Lawsuit

litigationsuedcivil suit
A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil court of law. The archaic term "suit in law" is found in only a small number of laws still in effect today. The term "lawsuit" is used in reference to a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff, a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy. The defendant is required to respond to the plaintiff's complaint.

Bureaucracy

bureaucraticbureaucraciesbureaucrat
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elected government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or privately owned. The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm.

Enlightenment Party

Gabo governmentGaehwapaReformist Faction
The Enlightenment Party of the Joseon (hangul: 개화당, hanja: 開化黨, romanization: Gaehwadang) was a Korean progressive party founded after the Imo Incident. Other names they were known by include: Independence Party of the Joseon, the Innovation Party of the Joseon, and the Reformist Faction. They tried to cut off the submissive relationship Korea had to the Qing dynasty, they were opposed to what they called the Conservative Party (hangul: 수구당) a group supporting Empress Myeongseong, and they reformed domestic affairs emulating the Empire of Japan's Meiji Restoration. They were also the organization that tried to found an independent Joseon nation.

Land tenure

landownerlandownersland ownership
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land. It determines who can use land, for how long and under what conditions. Tenure may be based both on official laws and policies, and on informal customs. In other words, land tenure system implies a system according to which land is held by an individual or the actual tiller of the land. It determines the owners rights and responsibilities in connection with their holding. The French verb "tenir" means "to hold" and "tenant" is the present participle of "tenir". The sovereign monarch, known as The Crown, held land in its own right.

Satellite navigation

GNSSnavigation satelliteglobal navigation satellite system
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few centimeters to metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation.

Social equality

equalityequal rightsequality rights
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, possibly including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and social services. However, it may also include health equality, economic equality and other social securities. Social equality requires the absence of legally enforced social class or caste boundaries and the absence of discrimination motivated by an inalienable part of a person's identity.

Value (economics)

valueeconomic valuemonetary value
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent. It is generally measured relative to units of currency, and the interpretation is therefore "what is the maximum amount of money a specific actor is willing and able to pay for the good or service"?

Bon-gwan

Korean clansKorean clanclan
Bon-gwan is the concept of clan in Korea, which is used to distinguish clans that happen to share a same family name (clan name). Since Korea has been traditionally a Confucian country, this clan system is similar to ancient Chinese distinction of clan names or xing and lineage names or shi .

Cheonmin

cheonmin peoplecommoner statusgwanno
Cheonmin, or "vulgar commoners," were the lowest caste of commoners in dynastical Korea. They abounded during the Goryeo (918–1392) and Joseon (1392–1897) periods of Korea's agrarian bureaucracy.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic language), and to a greater extent by Latin and French.

Serfdom

serfserfsvillagers
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude, which developed during the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
French (le français, or la langue française ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders.

Late Latin

Low LatinLatinancient Latin
Late Latin (Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, and continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula. This somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style.

Baekjeong

Korean caste systemuntouchables
The Baekjeong (Korean: 백정) were an "untouchable" minority group of Korea. In the early part of the Goryeo period (918–1392), these minority groups were largely settled in fixed communities. However, the Mongol invasion left Korea in disarray and anomie, and these groups became nomadic. Other subgroups of the baekjeong are the ‘chaein’ and the ‘hwachae’. During the Joseon dynasty, they were specific professions like basket weaving and performing executions. In the Goryeo period, baekjeong was used as a term to refer to the common people group. However, in Choson dynasty, it was refer to the lowest class of people and insulting title.

Poll tax

head taxpoll taxespoll-tax
A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.

Uniform

uniformsservice uniformScout uniform
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity. Modern uniforms are most often worn by armed forces and paramilitary organizations such as police, emergency services, security guards, in some workplaces and schools and by inmates in prisons. In some countries, some other officials also wear uniforms in their duties; such is the case of the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service or the French prefects. For some organizations, such as police, it may be illegal for non members to wear the uniform.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
For the Greek language used during particular eras; see Proto-Greek, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek and Modern Greek.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
Prussia (Preußen, Old Prussian: Prūsa or Prūsija) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital first in Königsberg and then, in 1701, in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

Public administration

administrationpublic officepublic management
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function".

Tax

taxationtaxeslevy
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures. A failure to pay, along with evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. The first known taxation took place in Ancient Egypt around 3000–2800 BC.

County

countiesparishescomté
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. The modern French is, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc. (compare conte, comte, conde, Graf).

Berdan rifle

BerdanBerdan IIBerdan rifles
The Berdan rifle (винтовка Бердана/vintovka Berdana in Russian) is a Russian rifle created by the American firearms expert and inventor Hiram Berdan in 1868. It was standard issue in the Russian army from 1870 to 1891, when it was replaced by the Mosin–Nagant rifle. It was widely used in Russia as a hunting weapon, and sporting variants, including shotguns, were produced until the mid-1930s.

Parish (administrative division)

parishes (administrative divisions)parishparishes
A parish is an administrative division used by several countries. In all parts of the British Isles except Scotland and Wales, it is known as a civil parish to distinguish it from the ecclesiastical parish.

Riding (country subdivision)

ridingridingsRidings of Yorkshire
A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries.

Hundred (county division)

hundredwapentakehundreds
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Norway. It is still used in other places, including South Australia and the Northern Territory.