Clean Air Act (United States)

Clean Air ActClean Air Act of 1970U.S. Clean Air Act
The Volkswagen emissions scandal (2015), etc. Caterpillar and five other manufacturers violated diesel engine emission standards (consent decree, July 1999). Alleged violations by Hyundai and Kia which resulted in a total $100 million in civil penalties paid to the United States and to the California Air Resources Board. Clean Air Act (disambiguation). Air quality law. United States environmental law. Alan Carlin, controversy over the [[Clean Air Act (United States)#Proposed endangerment finding related to the Clean Air Act 202(a)|EPA carbon dioxide endangerment finding]]. Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. Emission standard. Emissions trading.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County.

San Joaquin Valley

San Joaquinanother nearby valleyCalifornia valley
Population growth has caused the San Joaquin Valley to rank with Los Angeles and Houston in most measures of air pollution. Only the Inland Empire region east of Los Angeles has worse overall air quality, and the San Joaquin Valley led the nation in 2004 in the number of days with quantities of ozone considered unhealthy by the Environmental Protection Agency. The San Joaquin Valley has been deemed an "extreme non-attainment zone" by the Environmental Protection Agency, meaning residents are exposed to air quality that is confirmed to be hazardous to human health. Although industrial activity, as well as driving, occurs year-round, the air pollution is worse in the winter.

Emission standard

emissions standardsemission standardsemissions
In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under federal law, the state of California is allowed to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards (subject to EPA approval), and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards. California had produced air quality standards prior to EPA, with severe air quality problems in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. LA is the country's second-largest city, and relies much more heavily on automobiles and has less favorable meteorological conditions than the largest and third-largest cities (New York and Chicago).

Wildfire

forest fireforest fireswildfires
People are exposed directly to smoke via the respiratory tract though inhalation of air pollutants. Indirectly, communities are exposed to wildfire debris that can contaminate soil and water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Air Quality Index (AQI), a public resource that provides national air quality standard concentrations for common air pollutants. The public can use this index as a tool to determine their exposure to hazardous air pollutants based on visibility range. After a wildfire, hazards remain. Residents returning to their homes may be at risk from falling fire-weakened trees. Humans and pets may also be harmed by falling into ash pits.

Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

Ventura County APCD
NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards). NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants). Pollution in California. Public Smog. South Coast Air Quality Management District. Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health regulation. US Emission standard. Official Ventura County Air Pollution Control District—VCAPCD website. California Local Air District Directory.

Volatile organic compound

volatile organic compoundsVOCVOCs
The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. In the US, regulatory requirements for VOCs vary among the states. Most prominent is the VOC regulation issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California and by the California Air Resources Board (ARB).

1966 New York City smog

1966, November 24smog eventsmog hangs over New York City during Thanksgiving 1966
The air "over much of the eastern half of the country [was] chronically polluted," and the cities with the most intense air pollution were New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. New York City's air pollution was reportedly the worst of any American city. Although the "persistently glaring" photochemical smog of Los Angeles was more visible, more "infamous," and received a greater degree of public attention, New York City had more total emissions and many more emissions proportional to its area.

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.

Exhaust gas

emissionsexhaustemission
Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health say preliminary results of their statistical study of children listed in the California Cancer Registry born between 1998 and 2007 found that traffic pollution may be associated with a 5% to 15% increase in the likelihood of some cancers. A World Health Organization study found that diesel fumes cause an increase in lung cancer. The California Air Resources Board (C.A.R.B.) found in studies that 50% or more of the air pollution (smog) in Southern California is due to car emissions.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 327,167,434 as of July 1, 2018, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day. The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from 76.2 million in 1900 to 281.4 million in 2000.

Environmental Defense Fund

Environmental DefenseThe Environmental Defense FundClimate Corps
The goal is to help reduce methane emissions by 45% by 2025. Funding for the project comes from The Audacious Project, an initiative of the worldwide TED conference group. While MethaneSAT will offer a big-picture view, a complementary satellite by the California Air Resources Board will help identify point-source greenhouse gas emissions. The CARB satellite project was announced in September 2018 at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco by California Governor Jerry Brown: “With science still under attack and the climate threat growing, we’re launching our own damn satellite".

California Environmental Protection Agency

CalEPACalifornia Environmental Protection Agency (CAL EPA)California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA)
California Air Resources Board (ARB). Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR). California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle). Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). California Department of Conservation. Climate change in California. Environmentalism. Kyoto Protocol. Pollution in California. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Emissions trading

cap and tradecap-and-tradeemissions trading scheme
The tentative ruling, issued on 24 January 2011, argued that the California Air Resources Board violated state environmental law by failing to consider such alternatives. If the decision is made final, the state would not be allowed to implement its proposed cap-and-trade system until the California Air Resources Board fully complies with the California Environmental Quality Act. California's cap-and-trade program ranks only second to the ETS (European Trading System) carbon market in the world. In 2012, under the auction, the reserve price, which is the price per ton of CO2 permit is $10.

Ozone

ozonationO 3 ozone generator
The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels, such as Houston or Los Angeles, had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease. Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects. According to scientists with the US EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol. In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 µg/m 3 which is about 60 nmol/mol.

Particulates

particulate matterparticulateaerosol
China has set limits for particulates in the air: The European Union has established the European emission standards, which include limits for particulates in the air: Hong Kong has set limits for particulates in the air: Japan has set limits for particulates in the air: South Korea has set limits for particulates in the air: Taiwan has set limits for particulates in the air: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set standards for PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

National Ambient Air Quality Standards—NAAQSair quality standardsAmbient Air Quality Standards
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country. The standards are listed in. Primary standards are designed to protect human health, with an adequate margin of safety, including sensitive populations such as children, the elderly, and individuals suffering from respiratory diseases.

Diesel exhaust

diesel particulate matterdieseldiesel emissions
To rapidly reduce particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines in California, the California Air Resources Board created the Carl Moyer Program to provide funding for upgrading engines ahead of emissions regulations. In 2008 the California Air Resources Board also implemented the 2008 California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule which requires all heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses, with a few exceptions, that operate in California to either retrofit or replace engines in order to reduce diesel particulate matter.

Port of Long Beach

Long BeachLong Beach Portharbor
Trucks built prior to 1987 that fail to meet the 2007 clean truck standards set forth by the United States Environmental Protection Agency are denied access to port terminals. In compliance with the clean truck initiative on October 1, all trucking companies conducting business with the port must have a port-approved concession outlining the regulations they must abide by. By September 23, 2011, nearly 500 trucking companies had applied for concessions, amounting to more than 6,000 trucks. In 2012 International Longshore and Warehouse Union went on strike, that closed down the ports of and Long Beach and Los Angeles. The eight-day strike cost California about $8 billion.

Atmospheric dispersion modeling

atmospheric dispersion modelatmospheric dispersion modellingatmospheric pollution dispersion model
Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners.

Spare the Air program

Spare the Air
Spare the Air is a program established by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District in 1991 to combat air pollution during the summer in the San Francisco Bay Area, the season when clear skies, hot temperatures, lighter winds, and a strong temperature inversion combine and trap air pollutants near the ground. Spare the Air days are declared for days in which levels of ground-level ozone (a constituent of smog) are predicted to exceed the EPA's federal health-based standard of 84 ppb, or an air quality index over 100.

Volkswagen emissions scandal

Dieselgateemissions scandalrigging of diesel emissions tests
The Volkswagen emissions scandal (also called "emissionsgate" or "dieselgate" ) began in September 2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group. The agency had found that Volkswagen had intentionally programmed turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines to activate their emissions controls only during laboratory emissions testing which caused the vehicles' output to meet US standards during regulatory testing, but emit up to 40 times more in real-world driving.

Outline of air pollution dispersion

LagrangiancontinuouslyLagrangian simulation model
Air pollution dispersion has become the focus of environmental conservationists and governmental environmental protection agencies (local, state, province and national) of many countries (which have adopted and used much of the terminology of this field in their laws and regulations) regarding air pollution control. Air pollution emission plume – flow of pollutant in the form of vapor or smoke released into the air. Plumes are of considerable importance in the atmospheric dispersion modelling of air pollution.

Air pollution forecasting

Air quality forecastingAir pollution forecastsair quality forecasts
Air pollution forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the composition of the Air pollution in the atmosphere for a given location and time. The forecast may give the pollutants concentration or the air quality index. Countries and cities are given forecasts by organizations like the EPA, as well as private companies like AirVisual, Aerostate, BreezoMeter and PlumeLabs that give air pollution forecast. The forecast takes into account local emission sources (like nearby traffic or industry) and remote sources (e.g. dust that is carried by air parcels and follows the wind direction).

Inland Empire

Inland Empire, CaliforniaRiverside–San BernardinoSan Bernardino-Riverside Metropolitan Area
In 2007, the Rialto City council petitioned the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for Superfund status to clean up the origin site. The sites comprising March Air Reserve Base, Norton Air Force Base and the Stringfellow Acid Pits have already been classified as EPA Superfund toxic waste sites. Traffic congestion problems on the roadways, as with elsewhere in Southern California, is the result of the demand for driving exceeding the available capacity, especially on area freeways.