Clean Air Act (United States)

Clean Air ActClean Air Act Amendments of 1990Clean Air Act of 1970
. § 7401) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments. Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Sub-chapter C, Parts 50-97.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
Shasta to Los Angeles. Time-Lapse Tilt-Shift Portrait of California by Ryan and Sheri Killackey. Sixty Years in Southern California 1853–1913... Early City Views (los Angeles). Sixty Years in Southern California 1853–1913... Early City Views (los Angeles).

San Joaquin Valley

San JoaquinSan Joaquin Valley (North)San Joaquin Valley, California
Only the Inland Empire region east of Los Angeles has worse overall air quality, and the San Joaquin Valley led the nation in 2004 in the number of days with quantities of ozone considered unhealthy by the Environmental Protection Agency. The San Joaquin Valley has been deemed an "extreme non-attainment zone" by the Environmental Protection Agency, meaning residents are exposed to air quality that is confirmed to be hazardous to human health. Although industrial activity, as well as driving, occurs year-round, the air pollution is worse in the winter.

Emission standard

emission standardsemissions standardsemissions
In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under federal law, the state of California is allowed to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards (subject to EPA approval), and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards. California had produced air quality standards prior to EPA, with severe air quality problems in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. LA is the country's second-largest city, and relies much more heavily on automobiles and has less favorable meteorological conditions than the largest and third-largest cities (New York and Chicago).

Wildfire

forest fireforest fireswildfires
People are exposed directly to smoke via the respiratory tract though inhalation of air pollutants. Indirectly, communities are exposed to wildfire debris that can contaminate soil and water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the air quality index (AQI), a public resource that provides national air quality standard concentrations for common air pollutants. The public can use this index as a tool to determine their exposure to hazardous air pollutants based on visibility range. After a wildfire, hazards remain. Residents returning to their homes may be at risk from falling fire-weakened trees. Humans and pets may also be harmed by falling into ash pits.

Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

Ventura County APCD
NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards). NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants). Pollution in California. Public Smog. South Coast Air Quality Management District. Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health regulation. US Emission standard. Official Ventura County Air Pollution Control District—VCAPCD website. California Local Air District Directory.

Volatile organic compound

volatile organic compoundsVOCsVOC
The definitions of VOCs used for control of precursors of photochemical smog used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies in the US with independent outdoor air pollution regulations include exemptions for VOCs that are determined to be non-reactive, or of low-reactivity in the smog formation process. In the US, regulatory requirements for VOCs vary among the states. Most prominent is the VOC regulation issued by the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California and by the California Air Resources Board (ARB).

1966 New York City smog

1966, November 24smog eventsmog hangs over New York City during Thanksgiving 1966
Photochemical smog arrived in modern cities in the 1940s and 1950s with the popularization of motor vehicles and development of new power plants. Air pollution in the United States. Urban heat island. Other. 1948 Donora smog. Great Smog of London. Pollution in China. Pollution in California. Pea soup fog. Air quality law. Clean Air Act (United States).

Inland Empire

Inland Empire, CaliforniaRiverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSARiverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area
Air pollution, or suspended particulate matter locally generated from the increased number of automobiles in the area, from point sources such as factories, dust carried into the air by construction activity, and the contribution of similar pollutants from the Los Angeles area has regularly caused the Inland Empire to be at, or near, the bottom of many air quality ratings. In 2004, the EPA rated the San Bernardino-Riverside area as having the worst particulate air pollution in the United States.

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.

Exhaust gas

emissionsexhaustemission
Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health say preliminary results of their statistical study of children listed in the California Cancer Registry born between 1998 and 2007 found that traffic pollution may be associated with a 5% to 15% increase in the likelihood of some cancers. A World Health Organization study found that diesel fumes cause an increase in lung cancer. The California Air Resources Board found in studies that 50% or more of the air pollution (smog) in Southern California is due to car emissions.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 327,167,434 as of July 1, 2018, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day. The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000.

Environmental Defense Fund

Environmental DefenseEnvironmental Defence FundThe Environmental Defense Fund
While MethaneSAT will offer a big-picture view, a complementary satellite by the California Air Resources Board will help identify point-source greenhouse gas emissions. The CARB satellite project was announced in September 2018 at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco by California Governor Jerry Brown: “With science still under attack and the climate threat growing, we’re launching our own damn satellite". Satellite partner Planet has experience with hundreds of satellite launches in the past few years; no launch date was offered.

California Environmental Protection Agency

CalEPACalifornia EPACal/EPA
California Air Resources Board (ARB). Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR). California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle). Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). California Department of Conservation. Climate change in California. Environmentalism. Kyoto Protocol. Pollution in California. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Emissions trading

cap and tradecap-and-tradeemissions trading scheme
The tentative ruling, issued on 24 January 2011, argued that the California Air Resources Board violated state environmental law by failing to consider such alternatives. If the decision is made final, the state would not be allowed to implement its proposed cap-and-trade system until the California Air Resources Board fully complies with the California Environmental Quality Act. California's cap-and-trade program ranks only second to the ETS (European Trading System) carbon market in the world. In 2012, under the auction, the reserve price, which is the price per ton of CO 2 permit is $10.

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
Many environmental factors have been associated with asthma's development and exacerbation, including, allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms. Low air quality from environmental factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. Over half of cases in children in the United States occur in areas when air quality is below the EPA standards. Low air quality is more common in low-income and minority communities.

Ozone

ozonationO 3 ozone generator
The study revealed that people living in cities with high ozone levels, such as Houston or Los Angeles, had an over 30% increased risk of dying from lung disease. Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union are based on detailed studies designed to identify the levels that can cause measurable ill health effects. According to scientists with the US EPA, susceptible people can be adversely affected by ozone levels as low as 40 nmol/mol. In the EU, the current target value for ozone concentrations is 120 µg/m 3 which is about 60 nmol/mol.

Particulates

particulate matterparticulatefine particulate matter
China has set limits for particulates in the air: The European Union has established the European emission standards, which include limits for particulates in the air: Hong Kong has set limits for particulates in the air: Japan has set limits for particulates in the air: South Korea has set limits for particulates in the air: Taiwan has set limits for particulates in the air: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set standards for PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations.

Gasoline

petrolgasleaded gasoline
Unburnt gasoline and evaporation from the tank, when in the atmosphere, reacts in sunlight to produce photochemical smog. Vapor pressure initially rises with some addition of ethanol to gasoline, but the increase is greatest at 10% by volume. At higher concentrations of ethanol above 10%, the vapor pressure of the blend starts to decrease. At a 10% ethanol by volume, the rise in vapor pressure may potentially increase the problem of photochemical smog. This rise in vapor pressure could be mitigated by increasing or decreasing the percentage of ethanol in the gasoline mixture.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NAAQSNational Ambient Air Quality StandardNational Ambient Air Quality Standards—NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country. The standards are listed in. Primary standards are designed to protect human health, with an adequate margin of safety, including sensitive populations such as children, the elderly, and individuals suffering from respiratory diseases.

Nitrogen oxide

nitrogen oxidesoxides of nitrogenNO x
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds:

Diesel exhaust

diesel particulate matterparticulate matterdiesel
To rapidly reduce particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines in California, the California Air Resources Board created the Carl Moyer Program to provide funding for upgrading engines ahead of emissions regulations. In 2008, the California Air Resources Board also implemented the 2008 California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule which requires all heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses, with a few exceptions, that operate in California to either retrofit or replace engines in order to reduce diesel particulate matter.

Port of Long Beach

Long BeachLong Beach HarborLong Beach Port
Trucks built prior to 1987 that fail to meet the 2007 clean truck standards set forth by the United States Environmental Protection Agency are denied access to port terminals. In compliance with the clean truck initiative on October 1, all trucking companies conducting business with the port must have a port-approved concession outlining the regulations they must abide by. By September 23, 2011, nearly 500 trucking companies had applied for concessions, amounting to more than 6,000 trucks. In 2012 International Longshore and Warehouse Union went on strike, that closed down the ports of and Long Beach and Los Angeles. The eight-day strike cost California about $8 billion.

Atmospheric dispersion modeling

Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modelingatmospheric dispersion modelair pollution dispersion modeling
Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants. During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners.

Exhaust system

exhaustexhaust pipetailpipe
The name is derived from their use on the vast, empty dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles County, where engine specialists of yore custom crafted, interchanged and evaluated one-piece header manifolds of various mil thicknesses, a function of temperature, humidity, elevation and climate they anticipated. No intrinsic performance gain to be derived, per se, lake pipes evolved a function of practicality.