Rashidun army

Muslim armyarmyRashidun Caliphate army
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy. The Rashidun army maintained a high level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization.

Arab–Byzantine wars

Arab–Byzantine WarByzantine-Arab WarsByzantine–Arab Wars
The Arab–Byzantine wars were a series of wars between the mostly Arab Muslims and the Byzantine Empire between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, started during the initial Muslim conquests under the expansionist Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs in the 7th century and continued by their successors until the mid-11th century.


initiated contactssent an embassy
Zemarchus (Ζήμαρχος, fl. c. 569) was a Byzantine official, diplomat and traveller in the reign of Justin II.

Muslim conquest of Egypt

EgyptArab conquest of EgyptIslamic conquest of Egypt
The Muslim conquest of Egypt refers to the invasion of Roman Egypt, then part of the Byzantine Empire, by the Rashidun Caliphate between 639 and 646. Egypt had been also conquered just a decade earlier by the Persian Sassanid Empire under Khosrau II (616–629); however, the Byzantine emperor, Heraclius, recaptured it after a series of campaigns against the Sassanids. The Caliphate then took advantage of the Byzantines' exhaustion and captured Egypt ten years after its reconquest by Heraclius.

Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

Umayyad conquest of North AfricaMuslim conquest of North AfricaNorth Africa
The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb continued the century of rapid Muslim conquests following the death of Muhammad in 632 AD and into the Byzantine-controlled territories of Northern Africa. In a series of three stages, the conquest of the Maghreb commenced in 647 and concluded in 709 with the "Byzantine" Roman Empire losing its last remaining strongholds to the then-Umayyad Caliphate.

Aksumite–Persian wars

Abyssinian–Persian warsEthiopian–Persian Warsa war between Abyssinian and Persians
In the late sixth century, Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Ethiopia-based Aksumite Empire fought a series of wars over control of the Himyarite Kingdom in Yemen, Southern Arabia. After the Battle of Hadhramaut and the Siege of Sana'a in 570, the Aksumites were expelled from the Arabian peninsula. They had re-established their power there by 575 or 578, when another Persian army invaded Yemen and re-established the deposed king on his throne as their client. It marked the end of Ethiopian rule in Arabia.

Kingdom of Aksum

AksumiteAksumKingdom of Axum
The Kingdom of Aksum, also known as the Kingdom of Axum or the Aksumite Empire, was an ancient kingdom centered in what is now Eritrea and the Tigray Region of northern Ethiopia. Axumite Emperors were powerful sovereigns, styling themselves King of kings, king of Aksum, Himyar, Raydan, Saba, Salhen, Tsiyamo, Beja and of Kush. Ruled by the Aksumites, it existed from approximately 100 AD to 940 AD. The polity was centered in the city of Axum and grew from the proto-Aksumite Iron Age period around the 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Aksum became a major player on the commercial route between the Roman Empire and Ancient India.

Himyarite Kingdom

The Ḥimyarite Kingdom (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Himyaritic: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen. Established in 110 BCE, it took as its capital the ancient city of Zafar, to be followed at the beginning of the 4th century by what is the modern-day city of Sana'a. The kingdom conquered neighbouring Saba' in c. 25 BCE (for the first time), Qataban in c. 200 CE, and Haḍramaut c. 300 CE. Its political fortunes relative to Saba' changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean Kingdom around 280.


Roman centurioncenturionscenturio
A centurion (centurio;, kentyríōn or ἑκατόνταρχος, hekatóntarkhos) was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Centurions originally commanded a hundred men (a century) of around 80 legionaries, with the other 20 being servants and orderlies, but senior centurions commanded cohorts or took senior staff roles in their legion. Centurions were also found in the Roman navy. In the Byzantine Army, they were also known by the name kentarch (κένταρχος, kentarchos). Their symbol of office was the vine staff, with which they disciplined even Roman citizens protected from other forms of beating by the Porcian Laws.

Hippodrome of Constantinople

HippodromeSultanahmet Squarecity hippodrome
The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. Today it is a square named Sultanahmet Meydanı (Sultan Ahmet Square) in the Turkish city of Istanbul, with a few fragments of the original structure surviving.


LakhmidLakhmLakhmid Arabs
The Lakhmids referred to in Arabic as al-Manādhirah or Banu Lakhm were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD. They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sassanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars. While the term "Lakhmids" has also been applied to the ruling dynasty, more recent scholarship prefers to refer to the latter as the Naṣrids.


Edessa, MesopotamiaUrhaal-Ruha
Edessa (الرها; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca. 302 BC. It was also known as Antiochia on the Callirhoe from the 2nd century BC. It was the capital of the semi-independent kingdom of Osroene from c. 132 BC and fell under direct Roman rule in ca. 242. It became an important early centre of Syriac Christianity.


GhassanidGhassanBanu Ghassan
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were a pre-Islamic Arab tribe which founded an Arab kingdom. They immigrated from Yemen in the early 3rd century to the Levant region. Some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD, while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.


ArmenianArmenian peopleArmenian descent
Armenians (հայեր, hayer ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.


comes excubitorumExcubitoresExkoubitoi
The Excubitors (excubitores or excubiti, literally "those out of bed", i.e. "sentinels"; transcribed into Greek as ἐξκουβίτορες or ἐξκούβιτοι) were founded in c. 460 as the imperial guards of the early Byzantine emperors. Their commanders soon acquired great influence and provided a series of emperors in the 6th century. The Excubitors fade from the record in the late 7th century, but in the mid-8th century, they were reformed into one of the elite tagmatic units, the professional core of the middle Byzantine army. The Excubitors are last attested in the Battle of Dyrrhachium in 1081.

Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).

Anastasius II of Antioch

Anastasius IIAnastasius of AntiochAnastasius XII
Anastasius II of Antioch, also known as Anastasius the Younger, succeeded Anastasius of Antioch as Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, in 599. He is known for his opposition and suppression of simony in his diocese, with the support of Pope Gregory the Great. In 609 Anastasius is said to have been murdered during an uprising of Syrian Jews against Emperor Phocas, although some Monophysite locals or soldiers have also been suggested.

Patriarch of Alexandria

AlexandriaPatriarchate of AlexandriaBishop of Alexandria
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation "pope" (etymologically "Father", like "Abbot").

John the Merciful

John the AlmonerJohn the AlmsgiverPatriarch John V of Alexandria
Saint John the Merciful, also known as St John the Almsgiver, John the Almoner, John V of Alexandria, John Eleymon, and Johannes Eleemon, was the Chalcedonian Patriarch of Alexandria in the early 7th century (from 606 to 616) and a Christian saint. He is the patron saint of Casarano, Italy and of Limassol, Cyprus.

Martina (empress)

MartinaEmpress MartinaEmpress of Byzantium
Martina (died after 641) was the second empress of the Byzantine Empire by marriage to Heraclius, and regent in 641 with her son. She was a daughter of Maria, Heraclius' sister, and a certain Martinus. Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania according to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor.

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

Patriarch of ConstantinopleEcumenical PatriarchPatriarch
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch"; Konstantinopolis ekümenik patriği; Ottoman Turkish: patrik, Patriarche de Constantinople) is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is widely regarded as the representative and spiritual leader of the 300 million Eastern Orthodox Christians worldwide.

Comentiolus (brother of Phocas)

Comentiolus or Komentiolos (Κομεντίολος; died 610/611) was the brother of the Byzantine emperor Phocas (r. 602–610).


royal fisc(fiscal)fiscal land
Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (from Latin fiscus, whence we derive "fiscal") applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was. Though their personal territory was at first enormous, the Merovingian kings, faced with stiff resistance to taxation from their Frankish and Gallo-Roman subjects and ill-served by their illiterate peers, relied on constant conquests to renew the fisc which they were in the habit of granting away to ensure continued fidelity among their followers.


MaridinMardin, TurkeyMérida
Mardin (, Mêrdîn, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: ماردين Mārdīn) is a city in southeastern Turkey. The capital of Mardin Province, it is known for the Artuqid (Artıklı or Artuklu in Turkish) architecture of its old city, and for its strategic location on a rocky hill near the Tigris River that rises steeply over the flat plains.