Ten years later, in 620 or more likely 622, it was captured by the Sassanid Persians during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. Although the city returned to Byzantine hands after the end of the war, the Persian presence left traces in the city's archaeology, and likely began the process of its transformation from a late antique city to a medieval fortified settlement. In 654, the city was captured for the first time by the Arabs of the Rashidun Caliphate, under Muawiyah, the future founder of the Umayyad Caliphate.
EmesaHimsEmirate of Homs
During the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Emesa fell in 613 to Shahrbaraz and was in Sasanian hands until near the end of the war. Prior to the Muslim conquest of Syria, Arab tribes, particularly the Banu Kalb settled around Emesa, ensuring its position as an important Yamani center. The Byzantine emperor Heraclius abandoned the city—which served as his headquarters —after his army's defeat by the Rashidun Muslims under Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab during the Battle of Yarmouk in southern Syria. In 637 CE, the Rashidun army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Emesa peacefully because its inhabitants agreed to pay a substantial ransom of 71,000 to 170,000 dinars.
Gülek PassBarbaronCicilian Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m.
Tamkhosrau or Tamkhusro ("strong Khosrau", in Greek sources rendered as Ταμχοσρώ or Ταμχοσρόης, Tamchosroes), was a Sassanid Persian general active in the Roman–Persian Wars of the late 6th century. As his honorific name indicates, he was a highly regarded man among the Persians, and one of the chief generals of the shah Khosrau I (r. 531–579).
John, surnamed Mystacon, "the mustachioed", (Ἰωάννης ὀ Μυστάκων, fl. 580–590), was a prominent East Roman (Byzantine) general in the wars with Sassanid Persia during the reigns of Byzantine emperors Tiberius II (r. 578–582) and Maurice (r. 582–602).
In 614, the Sasanian Persians sacked Adraa during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, but spared the inhabitants. Some of the Jewish tribes that Muhammad expelled from Medina settled in Adraa, which in Arabic was called Adra'at. According to Ibn Hisham and al-Waqidi, 9th-century biographers of the Muhammad, the Banu Nadir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes immigrated to Adhri'at following their expulsion from Medina. Historian Moshe Sharon dismisses that assertion however, citing the absence of their claims in any Jewish sources and the earlier Muslim reports.
Solachon586 invasion of Byzantine EmpireSolachon, Battle of
The engagement was part of the long and inconclusive Byzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591. The Battle of Solachon ended in a major Byzantine victory which improved the Byzantine position in Mesopotamia, but it was not in the end decisive. The war dragged on until 591, when it ended with a negotiated settlement between Maurice and the Persian shah Khosrau II (r. 590–628). In the days before the battle, Philippicus, newly assigned to the Persian front, moved to intercept an anticipated Persian invasion. He chose to deploy his army at Solachon, controlling the various routes of the Mesopotamian plain, and especially access to the main local watering source, the Arzamon river.
Bonus (, died 627) was a Byzantine statesman and general, one of the closest associates of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), who played a leading role in the successful defense of the imperial capital, Constantinople, during the Avar–Persian siege of 626.
Siege of ConstantinopleFirst Siege of Constantinoplebesieged Constantinople
Byzantine-Sassanid Wars. Siege of Constantinople (674).
hexagramsilver imperial coin
The hexagram (ἑξάγραμμα, hexagramma) was a large silver coin of the Byzantine Empire issued primarily during the 7th century AD.
Mesopotamiadux MesopotamiaeRoman Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca. 198, which ranged between the Roman and the Sassanid empires, until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.
Emperor Heraclius travelled through the city en route to Atropatene in 623 during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The Arab siege of Nakhichevan in 650 led Theodore Rshtuni to conclude a truce. After the rebellion of 703, Muhammad ibn Marwan had the rebel nobles burnt alive in churches in Nakhichevan and Goghtn in 705. Nakhichevan temporarily came under the control of the Kingdom of Armenia in c. 900, but was swiftly taken by Muhammad ibn Abi'l-Saj. The city was the temporary refuge of Atabeg Nusrat al-Din Abu Bakr after his defeat at the Battle of Shamkor in 1195, and Nakhichevan was conquered by the Kingdom of Georgia in 1197.
In 622/3, during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Rhodes was captured by the Sasanian navy. Rhodes was occupied by the Islamic Umayyad forces of Caliph Muawiyah I in 654, who carried off the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes. The island was again captured by the Arabs in 673 as part of their first attack on Constantinople. When their fleet was destroyed by Greek fire before Constantinople and by storms on its return trip, however, the island was evacuated in 679/80 as part of the Byzantine–Umayyad peace treaty. In 715 the Byzantine fleet dispatched against the Arabs launched a rebellion at Rhodes, which led to the installation of Theodosios III on the Byzantine throne.
Shahraplakan, rendered Sarablangas in Greek sources, was a Sassanid Persian general who participated in the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. Shahraplakan first appears in 624, when the Persian shah Khosrau II (r. 590–628) entrusted him with the command of the so-called "New Army", composed of the regiments of Khosroēgetai and Perozitai according to Theophanes the Confessor. With this army, Shahraplakan was to counter the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), who had invaded Persarmenia and was wintering in Caucasian Albania.
The entire area of the former diocese came under Sassanid Persian occupation in the 610s and 620s, during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. Shortly after the Byzantine victory in the war and the recovery of the region, it was again lost, this time permanently, to the Muslim conquests: by the 640s, Cilicia formed the border between Byzantium and the new Arab Caliphate, while Cyprus became a disputed territory. From the old provinces of the Diocese of the East, only Isauria and parts of the two Cilicias remained under Byzantine rule, grouped under the new Anatolic Theme. Lollianus Mavortius (330–336). Felicianus (335–?). Nebridius (354–358). Domitius Modestus (358–362).
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were an alliance of several groups of Eurasian nomads of unknown origins.
Justinian (Iustinianus, after 525–582) was an East Roman (Byzantine) aristocrat and general, and a member of the ruling Justinian dynasty. As a soldier, he had a distinguished career in the Balkans and in the East against Sassanid Persia. In his later years, he plotted unsuccessfully against regent and later emperor Tiberius II (r. 574–582).
besiegedSiege of Nisibislaid siege
The Siege of Nisibis took place in 573 when the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, under Emperor Justin II, besieged the Sasanian city of Nisibis. The Sasanians successfully defended the city and defeated the Roman force.
Fifty Years Peace" of DaraFifty Years' PeaceFifty-Year Peace
The Treaty of Dara, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty concluded between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) and Sassanid (Persian) empires at the frontier town of Dara in what is now southern Turkey in 562. The treaty, negotiated by Peter the Patrician for the Byzantine emperor Justinian I and Izadgushasp for the Sassanid king Khosrau I ended the 20-year-long war over the Caucasian kingdom of Lazica.
Hormizd IV (also spelled Hormozd IV or Ohrmazd IV; ; New Persian: هرمز چهارم) was Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 579 to 590. He was the son and successor of Khosrow I ((r. 531 – 579)) and his mother was a Khazar princess.
Battle of NinevehNinevehbattle
The Battle of Nineveh was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. In mid-September 627, Heraclius invaded the Sasanian heartland in a surprising, risky winter campaign. Khosrow II appointed Rhahzadh as the commander of an army to confront him. Heraclius' Gokturk allies quickly deserted, while Rhahzadh's reinforcements did not arrive in time. in the ensuing battle, Rhahzadh was slain and the remaining Sasanians retreated. The Byzantine victory later resulted in civil war in Persia and for a period of time restored the (Eastern) Roman Empire to its ancient boundaries in the Middle East.
PalestinePalestina PrimaPalaestina I
Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century. It was lost to the Sassanid Empire in 614, but was re-annexed in 628, before its final loss during the Muslim conquest of Syria in 636.
Kavadh IIKavad II SheroeSiroes
His father's reputation had been ruined during the last phase of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. In 627, the Sasanian general Rhahzadh was slain and Dastgerd, the king's favorite residence, had been sacked into oblivion by Byzantine emperor Heraclius, who was advancing towards the nearby Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon. In 628, Sheroe was released by the feudal families of the Sasanian Empire, which included the Ispahbudhan spahbed ("army chief") Farrukh Hormizd and his two sons Rostam Farrokhzad and Farrukhzad; Shahrbaraz of the House of Mihran; the Armenian faction represented by Varaztirots II Bagratuni and finally the kanarang of the eastern Sasanian province of Abarshahr.
EgyptRoman EgyptRoman period
The Roman province of Egypt (Aegyptus, ;, ) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future Roman emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Pharaoh Cleopatra, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt except for the Sinai Peninsula (which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Crete and Cyrenaica to the west and Judea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East.
Byzantium also sought alliances with the Göktürks against common enemies: in the early 7th century, one such alliance was brokered with the Western Tűrks against the Persian Sasanians in the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The Byzantines called Khazaria Tourkía, and by the 9th century referred to the Khazars as 'Turks'. During the period leading up to and after the siege of Constantinople in 626, Heraclius sought help via emissaries, and eventually personally, from a Göktürk chieftain of the Western Tűrkic Qağanate, Tong Yabghu Qağan, in Tiflis, plying him with gifts and the promise of marriage to his daughter, Epiphania.