This is a list of known wars, conflicts, battles/sieges, missions and operations involving ancient Greek city states and kingdoms, Magna Graecia, other Greek colonies (First Greek colonisation, Second Greek colonisation, Greeks in pre-Roman Crimea, Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Greeks in Egypt, Greeks in Syria, Greeks in Malta), Greek Kingdoms of Hellenistic period, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Byzantine Empire/ Byzantine Greeks, Byzantine Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, Kingdom of Greece and Greece between 3000 BC and the present day.
AnatoliaAnatolia, ByzantineAsia Minor
The history of the Eastern Roman Empire (324–1453) is generally considered to fall into three distinct eras: * Late Roman Empire: 4th to 7th centuries * Middle Byzantine Empire: 7th to 11th centuries * Late Empire: 11th to 15th centuries
Middle Eastern conflictsMiddle East
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. Antioch riots 610. Battle of Antioch (613). Jewish revolt against Heraclius 610-28. Siege of Jerusalem (614). Shahin's invasion of Asia Minor (615). Sassanid conquest of Egypt 618-621. Battle of Issus. Byzantine assault on Persia 624-25. Siege of Constantinople (626). Third Perso-Turkic War. Battle of Nineveh (627). Samaritan Revolts. Samaritan revolt against Zeno 484. Revolt against Anastasius I. Third Samaritan revolt 529-531. Fourth Samaritan Revolt 555-572. Mazdak revolt in Persia 524 (or 528). Nika riots in Constantinople 532. Battle of Dhi Qar - tribal rebellion in Sasanian Persia. Muslim conquests. Ridda wars 632-633. Muslim conquest of the Levant.
Iberiaa Persian provinceSasanian province
Guaram's successor, the second presiding prince Stephen I (Stephanoz I), reoriented his politics towards Persia in a quest to reunite a divided Iberia, a goal he seems to have accomplished, but this cost him his life when the Byzantine emperor Heraclius attacked Tbilisi in 626, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, marking the definite Byzantine predominance in most of Georgia by 627-628 at the expense of the Sasanids until the Muslim conquest of Persia. * Piran Gushnasp. Arvand Gushnasp. Vezhan Buzmihr. Atashgah of Tbilisi. Roman Georgia. Muslim conquest of Persia. Principality of Iberia. Arab rule in Georgia.
Upon the end of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Heraclius travelled through Arbayistan as part of the agreed withdrawal from Sasanian territory. A pretender to the Sasanian throne, Hormizd VI, briefly occupied Nisibis from 630 to 632. After the Muslim victory at the Battle of Jalula in April 637, Muslim forces marched north and established control over Sasanian Upper Mesopotamia, and annexed Arbayistan in 638. Arbayistan's position on the Silk Road provided the province with a large income derived from custom-houses along the roads as well as from traffic on the rivers.
List of wars before 1000
This is a list of wars that began before 1000 AD. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.
Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrow II was overthrown and executed by his son Kavad II, who soon sued for a peace treaty, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territory.
Islamic conquest of PersiaArab conquest of IranArab invasion of Iran
He afterward turned his energies towards his traditional Byzantine enemies, leading to the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. For a few years, he succeeded gloriously. From 612 to 622, he extended the Persian borders almost to the same extent that they were under the Achaemenid dynasty (550–330 BC), capturing Western states as far as Egypt, Palestine (the conquest of the latter being assisted by a Jewish army), and more. The Byzantines regrouped and pushed back in 622 under Heraclius. Khosrau was defeated at the Battle of Nineveh in 627, and the Byzantines recaptured all of Syria and penetrated far into the Persian provinces of Mesopotamia.
Emperor PhocasFlavius PhocasFlavius Phocas Augustus
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus; Φωκᾶς, Phokas; c. 547 – 5 October 610) was Byzantine Emperor from 602 to 610. The early life of Phocas is largely unknown, but he rose to prominence in 602, as a leader in the revolt against Emperor Maurice. Phocas captured Constantinople and overthrew Maurice on 23 November 602, and declared himself Byzantine Emperor on the same day. Phocas deeply distrusted the elite of Constantinople, and therefore installed his relatives in high military positions, and brutally purged his opponents.
Muslim conquest of SyriaMuslim conquestSyria
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām), also known as the Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century. This was the conquest of the region known as the Levant or Shaam (شَـام, 'Syria'), later to become the Islamic Province of Bilad al-Sham, as part of the Islamic conquests.
status quo anteNonepre-war status quo
An early example is the treaty that ended the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 between the Eastern Roman and the Sasanian Persian Empires. The Persians had occupied Asia Minor, Palestine and Egypt. After a successful Roman counteroffensive in Mesopotamia finally brought about the end of the war, the integrity of Rome's eastern frontier as it was prior to 602 was fully restored. Both empires were exhausted after this war, and neither was ready to defend itself when the armies of Islam emerged from Arabia in 632. Another example is the sixteenth-century Abyssinian–Adal war between the Muslim Adal Sultanate and Christian Ethiopian Empire which ended in a stalemate.
EgyptianEGYArab Republic of Egypt
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Sasanian Persian invasion early in the 7th century amidst the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 during which they established a new short-lived province for ten years known as Sasanian Egypt, until 639–42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs. When they defeated the Byzantine armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.
Nicetas remained governor of Egypt (or at least Alexandria) thereafter, and participated also in the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628, but failed to stop the Sassanid conquest of Egypt ca. 618/619. He disappears from the sources thereafter, but possibly served as Exarch of Africa until his death. Nicetas was the son of the patrikios Gregoras, the brother of the Exarch of Africa Heraclius the Elder, under whom he served as magister militum in Africa. When Heraclius the Elder launched a rebellion against the usurper Phocas in 608, Nicetas and his father supported it.
Khosrau IChosroes IChosroes
Khosrow I (also spelled Khosrau, Khusro or Chosroes; ; New Persian: خسرو), traditionally known by his epithet of Anushirvan ("the Immortal Soul"), was Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 531 to 579. He was the son and successor of Kavad I ((r. 488 – 496)).
Germanus (Γερμανός; died 604) was a Byzantine general who served under Emperor Phocas (r. 602–610) in the early stages of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. Germanus is possibly the same as the dux of Phoenice, who was chosen by the army as its leader during the mutiny at Monocarton in Easter 588, in place of Priscus. Although Germanus restored discipline and led the army to a victory against the Persians, he was tried and found guilty by a subsequent tribunal. Sentenced to death, he was quickly pardoned and received rewards from Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602).
Siege of Darabesieged and capturedcapture
The Siege of Dara occurred in 573, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. The siege lasted 4 months and ended with the city's fall to the Sasanian Persians. The news of the fall of Dara, long a major Byzantine stronghold in Upper Mesopotamia, reportedly drove Emperor Justin II insane. The Sasanians used captured Roman ballistae from the abandoned Roman Siege of Nisibis (573). Bahram Chobin was commander of the cavalry force in the siege, and was promoted to the spahbed of the North after this victory. * http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dara-the-name-of-a-parthian-city-and-of-a-byzantine-garrison-town-of-the-sasanian-period.
Theodosius (Θεοδόσιος; August 4, 583/585 – after November 27, 602) was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602. Along with his father-in-law Germanus, he was briefly proposed as successor to Maurice by the troops, but the army eventually favoured Phocas instead. Sent in an abortive mission to secure aid from Sassanid Persia by his father, Theodosius was captured and executed by Phocas's supporters a few days after Maurice.
Siege of JerusalemJerusalemlost in Jerusalem in 614
The Sasanian Empire conquered Jerusalem after a brief siege in 614, during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, after the Persian Shah Khosrau II appointed his general Shahrbaraz to conquer the Byzantine controlled areas of the Near East. Following the victory in Antioch, Shahrbaraz conquered Caesarea Maritima, the administrative capital of the province. By this time the grand inner harbor had silted up and was useless, however the Emperor Anastasius had reconstructed the outer harbor and Caesarea remained an important maritime city, providing the Persian Empire with access to the Mediterranean Sea.
Shahin is first mentioned in 602, after the outbreak of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, where he commanded the forces invading Byzantine territory in the Transcaucasia, winning a battle against Domentziolus near Theodosiopolis in 607/8. Following the expulsion of Roman forces from that region, in 611 Shahin led an advance into Anatolia, capturing Caesarea. There, Phocas' son-in-law Priscus, started a year-long siege to trap them inside the city. However, Shahin's troops escaped Priscus' blockade and burned Caesarea, much to Heraclius' displeasure.
Theodore (Theodorus, Θεόδωρος; fl. c. 610 – 636) was the brother (or half-brother) of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), a curopalates and leading general in Heraclius' wars against the Persians and against the Arab invasions.
Adarmahān (in Greek sources given as Ἀδααρμάνης, Adaarmanes; fl. late 6th century) was a Persian general active in the western frontier of the Sassanid Empire against the East Roman (Byzantine) forces, during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591. Adarmahān is recorded as a marzbān (general of a frontier province, "margrave"), probably of Nisibis, by the Syriac historian John of Ephesus. He was posted at Nisibis in 573, when the Persian king, Khosrau I (r. 531–579), sent him at the head of an army to invade the Roman province of Syria. He devastated the province, sacked the city of Apamea, capturing several thousand prisoners, and defeated a small Roman force under general Magnus.
Ashtat Yeztayar was an Iranian military officer under the Sasanian king Khosrow II (r. 590–628).
Rebellion against Phocasrevolt of Heracliusrevolted
The Exarch of Africa Heraclius the Elder and his namesake son Heraclius the Younger began a rebellion against the Byzantine emperor Phocas in 608. In October 610, Heraclius the Younger reached Constantinople, executed Phocas, and was proclaimed as emperor, establishing the Heraclian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
For most of the 20th century, the establishment of the themes was attributed to the Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), during the last of the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars. Most notable amongst the supporters of this thesis was George Ostrogorsky who based this opinion on an extract from the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor mentioning the arrival of Heraclius "in the lands of the themes" for the year 622. According to Ostrogorsky, this "shows that the process of establishing troops (themes) in specific areas of Asia Minor has already begun at this time."
Battle of Antiochthe victory in AntiochAntioch, 613 Battle of
The Battle of Antioch took place in 613 outside Antioch, Syria between a Byzantine army led by emperor Heraclius and a Persian Sassanid army under generals (spahbed) Shahin and Shahrbaraz as part of the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. The victorious Persians were able to maintain a hold on the recently taken Byzantine territory. The victory paved the way for further Sasanian advance into the Levant and Anatolia. Beginning in 610, under Generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin, the Persian army conquered Byzantine-controlled territories in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Kurdistan) and the Caucasus.