Korean Empire

KoreaEmpire of KoreaGreat Korean Empire
The Gwangmu reform was aimed at modernizing and westernizing Korea as a late starter in the industrial revolution. The first legislation enacted by the new state was the 1897 Law on Weights and Measures standardizing Korea's various local systems of traditional weights and measures. The same year, the cadastral survey project was launched by the Gwangmu government, aiming at modernizing the landownership system. In order to apply Western surveying methods, American surveyors were hired. After the survey, a property title, "Jigye", showing the exact dimension of the land, were supposed to be issued by the authorities concerned.

Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform

Gwangmu Reform timeline
Phase two of the Gwangmu Reform began with the proclamation of the Korean Empire on 4 October 1897. Efforts for modernisation were spurred with the coronation of Gojong as Emperor but were restrained by Japan after the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. The main innovator in this phase is Emperor Gojong. This was the darkest period of the Gwangmu Reform, ending with the annexation of Korea by Japan on the 29th of August, 1910. * Yang, Sang Hyun. The Management of Military Budget and Military Reform of the Korean Empire. Thesis. Ulsan University, 2007. Print. * Yi, T'ae-jin. "The Scene of Modernization." Reillumination upon the Gojong Era. Seoul: Taehaksa, 2000. 231-402. Print. 1883: March.

Korea under Japanese rule

KoreaJapanese KoreaJapanese occupation
Japanese rule prioritized Korea's Japanization, accelerating industrialization started by the Gwangmu Reform, building public works, and fighting the Korean independence movement. Japanese rule over Korea ended on 15 August 1945 upon the Surrender of Japan in World War II and the armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union occupied the territory. The Division of Korea separated the Korean Peninsula under two governments and economic systems with the northern Soviet Civil Administration and the southern United States Army Military Government in Korea.

Land registration

Land Registryland titlesland register
Now operating the system of accounting and registration of rights to immovable property in Russia can not be called a complete system or Torrens cadastral system, although some of its elements and principles correspond to the Torrens title. Accounting for land, buildings and natural sites organized in Russia in the database of real estate cadastre of the State on the basis of a federal law in 2007 № 221-FZ "On State Real Estate Cadastre".

International Federation of Surveyors

FIGFédération internationale des géomètresFIG, Federation Internationale des Geometres
The International Office of Cadastre and Land Records (Office International du Cadastre et du Régime Foncier – OICRF). International Institution for the History of Surveying and Measurement. This was formally established in 1998, continuing the work of an ad-hoc commission set up by FIG in about 1980. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Canadian Institute of Geomatics.

Gojong of Korea

GojongEmperor GojongKing Gojong
He tried to promote the ultimately unsuccessful Gwangmu Reform. In 1904-5, the Japanese military achieved a comprehensive victory in the Russo-Japanese War. Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, Gojong sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 in order to try to re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.

Land lot

Cadastre. City planning. Landlocked parcel. Site plan. Stand level modelling. Zoning.


Plattedlaid outPlat map
In the United States, a plat ( or ) (plan) is a cadastral map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. United States General Land Office surveyors drafted township plats of Public Lands Surveys to show the distance and bearing between section corners, sometimes including topographic or vegetation information. City, town or village plats show subdivisions into blocks with streets and alleys. Further refinement often splits blocks into individual lots, usually for the purpose of selling the described lots; this has become known as subdivision. After the filing of a plat, legal descriptions can refer to block and lot-numbers rather than portions of sections.

Boundary (real estate)

boundaryboundariesproperty line
Digital Cadastral DataBase. National territories and borders. Redistribution, land consolidation. Surveying, Coordinate system. Territory (administrative division). Title (property). Commons.


Cadastre. Dominium. Owned, a slang term for dominance or control. Ownership society. Possession (law). Public ownership.

Chain (unit)

In India, a revenue chain with 16 links and of length is used in cadastral surveys. Also in North America, a variant of the chain is used in forestry for traverse surveys. This modern chain is a static cord (thin rope) 50 metres long, marked with a small tag at each metre, and also marked in the first metre every decimetre. When working in dense bush, a short axe or hatchet is commonly tied to the end of the chain, and thrown through the bush in the direction of the traverse. Another version used extensively in forestry and surveying is the hip-chain: a small box containing a string counter, worn on the hip.

Public Land Survey System

PLSSPublic Lands Survey Systemsurvey
National Land Information System (NILS) - Cadastral records and land parcel information including GeoCommunicator below. NILS GeoCommunicator - Cadastral records and land parcel information. U.S. Geological Survey. National Geodetic Survey. American Congress on Surveying & Mapping. TRS data to latitude/longitude calculator - for 17 western U.S. states. www.resurvey.org - reference for land surveyors working in the PLSS. Federal Township Plats of Illinois, 1804-1891 from the Illinois State Archives. Researching New Mexico Land Grants. IIC Minnesota Historical Vegetation. The Minnesota Bearing Tree Database. The Principal Meridian Project.

Cadastral surveying

cadastral surveycadastralland survey
Cadastral surveying is the sub-field of cadastre and surveying that specialises in the establishment and re-establishment of real property boundaries. It is an important component of the legal creation of properties. A cadastral surveyor must apply both the spatial-measurement principles of general surveying and legal principles such as respect of neighboring titles. One of the primary roles of the land surveyor is to determine the boundary of real property on the ground. That boundary has already been established and described in legal documents and official plans and maps prepared by attorneys, engineers, and other land surveyors.

Land information system

Land Information SystemsLIS
A land Information System (LIS) is a geographic information system for cadastral and land-use mapping, typically used by local governments.

Spatial data infrastructure

SDIinfrastructure for spatial informationSpatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
Processing services - such as datum and projection transformations, or the transformation of cadastral survey observations and owner requests into Cadastral documentation. (Spatial) data repository - to store data, e.g., a spatial database. GIS software (client or desktop) - to create and update spatial data. GeoSUR. GEOSS. GMES. INSPIRE. UNSDI. GIS file formats. GIS software. The INSPIRE Directive: a brief description (JRC Audiovisuals). GSDI 11 World Conference: The Geo-Spatial event of 2009, Rotterdam The Netherlands. International Cartographic Association (ICA), the world body for mapping and GIScience professionals. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) Association.


surveyorsurveyland surveyor
Cadastral land surveyors are licensed by governments. The cadastral survey branch of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) conducts most cadastral surveys in the United States. They consult with Forest Service, National Park Service, Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and others. The BLM used to be known as the General Land Office (GLO). In states organized per the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), surveyors must carry out BLM cadastral surveys under that system. Cadastral surveyors often have to work around changes to the earth that obliterate or damage boundary monuments.


Mapspolitical mapelectronic map
Cadastral map. Climatic map. Geologic map. Nautical map. Physical map. Political map. Relief map. Resource map. Star map. Street map. Thematic map. Topographic map. Weather map. World map. Within Russia, Google Maps shows Crimea as part of Russia. Both the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China require that all maps show areas subject to the Sino-Indian border dispute in their own favor. Counter-mapping. Map–territory relation. Censorship of maps. List of online map services. Map collection. Automatic label placement. City map. Compass rose. Contour map. Estate map. Fantasy map. Floor plan. Geologic map. Hypsometric tints. Map design.

Real estate

real-estateluxury real estateland
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing." It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.

Real property

landimmovable propertyrealty
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, and continues to be, all property that is not real property.

Metes and bounds

Metes and bounds is a system or method of describing land, real property (in contrast to personal property) or real estate. Newer systems include rectangular (government survey), lot and block (recorded plat) and Torrens (used in Hawaii, California, Colorado, Australia, New Zealand and Canada). The system has been used in England for many centuries, and is still used there in the definition of general boundaries. The system is also used in the Canadian province of Ontario. By custom, it was applied in the original Thirteen Colonies that became the United States, and in many other land jurisdictions based on English common law, including Zimbabwe, South Africa, India and Bangladesh.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth.

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2 ), it is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Chang Myon

John M. ChangJohn ChangJohn Myun Chang
Chang Myon (hangul: 장면; hanja: 張勉; August28, 1899 – June4, 1966) was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok . His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name).

Bureau of Land Management

BLMU.S. Bureau of Land ManagementUnited States Bureau of Land Management
Cadastral surveys. The BLM is the official record keeper for over 200 years' worth of cadastral survey records and plats as part of the Public Land Survey System. In addition, the Bureau still completes numerous new surveys each year, mostly in Alaska, and conducts resurveys to restore obliterated or lost original surveys. Abandoned mines. BLM maintains an inventory of known abandoned mines on the lands it manages. As of April 2014, the inventory contained nearly 46,000 sites and 85,000 other features. Approximately 23% of the sites had either been remediated, had reclamation actions planned or underway, or did not require further action. The remaining sites require further investigation.

Public land

public landsstate landpublic
In all modern states, a portion of land is held by central or local governments. This is called public land, state land, or Crown land (Australia, New Zealand and Canada). The system of tenure of public land, and the terminology used, varies between countries. The following examples illustrate some of the range.