life".
The Andalusians (andaluces) are a subgroup of Spaniards native to Andalusia, an autonomous community in southern Spain. Andalusia's statute of autonomy defines Andalusians as the Spanish citizens who reside in any of the municipalities of Andalusia, as well as those Spaniards who reside abroad and had their last Spanish residence in Andalusia, and their descendants. Since reform in 2007, the statute identifies the region as a "historic nationality" in the preamble; this statement has no legal value. The Spanish Language Academy recognizes Andalusian Spanish as a distinct dialect.
A chaplain is, traditionally, a cleric (such as a minister, priest, pastor, rabbi, purohit, or imam), or a lay representative of a religious tradition, attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, school, labor union, business, police department, fire department, university, or private chapel.
Marooning is the intentional act of abandoning someone in an uninhabited area, such as a desert island. The word first appears in writing in approximately 1709, and is derived from the term maroon, a word for a fugitive slave, which could be a corruption of Spanish cimarrón, meaning a household animal (or slave) who has run "wild".
PatagonianChilean PatagoniaArgentine Patagonia
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Chile and Argentina. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes Mountains and the deserts, pampas, and grasslands to the east. Patagonia is one of the few regions with coasts on three oceans, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south.
San JuliánPuerto San JulianPort St Julian
Puerto San Julián, also known historically as Port St. Julian, is a natural harbour in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina located at -49.3°N, -67.71667°W. In the days of sailing ships it formed a stopping point, 180 km south of Puerto Deseado (Port Desire). Nowadays Puerto San Julián is also the name of a small town (population 6,143 as per the ) located on the harbour.
Roman CatholicRoman CatholicismCatholic
Butuan. Malaybalay. Surigao. Tandag. Capiz. Kalibo. Romblon. Cebu. Dumaguete. Maasin. Tagbilaran. Talibon. Cotabato, Maguindanao. Kidapawan. Marbel. Davao, Davao del Sur. Digos. Mati. Tagum. Jaro, Iloilo. Bacolod. Kabankalan. San Carlos. San Jose de Antique. Lingayen-Dagupan, Pangasinan. Alaminos. Cabanatuan. San Fernando de La Union. San Jose in Nueva Ecija. Urdaneta. Lipa, Batangas. Boac. Gumaca. Lucena. Prelature of Infanta. Manila. Antipolo. Cubao. Imus. Kalookan. Malolos. Novaliches. Paranaque. Pasig. San Pablo. Nueva Segovia, Ilocos Sur. Baguio. Bangued. Laoag. Ozamis, Misamis Occidental. Dipolog. Iligan. Pagadian. Prelature of Marawi. Palo, Leyte. Borongan. Calbayog. Catarman. Naval.
Raja (also spelled Rajah, from Sanskrit राजन् ), is a title for a monarch equivalent to king or princely ruler in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
The Spanish East Indies were the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 until 1901. At one time or another, they included the Philippines, Marianas, Carolines, Palaos and Guam, as well as parts of Formosa (Taiwan), Sulawesi (Celebes) and the Moluccas (Maluku). The King of Spain traditionally styled himself "King of the East and West Indies".